Search results for: Reactivity
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The neural interface between negative emotion regulation and motivation for change in cocaine dependent individuals under treatment.Emotion regulation is important for cocaine addiction treatment success, particularly during early abstinence. In addition, the neural underpinnings of emotion processing overlap with those of motivation and goal-directed behavior. We examined if the neural underpinnings of emotion maintenance and its regulation correlate with cocaine treatment motivation.
2743 related Products with: The neural interface between negative emotion regulation and motivation for change in cocaine dependent individuals under treatment.Cell Cycle Control Phosph FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Indole 5 carboxaldehyde ( Sterile filtered human se MultiGene Gradient therm FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Indole 7 carboxaldehyde ( Breast invasive ductal ca FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Alkaline Phospatase (ALP) FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Indole 6 carboxaldehyde (
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Electrosprayed whey protein-based nanocapsules for β-carotene encapsulation.In this work an electrohydrodynamic process (electrospray) was used to produce β-carotene loaded nanocapsules based on whey protein isolate (WPI). WPI solutions were prepared in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of ethanol (5, 10 and 15%) which were used for β-carotene solubilization. Different electrospray conditions were tested and the morphology and molecular organization of the nanocapsules were studied on dried and hydrated state. The size of the dried nanocapsules ranged between 227 and 283 nm. After hydration, there was a significant increase in the mean size of the nanocapsules, being the sizes higher for nanocapsules produced with increasing concentrations of ethanol. Results, obtained from the reactivity of free sulfhydryl groups and fluorescence analysis, showed that the increase of ethanol concentration had a destabilizing effect on the protein unfolding. Electrosprayed WPI-based nanocapsules can be used for the encapsulation of β-carotene answering the industrial demand for novel encapsulation technologies to protect sensitive bioactive compounds.
1455 related Products with: Electrosprayed whey protein-based nanocapsules for β-carotene encapsulation.Protein A (Liquid form) Anti daf 2(Abnormal dauer Protein A (Liquid form) NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P Protein A (Liquid form) NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P Anti-daf-2(Abnormal dauer Protein A (Liquid form) Anti-BMP-1 (Bone Morphoge Bone Morphogenetic Protei MarkerGeneTM Fluorescent Bovine prolactin-induced
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Chemoselectivity in the Oxidation of Cycloalkenes with a Non-Heme Iron(IV)-Oxo-Chloride Complex: Epoxidation vs. Hydroxylation Selectivity.We report and analyze chemoselectivity in the gas phase reactions of cycloalkenes (cyclohexene, cycloheptene, cyclooctene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene) with a non-heme iron(IV)-oxo complex [(PyTACN)Fe(O)(Cl)], which models the active species in iron-dependent halogenases. Unlike in the halogenases, we did not observe any chlorination of the substrate. However, we observed two other reaction pathways: allylic hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and alkene epoxidation. The HAT is clearly preferred in the case of 1,4-cyclohexadiene, both pathways have comparable reaction rates in reaction with cyclohexene, and epoxidation is strongly favored in reactions with cycloheptene and cyclooctene. This preference for epoxidation differs from the reactivity of iron(IV)-oxo complexes in the condensed phase, where HAT usually prevails. To understand the observed selectivity, we analyze effects of the substrate, spin state, and solvation. Our DFT and CASPT2 calculations suggest that all the reactions occur on the quintet potential energy surface. The DFT-calculated energies of the transition states for the epoxidation and hydroxylation pathways explain the observed chemoselectivity. The SMD implicit solvation model predicts the relative increase of the epoxidation barriers with solvent polarity, which explains the clear preference of HAT in the condensed phase.
1117 related Products with: Chemoselectivity in the Oxidation of Cycloalkenes with a Non-Heme Iron(IV)-Oxo-Chloride Complex: Epoxidation vs. Hydroxylation Selectivity.FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Multiple organ tumor tiss Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Thermal Shaker with cooli FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon
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Gas-Phase Synthesis and Reactivity of Ligated Group 10 Ions in the Formal +1 Oxidation State.Electrospray ionization of the group 10 complexes [(phen)M(OCCH)] (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, M = Ni, Pd, Pt) generates the cations [(phen)M(OCCH)], whose gas-phase chemistry was studied using multistage mass spectrometry experiments in an ion trap mass spectrometer with the combination of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion-molecule reactions (IMR). Decarboxylation of [(phen)M(OCCH)] under CID conditions generates the organometallic cations [(phen)M(CH)], which undergo bond homolysis upon a further stage of CID to generate the cations [(phen)M] in which the metal center is formally in the +1 oxidation state. In the case of [(phen)Pt(CH)], the major product ion [(phen)H] was formed via loss of the metal carbene Pt=CH. DFT calculated energetics for the competition between bond homolysis and M=CH loss are consistent with their experimentally observed branching ratios of 2% and 98% respectively. The IMR of [(phen)M] with O, N, HO, acetone, and allyl iodide were examined. Adduct formation occurs for O, N, HO, and acetone. Upon CID, all adducts fragment to regenerate [(phen)M], except for [(phen)Pt(OC(CH))], which loses a methyl radical to form [(phen)Pt(OCCH)] which upon a further stage of CID regenerates [(phen)Pt(CH)] via CO loss. This closes a formal catalytic cycle for the decomposition of acetone into CO and two methyl radicals with [(phen)Pt] as catalyst. In the IMR of [(phen)M] with allyl iodide, formation of [(phen)M(CHCHCH)] was observed for all three metals, whereas for M = Pt also [(phen)Pt(I)] and [(phen)Pt(I)(CHCHCH)] were observed. Finally, DFT calculated reaction energetics for all IMR reaction channels are consistent with the experimental observations.
