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Search results for: Polyclonal

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#34118539   2021/06/05 To Up

Generation of recombinant antibodies by mammalian expression system for detecting S-metolachlor in environmental waters.

Current immunoassays for herbicide detection are usually based on polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised in animals. The mammalian expression system allows the procurement of specific and highly sensitive antibodies, avoiding animal immunization. In this study, S-metolachlor-specific IgG vectors bearing either Thosea asigna virus 2A or internal ribosome entry site (S-T2A or S-IRES) and single-chain variable fragment (scFv) vectors were designed and expressed. The recombinant antibodies (RAbs) were characterized by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (icELISA). The results showed that full-length RAbs exhibited significantly better performance than scFv, and both bicistronic vectors expressed antibodies of correct size, while RAb S-T2A elicited a higher yield than RAb S-IRES. Further analyses showed that RAb S-T2A and RAb S-IRES exhibited comparable reactivities and specificities to the parental MAb, with IC values of 3.44, 3.89 and 3.37 ng/mL, respectively. Finally, MAb- and RAb-based icELISAs were established for the determination of S-metolachlor in environmental waters. The recoveries were in the range of 73.0-128.1%, and the coefficients of variation were mostly below 10%. This article describes the production of RAbs for S-metolachlor from mammalian cells for the first time and paves the way to develop RAb-based immunoassays for monitoring herbicide residues in the environment.
Xiaoting Yu, Xu Zhang, Jingjing Xu, Pengyan Guo, Xiangmei Li, Hong Wang, Zhenlin Xu, Hongtao Lei, Xing Shen

1858 related Products with: Generation of recombinant antibodies by mammalian expression system for detecting S-metolachlor in environmental waters.

2x 100ug100 μg2 Pieces/Box100 μg100 μg10 100 μg10 10 25 μg100 μg

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#34118278   2021/06/09 To Up

New Insight To The Rol Of Α-Enolase (Eno-1) As Immunological Marker In Rainbow Trout Fry.

α-Enolase is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway that has also been involved in vertebrate inflammatory processes through its interaction with plasminogen. However, its participation in the immune response of lower vertebrates during early life development is unknown. Opportunistic pathogens in salmon farming are the principal cause of mortality in the fry stage. For that reason, molecular indicators of their immunological status are required to ensure the success of the large-scale cultivation. Thus, the objective of this work was to analyze if ENO-1 is involved in the immune response of rainbow trout fry. For this purpose, the coding sequence of trout ENO-1 was characterized, identifying the plasminogen-binding domain that has been described for homologs of this enzyme in higher vertebrates. A peptide-epitope of α-enolase was used for producing mice antiserum. The specificity of polyclonal antibodies was confirmed by dot blot, ELISA and Western blot. Then, the antiserum was used to evaluate α-enolase expression in fry between 152-264 degree-days post-hatching after 2, 8, and 12 hours of challenge with lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomona auroginosa. The expression of α-enolase at both transcriptional (RT-qPCR) and protein (ELISA) levels was significantly increased after 8 hours post-challenge with lipopolysaccharide. These results were confirmed by proteomic analysis by 2D-difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE). This work provides the first evidence of the involvement of α-enolase in the early immune response of salmonids. Future research will be required to understand the possible interaction of α-enolase with plasminogen in cells and tissues of the salmonid immune system.
Paula A Santana, Claudio Álvarez, Daniel E Sáenz-Martínez, Nicolás Salinas-Parra, Fanny Guzmán, Alberto Paradela, Luis Mercado

2507 related Products with: New Insight To The Rol Of Α-Enolase (Eno-1) As Immunological Marker In Rainbow Trout Fry.

1 kit1 kit1 kit(96 Wells)1

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#34117534   2021/06/11 To Up

Characterization of taro reovirus and its status in taro (Colocasia esculenta) germplasm from the Pacific.

