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#36707695   2023/01/27 To Up

Kinetic fingerprinting of metabotropic glutamate receptors.

Dimeric metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are abundantly expressed in neurons. In mammals, eight subunit isoforms, mGluR1-8, have been identified, forming the groups I, II, and III. We investigated receptor dimerization and kinetics of these mGluR isoforms in excised membrane patches by FRET and confocal patch-clamp fluorometry. We show that 5 out of 8 homodimeric receptors develop characteristic glutamate-induced on- and off-kinetics, as do 11 out of 28 heterodimers. Glutamate-responsive heterodimers were identified within each group, between groups I and II as well as between groups II and III, but not between groups I and III. The glutamate-responsive heterodimers showed heterogeneous activation and deactivation kinetics. Interestingly, mGluR7, not generating a kinetic response in homodimers, showed fast on-kinetics in mGluR2/7 and mGluR3/7 while off-kinetics retained the speed of mGluR2 or mGluR3 respectively. In conclusion, glutamate-induced conformational changes in heterodimers appear within each group and between groups if one group II subunit is present.
Taulant Kukaj, Christian Sattler, Thomas Zimmer, Ralf Schmauder, Klaus Benndorf

1720 related Products with: Kinetic fingerprinting of metabotropic glutamate receptors.

100 50 UG400/kit100 tests50 ug 150 Tests / Kit25 Units240/kit60/kit240/kit100 ml400 Tests / Kit

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#36707679   2023/01/27 To Up

Virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into repurposing drugs against SARS-CoV-2 variants Spike protein/ACE2 interface.

After over two years of living with Covid-19 and hundreds of million cases worldwide there is still an unmet need to find proper treatments for the novel coronavirus, due also to the rapid mutation of its genome. In this context, a drug repositioning study has been performed, using in silico tools targeting Delta Spike protein/ACE2 interface. To this aim, it has been virtually screened a library composed by 4388 approved drugs through a deep learning-based QSAR model to identify protein-protein interactions modulators for molecular docking against Spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Binding energies of predicted complexes were calculated by Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area from docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Four out of the top twenty ranking compounds showed stable binding modes on Delta Spike RBD and were evaluated also for their effectiveness against Omicron. Among them an antihistaminic drug, fexofenadine, revealed very low binding energy, stable complex, and interesting interactions with Delta Spike RBD. Several antihistaminic drugs were found to exhibit direct antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and their mechanisms of action is still debated. This study not only highlights the potential of our computational methodology for a rapid screening of variant-specific drugs, but also represents a further tool for investigating properties and mechanisms of selected drugs.
Davide Pirolli, Benedetta Righino, Chiara Camponeschi, Francesco Ria, Gabriele Di Sante, Maria Cristina De Rosa

1021 related Products with: Virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into repurposing drugs against SARS-CoV-2 variants Spike protein/ACE2 interface.

0.1 mg100 100 100 100 100 300 20 ug Product tipe: Antib200 25ml 100ug Lyophilized250ul

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#36707671   2023/01/27 To Up

Low-volume label-free SARS-CoV-2 detection with the microcavity-based optical fiber sensor.

Accurate and fast detection of viruses is crucial for controlling outbreaks of many diseases; therefore, to date, numerous sensing systems for their detection have been studied. On top of the performance of these sensing systems, the availability of biorecognition elements specific to especially the new etiological agents is an additional fundamental challenge. Therefore, besides high sensitivity and selectivity, such advantages as the size of the sensor and possibly low volume of analyzed samples are also important, especially at the stage of evaluating the receptor-target interactions in the case of new etiological agents when typically, only tiny amounts of the receptor are available for testing. This work introduces a real-time, highly miniaturized sensing solution based on microcavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (μIMZI) induced in optical fiber for SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles detection. The assay is designed to detect conserved regions of the SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in a sample with a volume as small as hundreds of picoliters, reaching the detection limit at the single ng per mL level.
Monika Janik, Tomasz Gabler, Marcin Koba, Mirosława Panasiuk, Yanina Dashkevich, Tomasz Łęga, Agnieszka Dąbrowska, Antonina Naskalska, Sabina Żołędowska, Dawid Nidzworski, Krzysztof Pyrć, Beata Gromadzka, Mateusz Śmietana

1411 related Products with: Low-volume label-free SARS-CoV-2 detection with the microcavity-based optical fiber sensor.

2x96 well plates2x96 well plate130 Samples100tests50 mg96 wells 1KG2x96 well plates

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#36707633   2023/01/27 To Up

TLR4 and MD2 variation among horses with differential TNFα baseline concentrations and response to intravenous lipopolysaccharide infusion.

Gram-negative bacterial septicemia is mediated through binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mammalian toll-like receptor protein 4 (TLR4). TLR4 and its cognate protein, myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) form a heterodimeric complex after binding LPS. This complex induces a cascade of reactions that results in increased proinflammatory cytokine gene expression, including TNFα, which leads to activation of innate immunity. In horses, the immune response to LPS varies widely. To determine if this variation is due to differences in TLR4 or MD2, DNA from 15 healthy adult horses with different TNFα dynamics after experimental intravenous LPS infusion was sequenced across exons of TLR4 and MD2. Haplotypes were constructed for both genes using all identified variants. Four haplotypes were observed for each gene. No significant associations were found between either TNFα baseline concentrations or response to LPS and haplotype; however, there was a significant association (P value = 0.0460) between the baseline TNFα concentration and one MD2 missense variant. Three-dimensional structures of the equine TLR4-MD2-LPS complex were built according to haplotype combinations observed in the study horses, and the implications of missense variants on LPS binding were modeled. Although the sample size was small, there was no evidence that variation in TLR4 or MD2 explains the variability in TNFα response observed after LPS exposure in horses.
Abhijit Mukhopadhyay, Shawna R Cook, Phillip SanMiguel, Kari J Ekenstedt, Sandra D Taylor

1720 related Products with: TLR4 and MD2 variation among horses with differential TNFα baseline concentrations and response to intravenous lipopolysaccharide infusion.