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#32746022   2020/06/09 To Up

Bidirectional optogenetic control of inhibitory neurons in freely-moving mice.

Optogenetic manipulations of excitable cells enable activating or silencing specific types of neurons. By expressing two types of exogenous proteins, a single neuron can be depolarized using light of one wavelength and hyperpolarized with another. However, routing two distinct wavelengths into the same brain locality typically requires bulky optics that cannot be implanted on the head of a freely-moving animal.
Ori Noked, Amir Levi, Shirly Someck, Ortal Amber-Vitos, Eran Stark

2279 related Products with: Bidirectional optogenetic control of inhibitory neurons in freely-moving mice.

100uL5

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#32745971   2020/07/24 To Up

In silico analysis of proteins and microRNAs related to human African trypanosomiasis in tsetse fly.

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, causes millions of deaths worldwide. HAT is primarily transmitted by the vector tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans). Early diagnosis remains a key objective for treating this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs that play key roles in vector-borne diseases. To date, the roles of proteins and miRNAs in HAT disease have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we have re-annotated the function of protein-coding genes and identified several miRNAs based on a series of bioinformatics tools. A batch of 81.1 % of tsetse fly proteins could be determined homology in mosquito genome, suggesting their probable similar mechanisms in vector-borne diseases. A set of 11 novel salivary proteins and 14 midgut proteins were observed in the tsetse fly, which could be applied to the development of vaccine candidates for the control of HAT disease. In addition, 35 novel miRNAs were identified, among which 10 miRNAs were found to be unique in tsetse fly. Pathway analysis of these 10 miRNAs indicated that targets of miR-15a-5p were significantly enriched in the HAT-related neurotrophin signaling pathway. Besides, topological analysis of the miRNA-gene network indicated that miR-619-5p and miR-2490-3p targeted several genes that respond to trypanosome infection, including thioester-containing protein Tep1 and heat shock protein Hsp60a. In conclusion, our work helps to elucidate the function of miRNAs in tsetse fly and establishes a foundation for further investigations into the molecular regulatory mechanisms of HAT disease.
Zhiyuan Yang, Mingqiang Wang, Xi Zeng, Angel Tsz-Yau Wan, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui

2693 related Products with: In silico analysis of proteins and microRNAs related to human African trypanosomiasis in tsetse fly.

1 mg100 100 1mg100 units1mg10 201mg25 100 μg1mg

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#32745931   2020/07/26 To Up

Glucose modulates proliferation in root apical meristems via TOR in maize during germination.

The Glucose-Target of Rapamycin (Glc-TOR) pathway has been studied in different biological systems, but scarcely during early seed germination. This work examines its importance for cell proliferation, expression of cell cycle key genes, their protein levels, besides morphology and cellularization of the root apical meristem of maize (Zea mays) embryo axes during germination under the influence of two simple sugars, glucose and sucrose, and a specific inhibitor of TOR activity, AZD 8055. The two sugars promote germination similarly and to an extent, independently of TOR activity. However, the Glc-TOR pathway increases the number of cells committed to proliferation, increasing the expression of a cell cycle gene, ZmCycD4;2, a putative G1/S regulator. Also, Glc-TOR may have influence on the protein stability of another G1/S cyclin, ZmCycD3, but had no influence on ZmCDKA;1 or ZmKRP3 or their proteins. Results suggest that the Glc-TOR pathway participates in the regulation of proliferation through different mechanisms that, in the end, modify the timing of seed germination.
Víctor Hugo Díaz-Granados, Jorge Manuel López-López, Jesús Flores-Sánchez, Roxana Olguin-Alor, Andrea Bedoya-López, Tzvetanka D Dinkova, Kenia Salazar-Díaz, Sonia Vázquez-Santana, Jorge Manuel Vázquez-Ramos, Aurora Lara-Núñez

1272 related Products with: Glucose modulates proliferation in root apical meristems via TOR in maize during germination.

96 assays100 ml.2 Pieces/Box25 ml.5 mg100 μg100 assays100 μg100 MG

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#32745915   2020/07/31 To Up

Enhancing native chemical ligation for challenging chemical protein syntheses.

Native chemical ligation has enabled the chemical synthesis of proteins for a wide variety of applications (e.g., mirror-image proteins). However, inefficiencies of this chemoselective ligation in the context of large or otherwise challenging protein targets can limit the practical scope of chemical protein synthesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments aimed at enhancing and expanding native chemical ligation for challenging protein syntheses. Chemical auxiliaries, use of selenium chemistry, and templating all enable ligations at otherwise suboptimal junctions. The continuing development of these tools is making the chemical synthesis of large proteins increasingly accessible.
Riley J Giesler, Patrick W Erickson, Michael S Kay

2750 related Products with: Enhancing native chemical ligation for challenging chemical protein syntheses.

