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Genome-Wide Association Study of Body Weight Traits in Chinese Fine-Wool Sheep.

Body weight is an important economic trait for sheep and it is vital for their successful production and breeding. Therefore, identifying the genomic regions and biological pathways that contribute to understanding variability in body weight traits is significant for selection purposes. In this study, the genome-wide associations of birth, weaning, yearling, and adult weights of 460 fine-wool sheep were determined using resequencing technology. The results showed that 113 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached the genome-wide significance levels for the four body weight traits and 30 genes were annotated effectively, including , , , and . The genes annotated by these SNPs significantly enriched 78 gene ontology terms and 25 signaling pathways, and were found to mainly participate in skeletal muscle development and lipid metabolism. These genes can be used as candidate genes for body weight in sheep, and provide useful information for the production and genomic selection of Chinese fine-wool sheep.

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Hepatic gene expression variations in response to high-fat diet-induced impaired glucose tolerance using RNAseq analysis in collaborative cross mouse population.

Hepatic gene expression is known to differ between healthy and type 2 diabetes conditions. Identifying these variations will provide better knowledge to the development of gene-targeted therapies. The aim of this study is to assess diet-induced hepatic gene expression of susceptible versus resistant CC lines to T2D development. Next-generation RNA-sequencing was performed for 84 livers of diabetic and non-diabetic mice of 41 different CC lines (both sexes) following 12 weeks on high-fat diet (42% fat). Data analysis revealed significant variations of hepatic gene expression in diabetic versus non-diabetic mice with significant sex effect, where 601 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in overall population (males and females), 718 genes in female mice, and 599 genes in male mice. Top prioritized DE candidate genes were Lepr, Ins2, Mb, Ckm, Mrap2, and Ckmt2 for the overall population; for females-only group were Hdc, Serpina12, Socs1, Socs2, and Mb, while for males-only group were Serpine1, Mb, Ren1, Slc4a1, and Atp2a1. Data analysis for sex differences revealed 193 DE genes in health (Top: Lepr, Cav1, Socs2, Abcg2, and Col5a3), and 389 genes DE between diabetic females versus males (Top: Lepr, Clps, Ins2, Cav1, and Mrap2). Furthermore, integrating gene expression results with previously published QTL, we identified significant variants mapped at chromosomes at positions 36-49 Mb, 62-71 Mb, and 79-99 Mb, on chromosomes 9, 11, and 12, respectively. Our findings emphasize the complexity of T2D development and that significantly controlled by host complex genetic factors. As well, we demonstrate the significant sex differences between males and females during health and increasing to extent levels during disease/diabetes. Altogether, opening the venue for further studies targets the discovery of effective sex-specific and personalized preventions and therapies.

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The adipokine vaspin reduces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-3B) cells, associated with lower levels of NO and superoxide anion.

Among adipose-derived factors, adipocytokines play roles as hormones and signaling mediators for apoptotic pathway. Among of them, vaspin, regulates the metabolism of adipose tissue itself as an endocrine organ, and stimulates adipocytes to maturation, differentiation, etc. Damaged adipocytes, present in obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) respond with over-production of inflammatory cytokines. Such pro-inflammatory stimulation remains under adipokine control. Pro-inflammatory pathways are connected to oxidative stress and apoptosis, reported as co-existing with an elevated level of some adipokines in cancer cell lines. However, some hormones, such as vaspin, reduce apoptosis, have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles in cancer cell lines.

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Are Omentin Rs2274907 and Vaspin Rs2236242 Gene Polymorphisms Related to Body Composition, Lipid Profile and Other Adipokines in Prepubertal Healthy Children?

: So far no research concerning the omentin-1 ( rs2274907 and vaspin ( rs2236242 polymorphisms has been carried out in a healthy pediatric population. We analyzed associations of these polymorphisms with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, as well as adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels in prepubertal healthy children, to search for their possible role in the risk of obesity and obesity-related disorders.: Frequencies of these polymorphisms were analyzed by the restriction fragment length polymorphism in 89 normal-weight children. The body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum levels of adipokines were measured using ELISA methods.: We observed differences in values of HDL-cholesterol ( = 0.002) and triglycerides ( = 0.039) in children carrying different genotypes of the rs2274907 polymorphism. In children carrying different genotypes of the rs2236242 polymorphism differences in BMI ( =0.025) and BMI Z-score ( = 0.01) values were found. Significant relations between anthropometric parameters and levels of HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were associated with minor alleles of the studied polymorphisms. In addition, leptin/sOB-R ratio was related to HDL-cholesterol ( = 0.004) and triglycerides ( = 0.03) levels in children carrying minor allele of the rs2236242 SNP.: We suggest that both rs2274907 and rs2236242 polymorphisms influence body composition and lipid profile in prepubertal healthy children. Relations between anthropometric parameters, lipid and adipokine levels may be associated with minor alleles of the studied polymorphisms. The possible role of these polymorphisms in the modulation of the risk of obesity and obesity-related disorders in the later life might be considered.

