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Search results for: Rabbit Anti-SARS-CoV, Spike (Middle) Antibodies

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#32471334   // To Up

Particulate multivalent presentation of the receptor binding domain induces protective immune responses against MERS-CoV.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a WHO priority pathogen for which vaccines are urgently needed. Using an immune-focusing approach, we created self-assembling particles multivalently displaying critical regions of the MERS-CoV spike protein ─fusion peptide, heptad repeat 2, and receptor binding domain (RBD) ─ and tested their immunogenicity and protective capacity in rabbits. Using a "plug-and-display" SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, we coupled RBD to lumazine synthase (LS) particles producing multimeric RBD-presenting particles (RBD-LS). RBD-LS vaccination induced antibody responses of high magnitude and quality (avidity, MERS-CoV neutralizing capacity, and mucosal immunity) with cross-clade neutralization. The antibody responses were associated with blocking viral replication and upper and lower respiratory tract protection against MERS-CoV infection in rabbits. This arrayed multivalent presentation of the viral RBD using the antigen-SpyTag/LS-SpyCatcher is a promising MERS-CoV vaccine candidate and this platform may be applied for the rapid development of vaccines against other emerging viruses such as SARS-CoV-2.
Nisreen M A Okba, Ivy Widjaja, Brenda van Dieren, Andrea Aebischer, Geert van Amerongen, Leon de Waal, Koert J Stittelaar, Debby Schipper, Byron Martina, Judith M A van den Brand, Martin Beer, Berend-Jan Bosch, Bart L Haagmans

1205 related Products with: Particulate multivalent presentation of the receptor binding domain induces protective immune responses against MERS-CoV.

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#31534035   2019/11/13 To Up

Diversity of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus HKU23 in African Camels Revealed Multiple Recombination Events among Closely Related Betacoronaviruses of the Subgenus Embecovirus.

Genetic recombination has frequently been observed in coronaviruses. Here, we sequenced multiple complete genomes of dromedary camel coronavirus HKU23 (DcCoV-HKU23) from Nigeria, Morocco, and Ethiopia and identified several genomic positions indicative of cross-species virus recombination events among other betacoronaviruses of the subgenus Embecovirus (clade A beta-CoVs). Recombinant fragments of a rabbit coronavirus (RbCoV-HKU14) were identified at the hemagglutinin esterase gene position. Homolog fragments of a rodent CoV were also observed at 8.9-kDa open reading frame 4a at the 3' end of the spike gene. The patterns of recombination differed geographically across the African region, highlighting a mosaic structure of DcCoV-HKU23 genomes circulating in dromedaries. Our results highlighted active recombination of coronaviruses circulating in dromedaries and are also relevant to the emergence and evolution of other betacoronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Genetic recombination is often demonstrated in coronaviruses and can result in host range expansion or alteration in tissue tropism. Here, we showed interspecies events of recombination of an endemic dromedary camel coronavirus, HKU23, with other clade A betacoronaviruses. Our results supported the possibility that the zoonotic pathogen MERS-CoV, which also cocirculates in the same camel species, may have undergone similar recombination events facilitating its emergence or may do so in its future evolution.
Ray T Y So, Daniel K W Chu, Eve Miguel, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Jamiu O Oladipo, Ouafaa Fassi-Fihri, Gelagay Aylet, Ronald L W Ko, Ziqi Zhou, Mo-Sheung Cheng, Sulyman A Kuranga, François L Roger, Veronique Chevalier, Richard J Webby, Patrick C Y Woo, Leo L M Poon, Malik Peiris

2290 related Products with: Diversity of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus HKU23 in African Camels Revealed Multiple Recombination Events among Closely Related Betacoronaviruses of the Subgenus Embecovirus.

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#28993122   2017/10/06 To Up

Characterization of novel monoclonal antibodies against the MERS-coronavirus spike protein and their application in species-independent antibody detection by competitive ELISA.

Since discovering the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as a causative agent of severe respiratory illness in the Middle East in 2012, serological testing has been conducted to assess antibody responses in patients and to investigate the zoonotic reservoir of the virus. Although the virus neutralization test is the gold standard assay for MERS diagnosis and for investigating the zoonotic reservoir, it uses live virus and so must be performed in high containment laboratories. Competitive ELISA (cELISA), in which a labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) competes with test serum antibodies for target epitopes, may be a suitable alternative because it detects antibodies in a species-independent manner. In this study, novel MAbs against the spike protein of MERS-CoV were produced and characterized. One of these MAbs was used to develop a cELISA. The cELISA detected MERS-CoV-specific antibodies in sera from MERS-CoV-infected rats and rabbits immunized with the spike protein of MERS-CoV. The MAb-based cELISA was validated using sera from Ethiopian dromedary camels. Relative to the neutralization test, the cELISA detected MERS-CoV-specific antibodies in 66 Ethiopian dromedary camels with a sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 100%, respectively. The cELISA and neutralization test results correlated well (Pearson's correlation coefficients=0.71-0.76, depending on the cELISA serum dilution). This cELISA may be useful for MERS epidemiological investigations on MERS-CoV infection.
Shuetsu Fukushi, Aiko Fukuma, Takeshi Kurosu, Shumpei Watanabe, Masayuki Shimojima, Kazuya Shirato, Naoko Iwata-Yoshikawa, Noriyo Nagata, Kazuo Ohnishi, Manabu Ato, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Hiroshi Sentsui, Masayuki Saijo

2306 related Products with: Characterization of novel monoclonal antibodies against the MERS-coronavirus spike protein and their application in species-independent antibody detection by competitive ELISA.