Taro reovirus (TaRV) has been reported infecting taro (Colocasia esculenta) in the South Pacific, but information on the virus is limited. Here, we report the genome sequence of a reovirus infecting taro in Papua New Guinea that had 10 genomic segments ranging from 1.1 to 3.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) in length with a total genome length of 26.3 kbp. TaRV was most closely related to rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) but did not cross-react with RRSV polyclonal antisera. TaRV was not detected in 82 germplasm accessions of taro in Hawaii, or samples collected in American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Palau, or Vanuatu.
Alejandro Olmedo Velarde, Philip Waisen, Alexandra T Kong, Koon-Hui Wang, John S Hu, Michael J Melzer

2201 related Products with: Characterization of taro reovirus and its status in taro (Colocasia esculenta) germplasm from the Pacific.

1100 μg2.5 mg100 μg

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#34115906   2021/06/11 To Up

Carcinoembryonic antigen as a specific glycoprotein ligand of rBC2LCN lectin on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.

The rBC2LCN lectin, known as a stem cell marker probe that binds to an H type 3 fucosylated trisaccharide motif, was recently revealed to also bind to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. A lectin-drug conjugate was generated by fusing rBC2LCN with a cytocidal toxin, and it showed a strong anticancer effect in in vitro and in vivo PDAC models. However, it is unclear which molecules are carrier proteins of rBC2LCN on PDAC cells. In this study, we identified a rBC2LCN-positive glycoprotein expressed in PDAC. Tumor lysates of PDAC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were coprecipitated with rBC2LCN lectin and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A total of 343 proteins were initially identified. We used a web-based database to select 5 glycoproteins and independently evaluated their expression in PDAC by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Among them, we focused on carcinoembryonic antigen 5 (CEA) as the most cancer specific carrier protein in PDAC, since it showed the most prominent difference in expression rate between PDAC cells (74%) and normal pancreatic duct cells (0%, p > 0.0001). rBC2LCN lectin and CEA colocalization in PDAC samples was confirmed by double staining analysis. Furthermore, rBC2LCN-precipitated fractions were blotted with an anti-CEA polyclonal antibody (pAb), and CEA pAb-precipitated fractions were blotted with rBC2LCN lectin. The results demonstrate that CEA is in fact a ligand of rBC2LCN lectin.
Tomoaki Furuta, Tatsuya Oda, Kayo Kiyoi, Yusuke Ozawa, Sota Kimura, Ko Kurimori, Yoshihiro Miyazaki, Yang Yu, Kinji Furuya, Yoshimasa Akashi, Osamu Shimomura, Hiroaki Tateno

2304 related Products with: Carcinoembryonic antigen as a specific glycoprotein ligand of rBC2LCN lectin on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.

1 kit(96 Wells)1 kit(96 Wells)1 mg. 25 ml Ready-to-use 200 1 kit(96 Wells) 25 ml Ready-to-use 1 kit(96 Wells)

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#34115783   2021/06/11 To Up

Systematic review of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax polyclonal infections: Impact of prevalence, study population characteristics, and laboratory procedures.

Multiple infections of genetically distinct clones of the same Plasmodium species are common in many malaria endemic settings. Mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the proportion of polyclonal infections are often reported as surrogate marker of transmission intensity, yet the relationship with traditional measures such as parasite prevalence is not well understood. We have searched Pubmed for articles on P. falciparum and P. vivax multiplicity, and compared the proportion of polyclonal infections and mean MOI to population prevalence. The impact of the genotyping method, number of genotyping markers, method for diagnosis (microscopy/RDT vs. PCR), presence of clinical symptoms, age, geographic region, and year of sample collection on multiplicity indices were assessed. For P. falciparum, 153 studies met inclusion criteria, yielding 275 individual data points and 33,526 genotyped individuals. The proportion of polyclonal infections ranged from 0-96%, and mean MOI from 1-6.1. For P. vivax, 54 studies met inclusion criteria, yielding 115 data points and 13,325 genotyped individuals. The proportion of polyclonal infections ranged from 0-100%, and mean MOI from 1-3.8. For both species, the proportion of polyclonal infections ranged from very low to close to 100% at low prevalence, while at high prevalence it was always high. Each percentage point increase in prevalence resulted in a 0.34% increase in the proportion of polyclonal P. falciparum infections (P<0.001), and a 0.78% increase in the proportion of polyclonal P. vivax infections (P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, higher prevalence, typing multiple markers, diagnosis of infections by PCR, and sampling in Africa were found to result in a higher proportion of P. falciparum polyclonal infections. For P. vivax, prevalence, year of study, typing multiple markers, and geographic region were significant predictors. In conclusion, polyclonal infections are frequently present in all settings, but the association between multiplicity and prevalence is weak.
Luis Lopez, Cristian Koepfli

2822 related Products with: Systematic review of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax polyclonal infections: Impact of prevalence, study population characteristics, and laboratory procedures.