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Vaspin in Serum and Urine of Post-Partum Women with Excessive Gestational Weight Gain.

: Data concerning vaspin in obstetric aspects are limited and conflicting. The aim of the study was to evaluate vaspin concentrations in the serum and urine of women with excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) in the early post-partum period (i.e., 48 h after delivery), when placental function no longer influences the results. : The study subjects were divided into two groups of 28 healthy controls and 38 mothers with EGWG. Maternal body composition and hydration status were evaluated by the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Concentrations of vaspin, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), leptin, and ghrelin were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). : Serum vaspin levels were lower in the EGWG group, whereas no significant differences were noted between the groups, with regard to the urine vaspin concentrations. In both studied groups, the serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with the urine FABP4 levels and negatively with gestational weight gain, body mass index gain in the period from pre-pregnancy to 48 h after delivery (ΔBMI), and fat tissue index (FTI). In the multiple linear regression models, the serum vaspin concentrations were positively dependent on the serum FABP4 levels, as well as negatively dependent on triglycerides, FTI, and ΔBMI. : Our study revealed that the EGWG mothers were characterized by significantly lower serum vaspin concentrations in the early post-partum period compared with the subjects that had appropriate gestational weight gain. Our observation supports previous hypotheses that vaspin might be used as a marker of lipid metabolism in pregnancy and maternal adipose tissue. Considering the fact that FABP4 is widely referred to as a pro-inflammatory adipokine, further research on the protective role of vaspin seems crucial, especially in the context of its relationship to FABP4.

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Circulating Adipokine VASPIN Is Associated with Serum Lipid Profiles in Humans.

VASPIN, visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin, is an adipokine ameliorating insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we investigated the role of VASPIN and its genetic variants in lipid metabolism. We measured serum VASPIN concentrations by ELISA in 823 metabolically well-characterized Caucasian subjects (Sorbs from Germany). Furthermore, we genotyped 30 representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in two independent cohorts with metabolic phenotyping, the Sorbs (N = 823) and Leipzig (N = 919), and conducted genotype-phenotype association analyses. Circulating VASPIN strongly correlated with triacylglycerol levels (TAG; p = 1.079 × 10 ), and moderately with apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.026). Genetic variants in VASPIN were nominally associated with cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein (HDL-chol, LDL-chol), lipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B as well as with TAG and free fatty acids (all p < 0.05 adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index [BMI]). Mendelian randomization analysis using VASPIN SNP as an instrumental variable showed borderline influence of VASPIN on LDL-chol levels (p = 0.05). Associations of VASPIN and its genetic variation with metabolic traits suggest a role of VASPIN in human lipid metabolism.

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Vaspin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and apolipoprotein levels in patients with psoriatic arthritis.

To examine the relationship between disease activity and vaspin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and apolipoprotein levels in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

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Serum Vaspin as a Predictor of Adverse Cardiac Events in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Background The involvement of vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin) in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been documented. This study was designed to explore the prognostic value of serum vaspin in patients with acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ). Methods and Results We included 1036 AMI patients in a cohort study and determined the association between serum vaspin and major adverse cardiac events ( MACE ) using Cox regression analysis. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that serum vaspin could significantly differentiate patients with MACE , and the optimal cutoff value was 0.62 ng/mL. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with lower vaspin levels had higher incidence of MACE . Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that low vaspin was an independent predictor of MACE (hazard ratio: 0.74; 95% CI , 0.48-0.96; P=0.029), together with age; previous histories of AMI , heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; Killip class; revascularization; CRP (C-reactive protein); and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). Integrated discrimination and net reclassification improvements for MACE were significantly improved by addition of vaspin to the model of traditional risk factors. Moreover, low vaspin was a valuable predictor of heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% CI , 0.37-0.89; P=0.005) and recurrent AMI (hazard ratio: 0.72; 95% CI , 0.53-0.95; P=0.036) after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that serum vaspin is a significant prognostic marker of MACE in AMI patients.

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Nesfatin-1 and Vaspin as Potential Novel Biomarkers for the Prediction and Early Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered to be one of the most frequent medical complication observed among pregnant women. The role of adipokines in the pathogenesis of GDM remains strictly unknown. Different adipokines have been studied throughout gestation, and they have been proposed as biomarkers of GDM and other pregnancy-related complications; however, there is no biomarker reported for GDM screening at present. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum nesfatin-1 and vaspin levels in GDM and non-GDM women, to characterize the correlation between these adipokines, and to assess the potential role of circulating adipokines in the prediction of risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Serum concentrations of nesfatin-1 and vaspin were measured in 153 women with GDM, and in 84 patients with uncomplicated pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Circulating levels of nesfatin-1 and vaspin were significantly lower in the GDM group than in the control group. Nesfatin-1 levels were negatively correlated with vaspin levels. The results of this study point out the possible role of nesfatin-1 and vaspin as potential novel biomarkers for the prediction and early diagnosis of GDM. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the influence of nesfatin-1 and vaspin on glucose metabolism in the early stages of GDM.

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