2188 related Products with: Gas-Phase Synthesis and Reactivity of Ligated Group 10 Ions in the Formal +1 Oxidation State.Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-TNIP2 ABIN2 T DMPO, N1664A Host Mouse S Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-IAA (Indole-3 Primary antibody FLIP An Rabbit Anti-TNIP2 ABIN2 T Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-ZFAND5 Polycl Rabbit Anti-FLI1 Polyclon
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Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carbonate Ions with Sulfur Dioxide: an Experimental Study of Clusters Reactions.The reactivity of carbonate cluster ions with sulfur dioxide has been investigated in the gas phase by mass spectrometric techniques. SO promotes the displacement of carbon dioxide from carbonate clusters through a stepwise mechanism, leading to the quantitative conversion of the carbonate aggregates into the corresponding sulfite cluster ions. The kinetic study of the reactions of positive, negative, singly, and doubly charged ions reveals very fast and efficient processes for all the carbonate ions.
2416 related Products with: Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carbonate Ions with Sulfur Dioxide: an Experimental Study of Clusters Reactions.Rabbit Anti-Beta galactos Rabbit Anti-CIDEC Polyclo Rabbit Anti-FLAP 5-lipoxy Primary antibody ABCA1 A Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-TReP132 RAPA Rabbit Anti-Nogo R Polycl Rabbit Anti-BFAR RNF47 Po Rabbit Anti-MIER2 Polyclo Rabbit Anti-CPLA2 alpha P Primary antibody CPVL an Rabbit Anti-Fucosyltransf
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Elusive Intermediates in the Breakdown Reactivity Patterns of Prodrug Platinum(IV) Complexes.Kinetically inert platinum(IV) complexes are receiving growing attention as promising candidates in the effort to develop safe and valid alternatives to classical square-planar Pt(II) complexes currently used in antineoplastic therapy. Their antiproliferative activity requires intracellular Pt(IV)-Pt(II) reduction (activation by reduction). In the present work, a set of five Pt(IV) complexes has been assayed using mass spectrometry-based techniques, i.e., collision-induced dissociation (CID), and IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, together with ab initio theoretical investigations. Breakdown and reduction mechanisms are observed that lead to Pt(II) species. Evidence is found for typically transient Pt(III) intermediates along the dissociation paths of isolated, negatively charged (electron-rich) Pt(IV) prodrug complexes.
1356 related Products with: Elusive Intermediates in the Breakdown Reactivity Patterns of Prodrug Platinum(IV) Complexes.FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Rabbit Anti-IAA (Indole-3 MultiGene Gradient therm Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-Cell death in FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Primary antibody FLIP An Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Multiple organ tumor tiss Rabbit Anti-TNIP2 ABIN2 T ELISA Microplate Reader (
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Validation of the easyscreen flavivirus dengue alphavirus detection kit based on 3base amplification technology and its application to the 2016/17 Vanuatu dengue outbreak.The family flaviviridae and alphaviridae contain a diverse group of pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis of the virus responsible for disease is essential to ensure patients receive appropriate clinical management. Very few real-time RT-PCR based assays are able to detect the presence of all members of these families using a single primer and probe set. We have developed a novel chemistry, 3base, which simplifies the viral nucleic acids allowing the design of RT-PCR assays capable of pan-family identification.
