Search results for: Rabbit Anti-Midnolin isoform Protein 1 Polyclonal Antibody, PE-Cy3 Conjugated
#18361511 2008/03/25 To Up
S-arylcysteine-keratin adducts as biomarkers of human dermal exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons.To measure biomarkers of skin exposure to ubiquitous industrial and environmental aromatic hydrocarbons, we sought to develop an ELISA to quantitate protein adducts of metabolites of benzene and naphthalene in the skin of exposed individuals. We hypothesized that electrophilic arene oxides formed by CYP isoforms expressed in the human skin react with nucleophilic sites on keratin, the most abundant protein in the stratum corneum that is synthesized de novo during keratinocyte maturation and differentiation. The sulfhydryl groups of cysteines in the head region of the keratin proteins 1 (K1) and 10 (K10) are likely targets. The following synthetic S-arylcysteines were incorporated into 10-mer head sequences of K1 [GGGRFSS( S-aryl-C)GG] and K10 [GGGG( S-aryl-C)GGGGG] to form the predicted immunogenic epitopes for antibody production for ELISA: S-phenylcysteine-K1 (SPK1), S-phenylcysteine-K10 (SPK10), S-(1-naphthyl)cysteine-K1 (1NK1), S-(1-naphthyl)cysteine-K10 (1NK10), S-(2-naphthyl)cysteine-K1 (2NK1), and S-(2-naphthyl)cysteine-K10 (2NK10). Analysis by ELISA was chosen based on its high throughput and sensitivity, and low cost. The synthetic modified oligopeptides, available in quantity, served both as immunogens and as chemical standards for quantitative ELISA. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies produced against the naphthyl-modified keratins reacted with their respective antigens with threshold sensitivities of 15-31 ng/mL and high specificity over a linear range up to 500 ng/mL. Anti- S-phenylcysteine antibodies were not sufficiently specific or sensitive toward the target antigens for use in ELISA under our experimental conditions. In dermal tape-strip samples collected from 13 individuals exposed to naphthalene-containing jet fuel, naphthyl-conjugated peptides were detected at levels from 0.343 +/- 0.274 to 2.34 +/- 1.61 pmol adduct/microg keratin but were undetectable in unexposed volunteers. This is the first report of adducts of naphthalene (or of any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) detected in the exposed intact human skin. Quantitation of naphthyl-keratin adducts in the skin of exposed individuals will allow us to investigate the importance of dermal penetration, metabolism, and adduction to keratin and to predict more accurately the contribution of dermal exposure to systemic dose for use in exposure and risk-assessment models.
Juei-Chuan C Kang-Sickel, Donii D Fox, Tae-Gyu Nam, Karupiah Jayaraj, Louise M Ball, John E French, David G Klapper, Avram Gold, Leena A Nylander-French
2168 related Products with: S-arylcysteine-keratin adducts as biomarkers of human dermal exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons.1 kit(96 Wells)1 kit(96 Wells)1 kit(96 Wells)1 kit(96 Wells)1 kit(96 Wells)100μl5 x 50 ug100 μg100μl1.00 flask
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Cross-immunoreactivity between anti-potato apyrase antibodies and mammalian ATP diphosphohydrolases: potential use of the vegetal protein in experimental schistosomiasis.We have previously showed that Schistosoma mansoni ATP-diphosphohydrolase and Solanum tuberosum potato apyrase share epitopes and the vegetable protein has immunostimulatory properties. Here, it was verified the in situ cross-immunoreactivity between mice NTPDases and anti-potato apyrase antibodies produced in rabbits, using confocal microscopy. Liver samples were taken from Swiss Webster mouse 8 weeks after infection with S. mansoni cercariae, and anti-potato apyrase and TRITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antibody were tested on cryostat sections. The results showed that S. mansoni egg ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, developed by anti-potato apyrase, are expressed in miracidial and egg structures, and not in granulomatous cells and hepatic structures (hepatocytes, bile ducts, and blood vessels). Therefore, purified potato apyrase when inoculated in rabbit generates polyclonal sera containing anti-apyrase antibodies that are capable of recognizing specifically S. mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase epitopes, but not proteins from mammalian tissues, suggesting that autoantibodies are not induced during potato apyrase immunization. A phylogenetic tree obtained for the NTPDase family showed that potato apyrase had lower homology with mammalian NTPDases 1-4, 7, and 8. Further analysis of potato apyrase epitopes could implement their potential use in schistosomiasis experimental models.