1 ml0.1 mg1 mg0.1 mg1 mg210 1 mL51mg225 Units

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#32745911   2020/07/31 To Up

Ursolic acid protects chondrocytes, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties via regulation of the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and ameliorates osteoarthritis.

Inflammation and poor viability of chondrocytes result in the degradation of cartilage as osteoarthritis (OA) progresses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ursolic acid (UA) can protect chondrocytes and alleviate OA. Following stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5 μM UA displayed no cytotoxicity and reversed the up-regulation of the inflammatory factors MMP13, IL-1β, IL-6 and PTGS2, and down-regulation of the cartilaginous genes/proteins type II collagen and Aggrecan. RNA sequencing identified 533 common deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) of which TNF, PI3K-AKT, NOD-like receptor, cytokine receptor interaction and NF-κB pathways were of potential importance. Further notable DEGs in the most-highly expressed 10 pathways contributed to maintenance of cartilaginous ECM homeostasis and were involved in an inflammatory response. The expression of these most-enriched DEGs was reversed by UA following stimulation with TNF-α. Additional investigation demonstrated that treatment with UA inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation of p65 and phosphorylation of IκBα and AKT, and reversed TNF-α-induced up-regulation of P20, ACS and NLRP3. Furthermore, rat anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced-OA was ameliorated by treatment with UA. In conclusion, these results suggest that UA activates chondrocytes through the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, thus preventing cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis.
Chunli Wang, Yan Gao, Zike Zhang, Cheng Chen, Qingjia Chi, Kang Xu, Li Yang

2857 related Products with: Ursolic acid protects chondrocytes, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties via regulation of the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and ameliorates osteoarthritis.

100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100 ug/vial1000 100ul100ug Lyophilized100 μg10 mg100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100 μl

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#32745909   2020/07/31 To Up

Quantitative proteomic analysis of the liver reveals antidepressant potential protein targets of Sinisan in a mouse CUMS model of depression.

In traditional Chinese medicine, the role of the liver in depression is highly valued, and liver-relieving drugs, such as Sinisan, are often used to treat depression; however, the mechanism whereby these drugs work remains unclear. The present study aimed to reveal possible antidepressant mechanisms of Sinisan (SNS) by analyzing hepatic proteomics in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice. Using the CUMS mouse model of depression, the antidepressant effects of SNS were assessed by the sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swimming test (FST). Hepatic differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) after SNS treatment were investigated by tandem mass tag (TMT) based quantitative proteomics analysis. Then, a bioinformatics analysis of DEPs was conducted through hierarchical clustering, Venn analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation enrichment, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. DEP genes were further validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis and western blotting. Behavioral results demonstrated that SNS significantly increased sucrose intake in SPT and shortened the immobility time in FST in model mice. Eighty-two DEPs were identified, including 37 upregulated and 45 downregulated proteins, between model and SNS groups. Enrichment analysis of GO annotations indicated that SNS primarily maintained cellular iron ion homeostasis by iron ion transportation and regulated expression of some extracellular structural proteins for oxidation-reduction processes. KEGG and Venn analysis showed that mineral absorption, steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism might be the principal pathways through which SNS acts on depression. Furthermore, several proteins involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormone pathways were significantly up/downregulated by SNS, including CYP2B19, CYP7B1 (validated by qRT-PCR) and HSD3b5 (validated by qRT-PCR and western blotting). Our results indicate that SNS plays important roles in antidepressant actions by restoring DEPs, resulting in the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones. The current results provide novel perspectives for revealing potential protein targets of SNS in depression.
Baoying Wang, Shuaifei Lu, Changjing Zhang, Leilei Zhu, Yucheng Li, Ming Bai, Erping Xu

2432 related Products with: Quantitative proteomic analysis of the liver reveals antidepressant potential protein targets of Sinisan in a mouse CUMS model of depression.

100ug Lyophilized100.00 ug100ug Lyophilized2ug16 Arrays/Slide100.00 ug100 μg100ug Lyophilized100.00 ug200 100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized

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#32745872   2020/07/27 To Up

Microalgal biosorption of heavy metals: A comprehensive bibliometric review.

