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#33080468   2020/10/17 To Up

D-Carvone inhibit cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced inflammatory response TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

To explore the present treatment strategies for ischemic stroke lowered by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, to hypothesize the effect of d-Carvone on cerebral I/R brain injury induced neuroinflammation through oxidative stress markers mechanism via NRLP3 and TLR4 marker expressions in rat model. The rats were divided into four groups: Sham, I/R vehicle, I/R + D-carvone (10 mg/kg/bw), I/R + D-carvone (20 mg/kg/bw). Supplementation of d-carvone at dose of 10 and 20 m/kg/bw increased the water content, reduced infract volume, attenuated neurological score depicts, furthermore it had antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects against cerebral I/R brain injury. In the brain tissues decreased proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α reduced interleukins IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 & VEGF dose dependently, and mRNA expressions of NLRP3, caspase -1, TNF-α, ASC, IL-1β and TLR3 down regulated in cerebral I/R induced rats. Finally d- carvone can successfully improve the cerebral I/R induced rats neuroinflammation, in the hippocampus and cortical areas of the brain finally reduces cerebral I/R induced injury. These results were hypothesized that d-carvone contributed to cerebral stroke associated with the TLR3, giving an excellent therapeutic approach for cerebral I/R brain injury.
Mengyuan Dai, Lixiu Wu, Kunqiang Yu, Ri Xu, Yanbin Wei, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Tahani Awad Alahmadi, Minya Zhou

2918 related Products with: D-Carvone inhibit cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced inflammatory response TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

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#33080441   2020/10/10 To Up

Protein thiol oxidation in the rat lung following e-cigarette exposure.

E-cigarette (e-cig) aerosols are complex mixtures of various chemicals including humectants (propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG)), nicotine, and various flavoring additives. Emerging research is beginning to challenge the "relatively safe" perception of e-cigarettes. Recent studies suggest e-cig aerosols provoke oxidative stress; however, details of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we used a redox proteomics assay of thiol total oxidation to identify signatures of site-specific protein thiol modifications in Sprague-Dawley rat lungs following in vivo e-cig aerosol exposures. Histologic evaluation of rat lungs exposed acutely to e-cig aerosols revealed mild perturbations in lung structure. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis demonstrated no significant change in cell count or differential. Conversely, total lung glutathione decreased significantly in rats exposed to e-cig aerosol compared to air controls. Redox proteomics quantified the levels of total oxidation for 6682 cysteine sites representing 2865 proteins. Protein thiol oxidation and alterations by e-cig exposure induced perturbations of protein quality control, inflammatory responses and redox homeostasis. Perturbations of protein quality control were confirmed with semi-quantification of total lung polyubiquitination and 20S proteasome activity. Our study highlights the importance of redox control in the pulmonary response to e-cig exposure and the utility of thiol-based redox proteomics as a tool for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying this response.
Juan Wang, Tong Zhang, Carl J Johnston, So-Young Kim, Matthew J Gaffrey, David Chalupa, Guanqiao Feng, Wei-Jun Qian, Matthew D McGraw, Charles Ansong

2151 related Products with: Protein thiol oxidation in the rat lung following e-cigarette exposure.

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#33080430   2020/09/30 To Up

Melatonin decreases cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

Melatonin is a hormone that produces behavioral, pharmacological, and physiological effects through the activation of MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors. Melatonin receptors participate in the modulation of the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Some studies report that dosing of melatonin decreases cocaine-induced locomotor activity and cocaine self-administration and that luzindole, an MT1, and MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, blocks the melatonin-dependent decrease in cocaine-induced locomotor activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute or chronic dosing of melatonin on the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and cocaine-CPP in rats. Male Wistar rats received cocaine during the induction and expression of locomotor sensitization. Melatonin was administered 30 min before cocaine. After each treatment, locomotor activity was recorded for 30 min. Additionally, dopamine levels were determined in the ventral striatum, the prefrontal cortex (PFc), and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by HPLC in animals treated with melatonin and cocaine. Melatonin decreased cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intracellular dopamine levels, as well as cocaine-CPP. Luzindole blocked the melatonin-induced decrease in the expression of locomotor sensitization in rats. These data suggest that melatonin may be a useful therapeutic agent to reduce cocaine abuse; additionally, they suggest that MT1 and MT2 receptors could be therapeutic targets, useful for the treatment of drug abuse disorder.
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, Alberto Salazar-Juárez

2430 related Products with: Melatonin decreases cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

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#33080392   2020/10/17 To Up

Repeated exposure to transient obstructive sleep apnea related conditions causes an atrial fibrillation substrate in a chronic rat model.