1 mg50 ug 50 ug 200 1 mg200 1 mg50 ug 50 1 mg100ug1000 TESTS/0.65ml

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#34109092   2021/05/22 To Up

Correlation of Cry1Ac mRNA and protein abundance in transgenic plant.

Transcription and translation in eukaryotes are distinct processes of the molecular cascade leading to protein production from genetic material. However, establishing correlation between mRNA expression and protein abundance, the end results of the two processes of central dogma, remains a challenge. For transgenic plants, such correlation between mRNA and protein expression serves as a guide to design the transgene, in particular the choices of promoter and codon usage to ensure stable expression of the target protein in relevant tissues under various stress conditions. To elucidate level of mRNA-protein correlation in a commercial transgenic cotton plant , Bollgard II (MON15985), we present the results of Cry1Ac protein expression correlating with corresponding mRNA levels. Protein was quantitated using a home-grown validated ELISA assay with a monoclonal-polyclonal antibody pair, whereas mRNA level was detected by a real-time quantitative PCR assay using standardized reference genes. Our results indicate that protein and mRNA levels are highly correlated in the leaves, but not in squares and stem. The correlations seem to be consistent between young and mature leaves and increase over time of harvesting of samples from months 1-3. These findings demonstrate that transcript level measurement could serve as a proxy to protein abundance for this commercially important cotton species, particularly for leaf tissues which are the most vulnerable organs to cotton bollworms and other pathogens.
P K Smitha, Christopher Bathula, Anil M Kumar, K N Chandrashekara, Sujan K Dhar, Manjula Das

1126 related Products with: Correlation of Cry1Ac mRNA and protein abundance in transgenic plant.

2 Pieces/Box1 Set1 Set1 Set201 Set100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized1 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set

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#34108282   // To Up

Application of Single-Domain Antibodies ("Nanobodies") to Laboratory Diagnosis.

Antibodies have proven to be central in the development of diagnostic methods over decades, moving from polyclonal antibodies to the milestone development of monoclonal antibodies. Although monoclonal antibodies play a valuable role in diagnosis, their production is technically demanding and can be expensive. The large size of monoclonal antibodies (150 kDa) makes their re-engineering using recombinant methods a challenge. Single-domain antibodies, such as "nanobodies," are a relatively new class of diagnostic probes that originated serendipitously during the assay of camel serum. The immune system of the camelid family (camels, llamas, and alpacas) has evolved uniquely to produce heavy-chain antibodies that contain a single monomeric variable antibody domain in a smaller functional unit of 12-15 kDa. Interestingly, the same biological phenomenon is observed in sharks. Since a single-domain antibody molecule is smaller than a conventional mammalian antibody, recombinant engineering and protein expression using bacterial production systems are much simpler. The entire gene encoding such an antibody can be cloned and expressed . Single-domain antibodies are very stable and heat-resistant, and hence do not require cold storage, especially when incorporated into a diagnostic kit. Their simple genetic structure allows easy re-engineering of the protein to introduce new antigen-binding characteristics or attach labels. Here, we review the applications of single-domain antibodies in laboratory diagnosis and discuss the future potential in this area.
Tahir S Pillay, Serge Muyldermans

2531 related Products with: Application of Single-Domain Antibodies ("Nanobodies") to Laboratory Diagnosis.

1 mg100 200 ug1 ml0.2 mg1 mL 100ul 100ul1 mL 100ul1 mg0.1 mg

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#34107915   2021/06/09 To Up

Membranous nephropathy associated with multicentric Castleman's disease that was successfully treated with tocilizumab: a case report and review of the literature.

