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Search results for: Recombinant Human IL-6

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#33844642   2021/04/09 To Up

Lactoferrin for the treatment of age-associated inflammation - A pilot study.

Chronic inflammation (CI) is a common trait of aging associated with adverse outcomes including mortality. We hypothesized that recombinant human Lactoferrin (rhLf) would reduce chronic inflammation of aging.
T Laskow, J Langdon, P Abadir, Q-L Xue, J Walston

2197 related Products with: Lactoferrin for the treatment of age-associated inflammation - A pilot study.

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#33812253   2021/03/31 To Up

BMP9 promotes methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in non-obese mice by enhancing NF-κB dependent macrophage polarization.

Our previous study confirmed that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) participated in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by affecting macrophage polarization. The focus of this study was to further confirm the role of macrophages in BMP9-mediated NASH and to analyze the underlying mechanism. In vivo, mice that were administered adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors containing a null transgene (AAV-null) or the BMP9 transgene (AAV-BMP9) were divided into methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) and control diet (CD) groups, and they were administered either control liposomes or clodronate liposomes via tail vein injection, the latter to deplete macrophages. The mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks of MCD diet feeding. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with or without BAY11-7085 (an NF-κB inhibitor) and stimulated with recombinant human BMP9 (rh-BMP9). To explore the underlying mechanism of action of BMP9, primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were additionally investigated and immunohistochemistry, biochemical assays, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting were used. The characteristics of NASH-related inflammation were assessed by hepatic histological analysis. Serum AST and ALT and hepatic triglyceride were examined by biochemical assays. We found that the expression of M1 macrophage genes (including CD86, IL1β, IL6, MCP-1 and TNFα) and the number of M1 macrophages (iNOS macrophages) in the liver were significantly elevated after BMP9 overexpression and BMP9 directly upregulated TLR4 expression in MCD-induced NASH. These effects were eliminated by macrophage depletion. In vitro, we discovered that BMP9 enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB to induce macrophage M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and it promoted LPS-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway in primary human macrophages. Taken together, this study demonstrates that BMP9 promotes NASH development by directly acting on macrophages.
Qianqian Jiang, Qi Li, Beibei Liu, Guixin Li, Gabriel Riedemann, Haristi Gaitantzi, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Ajuan Zeng, Huiguo Ding, Keshu Xu

2676 related Products with: BMP9 promotes methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in non-obese mice by enhancing NF-κB dependent macrophage polarization.

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#33484391   2021/01/23 To Up

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in interleukin-6 attenuates hepatocytes injury in hypoxia/re-oxygenation via STAT3 signal pathway mediated autophagy.

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is inevitable during liver surgery, and it is an important factor affecting the prognosis of patients. IL-6 rs1800796 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can promote synthesis and secretion of IL-6 and protect hepatocytes from IRI. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which IL-6 alleviates hepatic IRI. We transfected lentivirus which carries IL-6 rs1800796 to L02 cells and constructed the cell line (L02-IL6) with a high expression of IL-6. The biological function of IL-6 SNPs was explored through a cell model of hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R). Cell viability was evaluated by CCK8 and Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA), and found that the viability of the L02-IL6 cells was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). Flow cytometry assay showed that the rate of apoptosis was significantly decreased in L02-IL6 cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the control group, the level of cleaved-caspase3, which is an important marker of apoptosis, was dramatically decreased. These differences showed that the sequence variants at rs1800796 of the IL-6 gene could improve the resistance against H/R. Moreover, the levels of autophagy-related proteins, such as LC3 and Beclin-1, were upregulated in L02-IL6 group on H/R injury, which means IL-6 could alleviate apoptosis via activating the autophagy pathway. And we also found that the STAT3 signal pathway was activated. Next, we investigated whether the exogenous treatment with IL-6 affect hepatocytes and thus play a protective role. We pre-treated the L02 cells with recombinant human IL-6 for 12 h and then made H/R treatment. We found the treatment with 100 ng/ml IL-6 alleviated the damage of L02 cells and inhibited the apoptosis. And the further study revealed the pre-treatment with IL-6 activated the STAT3 signaling pathway in the L02 cells and then caused the activation of autophagy and apoptosis inhibition. IL-6 might play a critical role in alleviating hepatic IRI, through its modulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway, and activation of autophagy. Recombinant human IL-6 might be a potential therapeutic target in hepatic IRI.
Hongwei Tang, Hongbo Fang, Wenzhi Guo, Shengli Cao, Danfeng Guo, Huapeng Zhang, Jie Gao, Shuijun Zhang

2289 related Products with: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in interleukin-6 attenuates hepatocytes injury in hypoxia/re-oxygenation via STAT3 signal pathway mediated autophagy.