P Faria-Pinto, M N L Meirelles, H L Lenzi, E M Mota, M L O Penido, P M Z Coelho, E G Vasconcelos
1800 related Products with: Cross-immunoreactivity between anti-potato apyrase antibodies and mammalian ATP diphosphohydrolases: potential use of the vegetal protein in experimental schistosomiasis.100 μg1 ml0.2 mg100 μg100 μg100.00 ug100 μg100 μg1 mL100 μg100 μg200
#15469915 2004/10/06 To Up
Development of a polyclonal antiserum for the detection of the isoforms of the receptors for human growth hormone-releasing hormone on tumors.Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) inhibit the growth of various human cancers by multiple mechanisms, which include direct effects on tumor cells through the splice variants (SV) of the GHRH receptor. Our findings suggest that the tumoral protein encoded by SV 1 (SV1) is a likely functional receptor. The aim of this study was to develop a polyclonal antiserum against a polypeptide analog of segment 1-25 of the putative SV1 receptor protein. Rabbits were immunized with [Ala-23]SV1 (1-25)-Tyr-26-Cys-27-NH2 as a hapten, conjugated to BSA or keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The antisera thus generated were evaluated by RIA for binding to the radiolabeled hapten. The specificity and sensitivity of the antisera were studied on xenografts of RL and HT human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The sera raised against keyhole limpet hemocyanin-SV1 hapten, showed binding values of 50-75% at a 1:56,000 dilution. In Western blot analyses, the purified polyclonal antibody recognized a specific signal with a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa in RL and HT lymphomas. This band corresponds to the estimated molecular mass of the GHRH receptor isoform encoded by SV1. RT-PCR and ligand binding studies also revealed the expression of SV1 and the presence of high-affinity binding sites for GHRH on RL and HT tumors. Because the antiserum developed recognizes the tumoral GHRH receptor protein encoded by SV1, it should be of value in various investigations.
Gabor L Toller, Judit E Horvath, Andrew V Schally, Gabor Halmos, Jozsef L Varga, Kate Groot, David Chism, Marta Zarandi
2719 related Products with: Development of a polyclonal antiserum for the detection of the isoforms of the receptors for human growth hormone-releasing hormone on tumors.100 UG0.1 ml1 mg100.00 ug5 x 50 ug20 ug 100ul50 ug1 mg1 mg1 mg1 mg
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Quantitation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (type IV) in isolated human peripheral blood eosinophils by sandwich-ELISA.Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) was developed for precise quantitation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 type IV) concentration in isolated human peripheral blood eosinophils as an alternative to semiquantitative chemiluminescent assay employing immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis. In this assay, monoclonal mouse anti-human cPLA2 antiserum was used as the capture antibody, polyclonal rabbit anti-human cPLA2 antiserum as the secondary antibody, and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG as the tertiary, reporter antibody. Purified human cPLA2 (0-1000 ng/ml) dissolved in Tris-HCl buffered saline was used as the standard protein. The detection limit for cPLA2 in 10(6) eosinophils was 0.109 ng/ml, and coefficients of inter- and intra-assay variation were 4.23% and 7.07%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with other (secretory) isoforms of PLA2 (sPLA2 types I-III) either from porcine pancreas, human synovial fluid, or bee venom. In separate studies, the recovery of cPLA2 was > 83% when eosinophil lysate was supplemented exogenously with two different concentrations of cPLA2. From a total protein content of 22.3 +/- 1.7 micrograms/10(6) cells, the baseline concentration of cPLA2 was 0.38 +/- 0.18 ng/10(6) cells in eosinophils obtained from mildly atopic donors. Immunoblotting studies confirmed the complete specificity for the type IV isoform as detected by sELISA. This sELISA method permits the precise quantitative assessment of cPLA2 in nanogram quantities per million cells, which has not previously been possible by immunoblotting analysis.