High night-to-night variability of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Obstructive apneas are characterized by intermittent deoxygenation-reoxygenation and intrathoracic pressure swings during ineffective inspiration against occluded upper airways.
Benedikt Linz, Mathias Hohl, Lisa Lang, Dickson W L Wong, Alexander G Nickel, Carolina De La Torre, Carsten Sticht, Klaus Wirth, Peter Boor, Christoph Maack, Thimoteus Speer, Thomas Jespersen, Ulrich Schotten, Prashanthan Sanders, Michael Böhm, Dominik Linz

1698 related Products with: Repeated exposure to transient obstructive sleep apnea related conditions causes an atrial fibrillation substrate in a chronic rat model.

2 Pieces/Box100 2 Pieces/Box100 100 UG1 mg2 Pieces/Box 50 UG2 Pieces/Box

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#33080303   2020/10/17 To Up

Topical nerve growth factor attenuates streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataracts via polyol pathway inhibition and Na/K-ATPase upregulation.

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how topical nerve growth factor (NGF) attenuates streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cataracts in vivo. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, including the normal control rat group, STZ-induced diabetic cataract rat group (DM group), and STZ-induced diabetic cataract rat group treated with 200 μg/mL recombinant rat β-NGF (DM + NGF group). Cataract formation was evaluated by portable slit lamp biomicroscopy following pupil dilation at 8 weeks. The expression levels of NGF, aldose reductase (AR), and Na/K-ATPase in the lens epithelial cells (LECs) of the three groups were measured in the presence or absence of topical NGF. TUNEL-positive LECs were quantified to determine if hyperglycemia caused LEC apoptosis. At 8 weeks, the mean cataract score in the control group was significantly lower than that in DM and DM + NGF groups, and the score in the DM + NGF group was significantly lower than that in the DM group. At the equatorial zone and anterior central zone of lens, NGF and Na/K-ATPase expression levels were significantly decreased in the DM group; however, they were partially restored in the DM + NGF group. At the equatorial zone and anterior central zone of lens, AR expression and TUNEL-positive apoptotic LECs were significantly increased in the DM group compared with the control group, however, they were significantly decreased in the DM + NGF group. In conclusion, topical NGF could delay the progression of diabetic cataracts by attenuating polyol pathway activation and increasing Na/K-ATPase protein levels.
Jae Yong Kim, Jin Hyoung Park, Soon-Suk Kang, Sae-Byeok Hwang, Hungwon Tchah

1830 related Products with: Topical nerve growth factor attenuates streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataracts via polyol pathway inhibition and Na/K-ATPase upregulation.

10 5ug1 mg5ug2 Pieces/Box100.00 ug10ug0.1 mg5ug0.1 ml2ug x 205 x 50 ug

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#33080300   2020/10/17 To Up

Functional assessment of cryopreserved clinical grade hESC-RPE cells as a qualified cell source for stem cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases.

The biosafety and efficiency of transplanting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells derived from both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been evaluated in phase I and phase II clinical trials. For further large-scale application, cryopreserved RPE cells must be used; thus, it is highly important to investigate the influence of cryopreservation and thawing on the biological characteristics of hESC-RPE cells and their post-transplantation vision-restoring function. Here, via immunofluorescence, qPCR, transmission electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we showed that cryopreserved hESC-RPE cells retained the specific gene expression profile, morphology, ultrastructure, and maturity-related functions of induced RPE cells. Additionally, cryopreserved hESC-RPE cells exhibited a polarized monolayer, tight junction, and gap junction structure and an in vitro nanoparticle phagocytosis capability similar to those of induced hESC-RPE cells. However, the level of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) secretion was significantly decreased in cryopreserved hESC-RPE cells. Royal College of Surgeons rats with cryopreserved hESC-RPE cells engrafted into the subretinal space exhibited a significant decrease in the b-wave amplitude compared with rats engrafted with induced hESC-RPE cells at 4 weeks post transplantation. However, the difference disappeared at 8 weeks and 12 weeks post operation. No significant difference in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was observed between the two groups. Our data showed that even after cryopreservation and thawing, cryopreserved hESC-RPE cells are still qualified as a donor cell source for cell-based therapy of retinal degenerative diseases.
Li Qiyou, Zou Ting, Gong Yu, Chen Siyu, Zeng Yuxiao, Gao Lixiong, Weng Chuanhuang, Xu Haiwei, Yin Zheng Qin

1610 related Products with: Functional assessment of cryopreserved clinical grade hESC-RPE cells as a qualified cell source for stem cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases.

96 assays0.5 ml

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#33080275   2020/10/17 To Up

Maternal traits during lactation period reduce the anxiety-related behavior in male offspring: Results from a fostering study in Hatano rats.

