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#35973513 2022/08/13 To Up
Proximity labeling of endogenous RICTOR identifies mTOR Complex 2 regulation by ADP ribosylation factor ARF1.Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell survival. mTORC2 activity is stimulated by growth factors, and it phosphorylates the hydrophobic motif site of the AGC kinases AKT, SGK, and PKC. However, the proteins that interact with mTORC2 to control its activity and localization remain poorly defined. To identify mTORC2 interacting proteins in living cells, we tagged endogenous RICTOR, an essential mTORC2 subunit, with the modified BirA biotin ligase BioID2 and performed live-cell proximity labeling. We identified 215 RICTOR-proximal proteins, including proteins with known mTORC2 pathway interactions, and 135 proteins (63%) not previously linked to mTORC2 signaling, including nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Our imaging and cell fractionation experiments suggest nearly 30% of RICTOR is in the nucleus, hinting at potential nuclear functions. We also identified 29 interactors containing RICTOR-dependent, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation sites, thus providing insight into mTORC2-dependent insulin signaling dynamics. Finally, we identify the endogenous ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) GTPase as an mTORC2-interacting protein. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies, we provide functional evidence that ARF1 may negatively regulate mTORC2. In summary, we present a new method of studying endogenous mTORC2, a resource of RICTOR/mTORC2 protein interactions in living cells, and a potential mechanism of mTORC2 regulation by the ARF1 GTPase.
Amelia K Luciano, Ekaterina Korobkina, Scott P Lyons, John A Haley, Shelagh Fluharty, Su Myung Jung, Arminja N Kettenbach, David A Guertin
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#35961320 2022/08/04 To Up
Neuroinflammatory disease disrupts the blood-CNS barrier via crosstalk between proinflammatory and endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition signaling.Breakdown of the blood-central nervous system barrier (BCNSB) is a hallmark of many neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Using a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we show that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) occurs in the CNS before the onset of clinical symptoms and plays a major role in the breakdown of BCNSB function. EndoMT can be induced by an IL-1Î²-stimulated signaling pathway in which activation of the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) leads to crosstalk with the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-SMAD1/5 pathway. Inhibiting the activation of ARF6 both prevents and reverses EndoMT, stabilizes BCNSB function, reduces demyelination, and attenuates symptoms even after the establishment of severe EAE, without immunocompromising the host. Pan-inhibition of ALKs also reduces disease severity in the EAE model. Therefore, multiple components of the IL-1Î²-ARF6-ALK-SMAD1/5 pathway could be targeted for the treatment of a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders.
Zhonglou Sun, Helong Zhao, Daniel Fang, Chadwick T Davis, Dallas S Shi, Kachon Lei, Bianca E Rich, Jacob M Winter, Li Guo, Lise K Sorensen, Robert J Pryor, Nina Zhu, Samuel Lu, Laura L Dickey, Daniel J Doty, Zongzhong Tong, Kirk R Thomas, Alan L Mueller, Allie H Grossmann, Baowei Zhang, Thomas E Lane, Robert S Fujinami, Shannon J Odelberg, Weiquan Zhu