X Zhu, N M Muñoz, N Rubio, A Herrnreiter, D Mayer, I Douglas, A R Leff
2411 related Products with: Quantitation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (type IV) in isolated human peripheral blood eosinophils by sandwich-ELISA.96T100 ul96 wells (1 kit)96 wells (1 kit)96T96T96 tests96 wells (1 kit)96 tests
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Subcellular distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT-1) during development of the blood-brain barrier in rats.Electron microscopy was used to quantify the subcellular distribution of the GLUT-1 isoform of the glucose transporter in developing microvessels of the brain of embryonic rats from E (embryonic stage) 13 to E19 and in adult rats. Gold-conjugated secondary antibodies were used to localize, on ultrathin sections of brain, a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (anti-GLUT-1) raised against a synthetic peptide encoding 13 amino acids of the C-terminus of the human glucose transporter. Staining was weak at E13 but increased in density during development into adulthood. The increase represented an increase in the absolute amount of transporter per vessel profile, with a concomitant decrease in vessel size with the narrowing of the wall. At early stages, the percentages of total particles per profile of lumenal membrane, ablumenal membrane, and cytoplasm were approximately equivalent. The ratio of lumenal to ablumenal particle density then shifted from below 1 at E13 to above 2 at E19 and to 4 in the adult. In contrast, vessels of the choroid plexus were devoid of labeling, but the choroid plexus epithelium stained as early as E15. In the brain, no astrocytes, neurons, or pericytes were stained at any stage examined. Developmental upregulation of the GLUT-1 glucose transporter therefore seems to occur at the blood-brain barrier, and the modulation of the subcellular distribution of the transporter can be correlated with other observed changes in the microvessels as they develop the blood-brain barrier phenotype.
S Bolz, C L Farrell, K Dietz, H Wolburg
2672 related Products with: Subcellular distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT-1) during development of the blood-brain barrier in rats.96 tests96 tests200ul 100 UG300 units
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Assessment of protein kinase C isozymes by enzyme immunoassay and overexpression of type II in thyroid adenocarcinoma.A two site enzyme immunoassay which quantitatively identifies types I, II, and III of protein kinase C isozymes has been designed. The soluble protein kinase C isozymes were selectively immobilized by type-specific monoclonal antibodies, MC-1a, -2a, and -3a (H. Hidaka et al., J Biol. Chem., 263: 4523-4526, 1988) which bind to the regulatory domain (NH2-terminal side) of protein kinase C. The amount of each isozyme was then determined using a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated polyclonal antibody raised against the COOH-terminal peptide of protein kinase C. By adding increasing concentrations of the antigen, the range of the assay proved to be 0.51-51, 0.081-8.1, and 0.31-31 nM for types I, II, and III, respectively. This sandwich method was used to determine the level of protein kinase C isozymes in rabbit tissues. Type I was mainly present in the cerebrum and cerebellum; the highest amount of type II isozyme was present in blood platelets [26.0 +/- 3.8 (SE) micrograms/g wet tissue]. We compared the protein kinase C isozyme levels in human normal thyroid gland and thyroid cancer tissues and found that type II protein kinase C specifically increased in thyroid cancer tissues. Immunocytochemical examination using MC-2a revealed that the cytoplasm of the cancer cells showed prominent immunoreactivity for type II isozyme.
M Hagiwara, T Hachiya, M Watanabe, N Usuda, F Iida, K Tamai, H Hidaka
2784 related Products with: Assessment of protein kinase C isozymes by enzyme immunoassay and overexpression of type II in thyroid adenocarcinoma.1 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set1 Set100ug200 1 Set1 Set1mg
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