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#25387086   // To Up

The amino acids 736-761 of the MERS-CoV spike protein induce neutralizing antibodies: implications for the development of vaccines and antiviral agents.

Based on a bioinformatics analysis of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavvirus (MERS-CoV) S protein, we synthesized a panel of peptides coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and used them to raise antibodies in rabbits. In addition, the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) was used to raise polyclonal antibodies in mice. All of the antibodies raised by S-peptide immunisation were specific and sensitive for S protein expressed in transfected cells in the indirect immunofluorescence assay or Western blotting. The RBD efficiently elicited neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV by blocking viral entry at the binding step. Furthermore, we found that the SP3 peptide, corresponding to amino-acid residues 736-761 of the S protein, elicited robust neutralizing activities by blocking viral entry at the postbinding and membrane fusion steps. We conclude that amino-acid residues 736-761 of the S protein carry neutralizing epitopes that may be used in the development of vaccines and antiviral agents against MERS-CoV.
Yang Yang, Yao Deng, Bo Wen, Huijuan Wang, Xin Meng, Jiaming Lan, George F Gao, Wenjie Tan

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#25240756   2014/09/19 To Up

Searching for an ideal vaccine candidate among different MERS coronavirus receptor-binding fragments--the importance of immunofocusing in subunit vaccine design.

The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is currently spreading among humans, making development of effective MERS vaccines a high priority. A defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) in MERS-CoV spike protein can potentially serve as a subunit vaccine candidate against MERS-CoV infections. To identify an ideal vaccine candidate, we have constructed five different versions of RBD fragments, S350-588-Fc, S358-588-Fc, S367-588-Fc, S367-606-Fc, and S377-588-Fc (their names indicate their residue range in the spike protein and their C-terminal Fc tag), and further investigated their receptor binding affinity, antigenicity, immunogenicity, and neutralizing potential. The results showed that S377-588-Fc is among the RBD fragments that demonstrated the highest DPP4-binding affinity and induced the highest-titer IgG antibodies in mice. In addition, S377-588-Fc elicited higher-titer neutralizing antibodies than all the other RBD fragments in mice, and also induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies in immunized rabbits. Structural analysis suggests that S377-588-Fc contains the stably folded RBD structure, the full receptor-binding site, and major neutralizing epitopes, such that additional structures to this fragment introduce non-neutralizing epitopes and may also alter the tertiary structure of the RBD. Taken together, our data suggest that the RBD fragment encompassing spike residues 377-588 is a critical neutralizing receptor-binding fragment and an ideal candidate for development of effective MERS vaccines, and that adding non-neutralizing structures to this RBD fragment diminishes its neutralizing potential. Therefore, in viral vaccine design, it is important to identify the most stable and neutralizing viral RBD fragment, while eliminating unnecessary and non-neutralizing structures, as a means of "immunofocusing".
Cuiqing Ma, Lili Wang, Xinrong Tao, Naru Zhang, Yang Yang, Chien-Te K Tseng, Fang Li, Yusen Zhou, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du

1414 related Products with: Searching for an ideal vaccine candidate among different MERS coronavirus receptor-binding fragments--the importance of immunofocusing in subunit vaccine design.

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#15356154   // To Up

Identification of immunodominant sites on the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus: implication for developing SARS diagnostics and vaccines.

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is not only responsible for receptor binding and virus fusion, but also a major Ag among the SARS-CoV proteins that induces protective Ab responses. In this study, we showed that the S protein of SARS-CoV is highly immunogenic during infection and immunizations, and contains five linear immunodominant sites (sites I to V) as determined by Pepscan analysis with a set of synthetic peptides overlapping the entire S protein sequence against the convalescent sera from SARS patients and antisera from small animals immunized with inactivated SARS-CoV. Site IV located in the middle region of the S protein (residues 528-635) is a major immunodominant epitope. The synthetic peptide S(603-634), which overlaps the site IV sequence reacted with all the convalescent sera from 42 SARS patient, but none of the 30 serum samples from healthy blood donors, suggesting its potential application as an Ag for developing SARS diagnostics. This study also provides information useful for designing SARS vaccines and understanding the SARS pathogenesis.
Yuxian He, Yusen Zhou, Hao Wu, Baojun Luo, Jingming Chen, Wanbo Li, Shibo Jiang

2873 related Products with: Identification of immunodominant sites on the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus: implication for developing SARS diagnostics and vaccines.

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