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Reevaluating the Mutation Classification in Genetic Studies of Bradycardia Using ACMG/AMP Variant Classification Framework.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become more accessible, leading to an increasing number of genetic studies of familial bradycardia being reported. However, most of the variants lack full evaluation. The relationship between genetic factors and bradycardia should be summarized and reevaluated.

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Modulation of the cardiac sodium channel Na1.5 peak and late currents by NAD precursors.

The cardiac sodium channel Na1.5, encoded by SCN5A, produces the rapidly inactivating depolarizing current I that is responsible for the initiation and propagation of the cardiac action potential. Acquired and inherited dysfunction of Na1.5 results in either decreased peak I or increased residual late I (I), leading to tachy/bradyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Previous studies have shown that increased cellular NAD and NAD/NADH ratio increase I through suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and PKC-mediated Na1.5 phosphorylation. In addition, NAD-dependent deacetylation of Na1.5 at K1479 by Sirtuin 1 increases Na1.5 membrane trafficking and I. The role of NAD precursors in modulating I remains unknown.

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Loss of insulin signaling may contribute to atrial fibrillation and atrial electrical remodeling in type 1 diabetes.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent in diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the basis for this is unknown. This study investigated AF susceptibility and atrial electrophysiology in type 1 diabetic Akita mice using in vivo intracardiac electrophysiology, high-resolution optical mapping in atrial preparations, and patch clamping in isolated atrial myocytes. qPCR and western blotting were used to assess ion channel expression. Akita mice were highly susceptible to AF in association with increased P-wave duration and slowed atrial conduction velocity. In a second model of type 1 DM, mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) showed a similar increase in susceptibility to AF. Chronic insulin treatment reduced susceptibility and duration of AF and shortened P-wave duration in Akita mice. Atrial action potential (AP) morphology was altered in Akita mice due to a reduction in upstroke velocity and increases in AP duration. In Akita mice, atrial Na current (I) and repolarizing K current (I) carried by voltage gated K (K1.5) channels were reduced. The reduction in I occurred in association with reduced expression of and voltage gated Na (Na1.5) channels as well as a shift in I activation kinetics. Insulin potently and selectively increased I in Akita mice without affecting I Chronic insulin treatment increased I in association with increased expression of Na1.5. Acute insulin also increased I, although to a smaller extent, due to enhanced insulin signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP). Our study reveals a critical, selective role for insulin in regulating atrial I, which impacts susceptibility to AF in type 1 DM.

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Brugada Syndrome Caused by Sodium Channel Dysfunction Associated with a SCN1B Variant A197V.

We aimed to identify and characterize a SCN1B variant, A197V, associated with Brugada Syndrome (BrS).

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SCN5A mutation and a short coupled variant of Torsades de Pointes originating from the right ventricle: A case report.

A 40-year-old male visited our institute complaining of transient loss of consciousness. He had been implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) due to idiopathic ventricular fibrillation for secondary prevention. His past genetic screening detected a single nucleotide SCN5A mutation (pR18Q), while neither QT prolongation nor ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads was observed. An interrogation of the ICD revealed that a shock therapy successfully terminated ventricular fibrillation at the time syncope occurred. His electrocardiogram revealed ventricular premature contractions (VPCs) with a short coupling interval of 250 ms. Since the spontaneous occurrence of non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia following the same VPCs was observed after admission, he was diagnosed with a short-coupled variant of Torsades de Pointes (ScTdP). Contact mapping on the basal inferior right ventricular free wall, exhibiting the earliest activation, revealed pre-potentials preceding the QRS by 30 ms during the VPCs. Radiofrequency ablation was performed to reduce the triggering VPCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a case of ScTdP harboring an SCN5A mutation. The present N-terminally mutated SCN5A was originally reported in relation to Brugada syndrome, whereas the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated.

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Explaining sudden infant death with cardiac arrhythmias: Complete exon sequencing of nine cardiac arrhythmia genes in Dutch SIDS cases highlights new and known DNA variants.

Previous studies suggested that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) can partially be genetically explained by cardiac arrhythmias; however, the number of individuals and populations investigated remain limited. We report the first SIDS study on cardiac arrhythmias genes from the Netherlands, a country with the lowest SIDS incidence likely due to parent education on awareness of environmental risk factors. By using targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) in 142 Dutch SIDS cases, we performed a complete exon screening of all 173 exons from 9 cardiac arrhythmias genes SCN5A, KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, CACNA1C, CAV3, ANK2 and KCNJ2 (∼34,000 base pairs), that were selected to harbour previously established SIDS-associated DNA variants. Motivated by the poor DNA quality from the paraffin embedded material used, the application of a conservative sequencing quality control protocol resulted in 102 SIDS cases surviving quality control. Amongst the 102 SIDS cases, we identified a total of 40 DNA variants in 8 cardiac arrhythmia genes found in 60 (58.8 %) cases. Statistical analyses using ancestry-adjusted reference population data and multiple test correction revealed that 13 (32.5 %) of the identified DNA variants in 6 cardiac arrhythmia genes were significantly associated with SIDS, which were observed in 15 (14.7 %) SIDS cases. These 13, and another three, DNA variants were classified as likely pathogenic for cardiac arrhythmias using the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for interpretation of sequence variants. The 16 likely pathogenic DNA variants were found in 16 (15.7 %) SIDS cases, including i) 3 novel DNA variants not recorded in public databases ii) 7 known DNA variants for which significant SIDS association established here was previously unknown, and iii) 6 known DNA variants for which LQTS association was reported previously. By having replicated previously reported SIDS-associated DNA variants located in cardiac arrhythmia genes and by having highlighting novel SIDS-associated DNA variants in such genes, our findings provide additional empirical evidence for the partial genetic explanation of SIDS by cardiac arrhythmias. On a wider note, our study outcome stresses the need for routine post-mortem genetic screening of assumed SIDS cases, particularly for cardiac arrhythmia genes. When put in practise, it will allow preventing further sudden deaths (not only in infants) in the affected families, thereby allowing forensic molecular autopsy not only to provide answers on the cause of death, but moreover to save lives.

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Brugada Syndrome: Oligogenic or Mendelian Disease?

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is diagnosed by a coved-type ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads on the electrocardiogram (ECG), and it is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) compared to the general population. Although BrS is considered a genetic disease, its molecular mechanism remains elusive in about 70-85% of clinically-confirmed cases. Variants occurring in at least 26 different genes have been previously considered causative, although the causative effect of all but the gene has been recently challenged, due to the lack of systematic, evidence-based evaluations, such as a variant's frequency among the general population, family segregation analyses, and functional studies. Also, variants within a particular gene can be associated with an array of different phenotypes, even within the same family, preventing a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. Moreover, an emerging concept is that a single mutation may not be enough to cause the BrS phenotype, due to the increasing number of common variants now thought to be clinically relevant. Thus, not only the complete list of genes causative of the BrS phenotype remains to be determined, but also the interplay between rare and common multiple variants. This is particularly true for some common polymorphisms whose roles have been recently re-evaluated by outstanding works, including considering for the first time ever a polygenic risk score derived from the heterozygous state for both common and rare variants. The more common a certain variant is, the less impact this variant might have on heart function. We are aware that further studies are warranted to validate a polygenic risk score, because there is no mutated gene that connects all, or even a majority, of BrS cases. For the same reason, it is currently impossible to create animal and cell line genetic models that represent all BrS cases, which would enable the expansion of studies of this syndrome. Thus, the best model at this point is the human patient population. Further studies should first aim to uncover genetic variants within individuals, as well as to collect family segregation data to identify potential genetic causes of BrS.

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