Heavy metals in the effluents released from industrial establishments pose risks to the environment and society. Prevalent organisms such as microalgae in industrial wastes can thrive in this harmful environment. The connection of the metal-binding proteins of the microalgal cell wall to the metal ions of the heavy metals enables microalgae as an ideal medium for biosorption. The current literature lacks the review of various microalgae used as biosorption of heavy metals from industrial effluents. This work aims to comprehensively review the literature on the use of microalgae as a biosorption for heavy metals. The study summarizes the application of different microalgae for heavy metals removal by identifying the various factors affecting the biosorption performance. Approaches to quantifying the heavy metals concentration are outlined. The methods of microalgae to generate biocompounds to enable biosorption of heavy metals are itemized. The study also aims to identify the materials produced by microalgae to facilitate biosorption. The industrial sectors with the potential benefit from the adoption of microalgal biosorption of heavy metals are recognized. Moreover, the current challenges and future perspectives of microalgal biosorption are discussed.
Aristotle T Ubando, Aaron Don M Africa, Marla C Maniquiz-Redillas, Alvin B Culaba, Wei-Hsin Chen, Jo-Shu Chang

1946 related Products with: Microalgal biosorption of heavy metals: A comprehensive bibliometric review.

2 mL250 200 1.5 mL2 mg1 mg2 mg200 500 2 Pieces/Box1 mg1 mL

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#32745852   2020/07/24 To Up

The indispensable role of assimilation in methane driven nitrate removal.

Methane is a greenhouse gas that can be released from sludge anaerobic fermentation in wastewater treatment plants. Methane is also an alternative additional carbon source for deep nitrate removal of secondary effluent. A sequencing experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of nitrate removal with methane as the sole carbon source. The maximum nitrate removal rate was 17.2 mg-N·L·d. Nitrate removal was confirmed to arise via two pathways: aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) contributed to 55% of the nitrate removal with the rest stemming from assimilation by methanotrophs. Additional study revealed that nitrate assimilated by methanotrophs was used for the synthesis of proteins, resulting in a protein content of 52.2% dry weight. Metagenomic sequencing revealed a high abundance of nitrate assimilation and glutamine synthetase genes, which were primarily provided by methanotrophs (mainly Methylomonas). Assimilatory nitrate removal by methanotrophs has a high potential for advanced nitrogen removal and for alleviating methane emissions. The nitrogen-rich biomass produced by nitrate absorption could also be used as a biofertilizer for nitrogen recycling.
Yongze Lu, Xin Li, Yue Chen, Yongzhen Wang, Guangcan Zhu, Raymond Jianxiong Zeng

1322 related Products with: The indispensable role of assimilation in methane driven nitrate removal.

50 mg 100 UG15mg

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#32745848   2020/07/18 To Up

Removal of sulfamethazine and Cu by Sakaguchia cladiensis A5: Performance and transcriptome analysis.

To reduce the potential risks of contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals to ecological environment and human safety, biological removal of these composite pollutants is the focus of much study. One previously identified isolate, Sakaguchia cladiensis A5, was used to decompose sulfamethazine (SMZ) and adsorb Cu. The ability of A5 to remove SMZ was enhanced by pre-induced culture, which reached 49.8% on day 9. The removal of SMZ could be also increased to 37.6% on day 3 in the presence of Cu, but only to 12.2% in the system without Cu. The biosorption of Cu mainly occurred on the cell walls, while the biodegradation of SMZ was inside the cells. By comparative transcriptome analysis for A5, 1270 and 2220 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified after treating single SMZ and SMZ/Cu, respectively. The Gene expression pattern analysis suggested a suppression of transcriptional changes in A5 responding to SMZ/Cu as compared to under the sole stress of SMZ. The DEGs functional enrichment analysis suggested that the antioxidant and sulfate assimilation pathways played a key role on SMZ biodegradation and Cu biosorption. The DEGs of proteins CAT, PRDX5, SAT, and CYSC were up-regulated to facilitate the resistance of A5 against oxidative toxicity of Cu. Moreover, the protein MET30 activated by Cu was also overexpressed to promote the transmembrane transport of SMZ, such that A5 could decompose SMZ more effectively in SMZ/Cu system. The results of this study would provide new insights into the mechanism of biodegradation and biosorption of SMZ/Cu.
Shuona Chen, Xiao Tan, Shaoyu Tang, Jieyi Zeng, Huiling Liu

1086 related Products with: Removal of sulfamethazine and Cu by Sakaguchia cladiensis A5: Performance and transcriptome analysis.

5 G100ul25 mg 5 G1 ml100ug1 g200 96 wells (1 kit)100ug200ul1 module

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