The Hatano strains of the Sprague Dawley rats have been selectively bred to create high- (HAA) and low- (LAA) active avoidance variants. We previously reported that HAA rats display more anxiety-related behavior than LAA rats, but whether this strain difference is affected by postnatal environmental factors remains unclear. In this study, we performed in- and cross-fostering between the HAA and LAA strains and investigated the effect of postnatal maternal traits on the emotional responses in each strain of the male offspring. We evaluated the effect of the fostering treatment on the emotional responses of the male offspring using the elevated plus maze test. The male LAA offspring reared by HAA dam showed higher anxiety-related behavior than those reared by LAA dam. Next, we quantified and typed various maternal behavior under the in- and cross-fostering conditions during the lactation period using a snapshot sampling method. This method allowed us to evaluate potential maternal traits that may influence the emotional responses of the offspring observed in our first experiment. We found that HAA dams showed long-term resting without offspring and offspring arrangement compared with LAA dams. These findings suggest that postnatal environmental factors may alter anxiety-related behavior in the male LAA offspring and that less direct contact with their offspring during the lactation period may induce anxiety-related behavior in male offspring.
Yasuyuki Horii, Shingo Nakajima, Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Ryo Ohta, Maiko Kawaguchi

1190 related Products with: Maternal traits during lactation period reduce the anxiety-related behavior in male offspring: Results from a fostering study in Hatano rats.

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#33080273   2020/10/17 To Up

Nuclear Accumulation of Histone Deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) by PP1-Mediated Dephosphorylation Exerts Neurotoxicity in Pb-exposed neural cells.

Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant that primarily affects the central nervous system, particularly the developing brain. Recently, increasing evidence indicates the important roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in Pb-induced neurotoxicity. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involving HDAC4 remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HDAC4 in Pb-induced neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro study, PC12 cells were exposed to Pb (10 μM) for 24 hours, then the mRNA and protein levels of HDAC4 were analyzed. In vivo study, pregnant rats and their female offspring were treated with lead (50 ppm) until postnatal day 30. Then the pups were sacrificed and the mRNA and protein levels of HDAC4 in the hippocampus were analyzed. The results showed that HDAC4 was significantly increased in both PC12 cells and rat hippocampus upon Pb exposure. Blockade of HDAC4 with either LMK-235 (an inhibitor of HDAC4) or shHDAC4 (HDAC4-knocking down plasmid) ameliorated the Pb-induced neurite outgrowth deficits. Interestingly, HDAC4 was aberrantly accumulated in the nucleus upon Pb exposure. By contrast, blocking the HDAC4 shuffling from the cytosol to the nucleus with ΔNLS2-HDAC4 (the cytosol-localized HDAC4 mutant) was able to rescue the neuronal impairment. In addition, Pb increased PP1 (protein phosphatase 1) expression which in turn influenced the subcellular localization of HDAC4 by dephosphorylation of specific serine/threonine residues. What's more, blockade of PP1 with PP1-knocking down construct (shPP1) ameliorated Pb-induced neurite outgrowth deficits. Taken together, nuclear accumulation of HDAC4 by PP1-mediated dephosphorylation involved in Pb-induced neurotoxicity. This study might provide a promising molecular target for medical intervention with environmental cues.
Xiaozhen Gu, Xiyao Huang, Danyang Li, Nanxi Bi, Xi Yu, Hui-Li Wang

2738 related Products with: Nuclear Accumulation of Histone Deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) by PP1-Mediated Dephosphorylation Exerts Neurotoxicity in Pb-exposed neural cells.

1x10e7 cells96 tests1.00 flask4/120 Packing /sleeve/bo1 g10 rxns10mg96 assays 1 mg10 ug10mg400Tests

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#33080268   2020/10/17 To Up

Reduced expression of α2 integrin is involved in T-2 toxin-induced matrix degradation in C28/I2 cells and cartilages from rats administrated with T-2 toxin.

T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin demonstrating several harmful effects on chondrocyte and cartilage functions. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of T-2 toxin on cartilage matrix degradation and evaluated the involvement of α2 integrin in T-2 toxin-induced matrix damage. In C28/I2 cells, T-2 toxin decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Regarding matrix degradation, T-2 toxin decreased type II collagen and increased matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) expression. Moreover, T-2 toxin significantly decreased the expression of α2 integrin in C28/I2 cells, indicating impaired chondrocyte-matrix interaction. Additionally, cartilage matrix degradation with decreased type II collagen expression was observed in the animal model, established using rats treated with T-2 toxin, with or without a selenium-deficient diet, presenting chondrocytes with necrosis in the deep zone. Simultaneously, rats administered T-2 toxin demonstrated overtly decreased α2 integrin expression in the articular cartilage. In the T-2 toxin plus selenium-deficient diet group, α2 integrin expression was further decreased in the deep zone of the cartilage. Furthermore, inhibition of α2β1 integrin in C28/I2 cells could induce MMP-13 activation and type II collagen reduction, contributing to matrix degradation. These results indicate that the cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin on chondrocyte damage and cartilage matrix degradation are associated with α2 integrin downregulation, by reducing type II collagen and MMP-13 activation.
Meng Zhang, Hui Wang, Mengying Wang, Yinan Liu, Yucheng Liao, Yue Liu, Ying Zhang, Tianyou Ma, Jinghong Chen

2119 related Products with: Reduced expression of α2 integrin is involved in T-2 toxin-induced matrix degradation in C28/I2 cells and cartilages from rats administrated with T-2 toxin.

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