Multicentric Castleman's disease is a life-threatening disorder involving a systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure caused by the overproduction of interleukin-6. Although renal complications of Castleman's disease include AA amyloidosis, thrombotic microangiopathy, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, membranous nephropathy is relatively rare. We experienced a case of secondary membranous nephropathy associated with Castleman's disease.
Ryosuke Saiki, Kan Katayama, Yosuke Hirabayashi, Keiko Oda, Mika Fujimoto, Tomohiro Murata, Ayako Nakajima, Kaoru Dohi

1364 related Products with: Membranous nephropathy associated with multicentric Castleman's disease that was successfully treated with tocilizumab: a case report and review of the literature.



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#34106388   2021/06/09 To Up

Fragment antigen-binding (Fab) antibody-based lateral flow immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of potent phytoestrogen, deoxymiroestrol.

Pueraria candollei is an ingredient of Thai herbal medicine, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. The in vitro and in vivo studies of this plant supported anti-osteoporotic activity and used for hormone replacement therapy. Deoxymiroestrol shows the most potent phytoconstituent in tuberous root of P. candollei with estrogenic activity. The quality controls are important for good agricultural practice (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) of plant-derived raw materials. The rapid detection of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) using colloidal gold is simply method, easy visualize detection and produce less waste than conventional chromatographic detection. In this study, LFIA for qualitative detection of deoxymiroestrol using antigen-binding fragment antibody (Fab) was developed. The result showed that the developed LFIA displays specific detection of deoxymiroestrol. Cross reactivity of this method was analyzed with miroestrol, isomiroestrol and methylisomiroestrol which showed 39.97%, 7.71% and 5.72%, respectively. After optimal condition, limit of detection (LOD) for deoxymiroestrol is 250 ng/ml. Plant samples were applied to strip test compare with indirect competitive ELISA using polyclonal antibody to confirm the application of LFIA. The results of LFIA method were comparable with those from ELISA. This developed lateral flow immunoassay can apply to detect deoxymiroestrol for the rapid testing. The developed method can use for quality control in plant samples as deoxymiroestrol is biomarker compound in P. candollei.
Worapol Sae-Foo, Supaluk Krittanai, Wipawee Juengsanguanpornsuk, Gorawit Yusakul, Seiichi Sakamoto, Waraporn Putalun

2459 related Products with: Fragment antigen-binding (Fab) antibody-based lateral flow immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of potent phytoestrogen, deoxymiroestrol.

96 tests96 tests0.2 mg1 kit100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug100μg100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized

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#34103407   2021/06/08 To Up

Antibodies elicited by mRNA-1273 vaccination bind more broadly to the receptor binding domain than do those from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with mutations in key antibody epitopes has raised concerns that antigenic evolution could erode adaptive immunity elicited by prior infection or vaccination. The susceptibility of immunity to viral evolution is shaped in part by the breadth of epitopes targeted by antibodies elicited by vaccination or natural infection. To investigate how human antibody responses to vaccines are influenced by viral mutations, we used deep mutational scanning to compare the specificity of polyclonal antibodies elicited by either two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine or natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. The neutralizing activity of vaccine-elicited antibodies was more targeted to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein compared to antibodies elicited by natural infection. However, within the RBD, binding of vaccine-elicited antibodies was more broadly distributed across epitopes compared to infection-elicited antibodies. This greater binding breadth means that single RBD mutations have less impact on neutralization by vaccine sera compared to convalescent sera. Therefore, antibody immunity acquired by natural infection or different modes of vaccination may have a differing susceptibility to erosion by SARS-CoV-2 evolution.
Allison J Greaney, Andrea N Loes, Lauren E Gentles, Katharine H D Crawford, Tyler N Starr, Keara D Malone, Helen Y Chu, Jesse D Bloom

1217 related Products with: Antibodies elicited by mRNA-1273 vaccination bind more broadly to the receptor binding domain than do those from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

100ul100ul1 ml0.1 mg100 250ul100 μg100.00 ug100ul100 ul100

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