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Search results for: Proteins


#35961702   2022/02/18 To Up

Matricellular proteins in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is typically characterized by a prominent desmoplastic stroma that is often the most dominant feature of the tumor. This tumor reactive stroma is comprised of a dense fibro-collagenous-enriched extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the cancer cells, together with other ECM proteins/peptides, specifically secreted matricellular glycoproteins and proteolytic enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines. Moreover, as enjoined by cholangiocarcinoma cells, this enriched tumor microenvironment is populated by various stromal cell types, most prominently, cancer-associated myofibroblasts (CAFs), along with variable numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), inflammatory and vascular cell types. While it is now well appreciated that the interplay between cholangiocarcinoma cells, CAFs, and TAMs in particular play a critical role in promoting cholangiocarcinoma progression, therapeutic resistance, and immune evasion, it is also becoming increasingly evident that over-expression and secretion into the tumor microenvironment of functionally overlapping matricellular glycoproteins, including periostin, osteopontin, tenascin-C, thrombospondin-1, mesothelin and others have an important role to play in regulating or modulating a variety of pro-oncogenic cellular functions, including cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, ECM remodeling, and immune evasion. Matricellular proteins have also shown promise as potential prognostic factors for iCCA and may provide unique therapeutic opportunities particularly in relation to targeting iCCA pre-metastatic and metastatic niches, tumor cell dormancy, and immune evasion. This review will highlight timely research and its translational implications for salient matricellular proteins in terms of their structure-function relationships, as modulators of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma microenvironment and progression, and potential clinical value for iCCA prognosis and therapy.
Alphonse E Sirica

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#35961699   2022/02/28 To Up

Novel insights into molecular and immune subtypes of biliary tract cancers.

Biliary tract cancers (BTCs), which include cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and gallbladder cancer (GBC), are heterogenous malignancies characterized by distinct molecular features often associated with specific clinical traits and/or outcomes. Such complex molecular heterogeneity, both within each BTC subtype and between distinct subtypes, poses a great challenge to personalized medicine. Recent technological advances have allowed the integration of multiple -omics derived from large cohorts of patients with distinct solid cancers to ultimately design stratification algorithms for prognostic prediction or more efficient treatment allocation. In this regard, although BTCs lag behind other tumors when it comes to our understanding of their molecular complexity, over the past decade, tremendous efforts have been made to generate supervised or unsupervised molecular classifications. As a result, CCAs and GBCs can be assigned to distinct molecular and/or prognostic classes. Notably, the discovery of biologically relevant subgroups of tumors harboring frequent targetable alterations (i.e., mutations in IDH1, FGFR2 fusion proteins) holds important therapeutic implications for BTCs, particularly iCCA. Furthermore, the recent application of single cell-based technologies or more conservative (and less precise) "virtual microdissection" algorithms to isolate signals derived from the immune and stromal cells has identified the first microenvironment-based classes. In this chapter, we will review the molecular and immune classes of BTCs, with a particular focus on their clinical implications.
Emily R Bramel, Daniela Sia

2414 related Products with: Novel insights into molecular and immune subtypes of biliary tract cancers.

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#35961620   2022/08/09 To Up

Role of exosomes in lung cancer: A comprehensive insight from immunomodulation to theragnostic applications.

Exosomes are 30 to 150 nm-diameter lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles that enable cell-to-cell communication through secretion and uptake. The exosomal cargoes contain RNA, lipids, proteins, and metabolites which can be delivered to recipient cells in vivo. In a healthy lung, exosomes facilitate interaction between adaptive and innate immunity and help maintain normal lung physiology. However, tumor-derived exosomes in lung cancer (LC) can, on the other hand, restrict immune cell proliferation, cause apoptosis in activated CD8+ T effector cells, reduce natural killer cell activity, obstruct monocyte differentiation, and promote proliferation of myeloid-derived suppressor and regulatory T cells. In addition, exosomes in the tumor microenvironment may also play a critical role in cancer progression and the development of drug resistance. In this review, we aim to comprehensively examine the current updates on the role of exosomes in lung carcinogenesis and their potential application as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tool in lung cancer.
Faizan Haider Khan, Malik Johid Reza, Yusra Fatima Shao, Ahmad Perwez, Honey Zahra, Afshin Dowlati, Ata Abbas

2704 related Products with: Role of exosomes in lung cancer: A comprehensive insight from immunomodulation to theragnostic applications.