2913 related Products with: Validation of the easyscreen flavivirus dengue alphavirus detection kit based on 3base amplification technology and its application to the 2016/17 Vanuatu dengue outbreak.FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Normal rat multiple organ FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Normal rat multiple organ TCP-1 theta antibody Sour FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Normal rat multiple organ Dengue Type 2
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Atom Condensed Fukui Function in Condensed Phases and Biological Systems and Its Application to Enzymatic Fixation of Carbon Dioxide.Local reactivity descriptors such as atom condensed Fukui functions are promising computational tools to study chemical reactivity at specific sites within a molecule. Their applications have been mainly focused on isolated molecules in their most stable conformation without considering the effects of the surroundings. Here, we propose to combine QM/MM Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the microstates (configurations) of a molecular system using different representations of the molecular environment and calculate Boltzmann weighted atom condensed local reactivity descriptors based on conceptual DFT. Our approach takes the conformational fluctuations of the molecular system and the polarization of its electron density by the environment into account allowing us to analyze the effect of changes in the molecular environment on reactivity. In this contribution, we apply the approach mentioned above to the catalytic fixation of carbon dioxide by crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase to study if the enzyme alters the reactivity of its substrate compared to an aqueous solution. Our main result is that the protein environment activates the substrate by the elimination of solute-solvent hydrogen bonds from aqueous solution in the two elementary steps of the reaction mechanism: the nucleophilic attack of a hydride anion from NADPH on the α,β unsaturated thioester and the electrophilic attack of carbon dioxide on the formed enolate species.
1876 related Products with: Atom Condensed Fukui Function in Condensed Phases and Biological Systems and Its Application to Enzymatic Fixation of Carbon Dioxide.Toxoplasma gondii GRA8, r Carbonic anhydrase 9 anti Rabbit AntiFNIP1 Target A Oral squamous cell cancer Androstenedione 19 Androgen Receptor (Phosph Mouse AntiInfluenza B Nuc Rabbit Anti-IAA (Indole-3 Mouse Anti P.aeruginosa s ING5 antibody Source Rabb Androgen Receptor Ab-1 An Andrographolide C20H30O5
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The Grignard Reaction-Unraveling a Chemical Puzzle.More than one hundred years since its discovery, the mechanism of the Grignard reaction remains unresolved. Ambiguities arise from the concomitant presence of multiple organomagnesium species and the competing mechanisms involving either nucleophilic addition or the formation of radical intermediates. To shed light on this topic quantum chemical calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the reaction of CH3MgCl in tetrahydrofuran with acetaldehyde and fluorenone as prototypical reagents. All organomagnesium species coexisting in solution due to the Schlenk equilibrium are found to be competent reagents for the nucleophilic pathway. The range of activation energies displayed by all these compounds is relatively small. The most reactive species are a dinuclear Mg complex in which the substrate and the nucleophile initially bind to different Mg centers and the mononuclear dimethyl magnesium. The radical reaction, which requires the homolytic cleavage of the CH3MgCl bond cannot occur unless a substrate with a low-lying π*(CO) orbital coordinates the Mg center. This rationalizes why a radical mechanism is detected only in the presence of substrates with a low reduction potential. This feature, in turn, does not necessarily favor the nucleophilic addition, as shown for the reaction with fluorenone. The solvent needs to be considered as a reactant for both the nucleophilic and radical reactions and its dynamics is essential for representing the energy profile. The similar reactivity of several species in fast equilibrium implies that the reaction does not occur via a single process but by an ensemble of parallel reactions.
Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Anti VGLUT 1 Rat, polyclo ReadiLink™ mFluor™ Vi FDA Standard Frozen Tissu ReadiLink™ mFluor™ Vi Normal rat multiple organ Thermal Shaker with cooli Beta Amyloid (1 42) ELISA Mouse Anti-Bacteroides th Sheep Anti-Theophylline 3 ReadiLink™ mFluor™ Vi FDA Standard Frozen Tissu
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Differential Reactivity of Copper- and Gold-Based Nanomaterials Controls Their Seasonal Biogeochemical Cycling and Fate in a Freshwater Wetland Mesocosm.Reliable predictions of the environmental fate and risk of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) require a better understanding of ENM reactivity in complex, biologically active systems for chronic low-concentration exposure scenarios. Here, simulated freshwater wetland mesocosms were dosed with ENMs to assess how their reactivity and seasonal changes in environmental parameters influence ENM fate in aquatic systems. Copper-based ENMs (Kocide), known to dissolve in water, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), stable against dissolution in the absence of specific ligands, were added weekly to mesocosm waters for 9 months. Metal accumulation and speciation changes in the different environmental compartments were assessed over time. Copper from Kocide rapidly dissolved likely associating with organic matter in the water column, transported to terrestrial soils and deeper sediment where it became associated with organic or sulfide phases. In contrast, Au accumulated on/in the macrophytes where it oxidized and transferred over time to surficial sediment. A dynamic seasonal accumulation and metal redox cycling were found between the macrophyte and the surficial sediment for AuNPs. These results demonstrate the need for experimental quantification of how the biological and chemical complexity of the environment, combined with their seasonal variations, drive the fate of metastable ENMs.
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