Search results for: Rectum
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Associations between an MDM2 gene polymorphism and ulcerative colitis by ARMS-PCR.Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon and rectum. The abnormal lesions in the digestive system caused by ulcerative colitis and intermittent colitis are of major clinical importance. MDM2 is a phospho-protein that functions as a ubiquitin ligase for p53. Recently, a T>G substitution in the promoter of the MDM2 gene (rs309) has been identified. In this case-control study, 174 ulcerative colitis biopsy samples and 82 control samples were collected from colonoscopy centers, hospitals, and clinics in Mazandaran and Gilan Provinces in Iran from October 2014 to May 2015. This MDM2 polymorphism was investigated in DNA samples (extracted from biopsy samples) by amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. The mean age of patients with ulcerative colitis was 46.5 years (range, 28 to 69 years) and that of control individuals was 45.3 years (range, 26 to 71 years). Seventy-eight patients (44.82%) were men and 96 (55.18%) were women. The distribution of the TT, TG, and GG genotypes was 17.93%, 27.59%, and 34.48%, respectively, in the ulcerative colitis patients and 31.70%, 24.40%, and 43.90%, respectively, in the control individuals (odds ratio of GG for ulcerative colitis, 7.142; 95% confidence interval, 2.400 to 9.542; p = 0.001). It was found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism at rs309 in the MDM2 gene was associated with ulcerative colitis. A direct relationship was found between age and ulcerative colitis, while no relationship was found with sex. This finding is of note because the occurrence of intestinal inflammation and subsequent ulcers can precede the development of cancer.
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The impact of sarcopenia and myosteatosis on postoperative outcomes and 5-year survival in curatively operated colorectal cancer patients - A retrospective register study.The aim of this study was to evaluate whether sarcopenia or myosteatosis have an impact on short- and long-term results in patients who were surgically treated for colorectal cancer.
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Quality of treatment and surgical approach for rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) in a large European cohort.Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare tumours. Variability in the management may influence outcome, but there is a lack of understanding regarding contemporary variance in care. A multicenter, international, retrospective cohort study was performed to elucidate characteristics and outcomes of rectal GIST in European practice, with particular reference to surgical approach.
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Inhibition of Ferroptosis Attenuates Acute Kidney Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis.Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Ferroptosis is involved in a range of diseases. However, the role of ferroptosis in SAP-induced AKI has yet to be elucidated.
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Colorectal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland: A case report.Secondary malignancies of the thyroid gland are a rare finding in clinical practice. In addition, colorectal metastasis to the thyroid (CMT) is even more infrequently diagnosed. The source of the primary tumor follows demographic and ethnic patterns, which reflects the most prevalent malignancies in the different populations. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide; nevertheless, CMT is infrequently diagnosed. Most of them are identified during the follow-up of gastrointestinal primary malignancies. Due to the improvement of image techniques, oncological treatment, and follow-up, survival and consequent diagnosis of metastatic disease are more frequent. Those facts make this entity a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, due to the lack of information and the difficulties performing clinical trials and research.
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Proctitis: a glance beyond inflammatory bowel diseases.Proctitis is an inflammation involving the anus and the distal part of the rectum, frequently diagnosed in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Nevertheless, when the standard therapy for IBD is ineffective, it becomes necessary for the clinician to review alternative etiologies, beginning from the broad chapter of infectious causes up to rare causes such as radiation, ischemia, diversion and traumatisms. While it is possible to find infectious proctitides caused by pathogens generally inducing extensive colitis, the growing incidence of both sexually transmitted infections and isolated proctitis reported in the recent years require a lot of attention. The risk appears to be higher in individuals participating in anal intercourse, especially men having sex with men (MSM) or subjects who use sex toys and participate to sex parties, dark rooms and so on. The commonest implicated pathogens are Neysseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes Simplex virus and Treponema pallidum. Herpes and Chlamydia infections mainly occur in HIV-positive MSM patients. Since symptoms and signs are common independently from etiology, performing a differential diagnosis based on clinical manifestations is complicated. Therefore, the diagnosis is supported by the combination of clinical history and physical examination and, secondly, by endoscopic, serologic and microbiologic findings. Particular emphasis should be given to simultaneous infections by multiple organisms. The involvement of experts in infectious diseases and in sexual health is crucial for the diagnostic and therapeutic management. The available therapies, empirically initiated or specific, in many cases are able to guarantee a good prognosis and to prevent relapses.
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Family History is Associated with Recurrent Diverticulitis After an Episode of Diverticulitis Managed Nonoperatively.To date, the impact of family history on diverticulitis outcomes has been poorly described.
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Patient-Reported Bowel Function in Patients with Rectal Cancer Managed by a Watch-and-Wait Strategy after Neoadjuvant Therapy: A Case-Control Study.A watch-and-wait strategy is a nonoperative alternative to sphincter-preserving surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who achieve a clinical complete response after neoadjuvant therapy. There are limited data about bowel function for patients undergoing this organ-preservation approach.
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The Role of the Immune Infiltrate in Distinct Cancer Types and Its Clinical Implications : Lymphocytic Infiltration in Colorectal Cancer.Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a major public health challenges, with one of the highest incidences worldwide. The two affected anatomical sites in CRC, i.e. the colon and the rectum, share important underlying features, but often differ in terms of therapeutic management. Current guidelines for CRC define its clinical stratification according to classical, tumor cell-based and pathological parameters. Novel ground-breaking findings in the recent years revealed the prominent role of the immune system in shaping CRC development. This chapter provides a detailed overview of the main genomic and immune features driving (or hampering) CRC progression, with a focus on the main immune cells and factors shaping its evolution. Furthermore, we discuss how tumor-infiltrating immunity could be leveraged both for therapeutic and stratification purposes.
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection involving the anal canal presents a risk factor for postoperative stricture.Although postoperative strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the rectum are relatively rare, some rectal lesions require resection involving the anal canal, which is a narrow tract comprising squamous epithelium. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have investigated narrow anal canals when evaluating post-ESD strictures. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of resections involving the anal canal on postoperative stricture development.
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