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#33407301   2021/01/06 To Up

Elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the synovial tissue of patients with labral tear: a comparative study with hip osteoarthritis.

Labral tear can be the initiating factor in the onset of hip osteoarthritis (HOA). However, the physiopathology of labral tear is not fully understood. Our aim was to compare synovial tissue inflammatory cytokine levels between patients with labral tear and late-stage HOA.
Tomohisa Koyama, Kentaro Uchida, Kensuke Fukushima, Yoshihisa Ohashi, Katsufumi Uchiyama, Gen Inoue, Naonobu Takahira, Masashi Takaso

1832 related Products with: Elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the synovial tissue of patients with labral tear: a comparative study with hip osteoarthritis.



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#33280498   2020/12/17 To Up

RNF186 regulates EFNB1 (ephrin B1)-EPHB2-induced autophagy in the colonic epithelial cells for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

Although genome-wide association studies have identified the gene encoding an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase as conferring susceptibility to ulcerative colitis, the exact function of this protein remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate an important role for RNF186 in macroautophagy/autophagy activation in colonic epithelial cells and intestinal homeostasis. Mechanistically, RNF186 acts as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase for EPHB2 and regulates the ubiquitination of EPHB2. Upon stimulation by ligand EFNB1 (ephrin B1), EPHB2 is ubiquitinated by RNF186 at Lys892, and further recruits MAP1LC3B for autophagy. Compared to control mice, and mice have a more severe phenotype in the DSS-induced colitis model, which is due to a defect in autophagy in colon epithelial cells. More importantly, treatment with ephrin-B1-Fc recombinant protein effectively relieves DSS-induced mouse colitis, which suggests that ephrin-B1-Fc may be a potential therapy for human inflammatory bowel diseases.: ACTB: actin beta; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; Cas9: CRISPR associated protein 9; CD: Crohn disease; CQ: chloroquine; : colony stimulating factor 2; : c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 1; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; DSS: dextran sodium sulfate; EFNB1: ephrin B1; EPHB2: EPH receptor B2; EPHB3: EPH receptor B3; EPHB2: lysine 788 mutated to arginine in EPHB2; EPHB2: lysine 892 mutated to arginine in EPHB2; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GWAS: genome-wide association studies; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; HSPA5/BiP: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; IBD: inflammatory bowel diseases; : interleukin 1 beta; : interleukin 6; IRGM:immunity related GTPase M; i.p.: intraperitoneally; IPP: inorganic pyrophosphatase; KD: knockdown; KO: knockout; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NOD2: nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; RNF186: ring finger protein 186; RNF186: alanine 64 mutated to threonine in RNF186; RNF186: arginine 179 mutated to X in RNF186; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; : tumor necrosis factor; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; Ub: ubiquitin; UBE2D2: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 D2; UBE2H: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 H; UBE2K: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 K; UBE2N: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 N; UC: ulcerative colitis; ULK1:unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WT: wild type.
Huazhi Zhang, Zhihui Cui, Du Cheng, Yanyun Du, Xiaoli Guo, Ru Gao, Jianwen Chen, Wanwei Sun, Ruirui He, Xiaojian Ma, Qianwen Peng, Bradley N Martin, Wei Yan, Yueguang Rong, Chenhui Wang

2953 related Products with: RNF186 regulates EFNB1 (ephrin B1)-EPHB2-induced autophagy in the colonic epithelial cells for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

96 assays196 wells1mg

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#33248276   2020/11/25 To Up

Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with impaired autophagic degradation via interleukin-6 in macrophages.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease associated with dysregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and autophagy. Although such disturbances are increasingly recognized in patients with SLE and animal models of the disease, little is known about the specific role of IL-6 and autophagy in SLE macrophages. Here, we investigated alterations in the IL-6 axis and autophagy in macrophages derived from patients with SLE and determined whether IL-6 modulates autophagy using human macrophage models. Serum IL-6 detected by ELISA was higher in SLE patients (n = 19) than in normal controls (n = 19, p < 0.001). Levels of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and autophagic markers LC3B and p62 in SLE and normal macrophages were assessed by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Compared with normal macrophages, SLE macrophages not only overexpressed IL-6Rs but also exhibited impaired autophagic degradation as evidenced by elevated levels of LC3B and p62. In vitro analyses using macrophage models revealed that prolonged exposure to exogenous recombinant human IL-6 induced a marked impairment of autophagic degradation indicated by elevated levels of LC3B and p62 in both primary macrophages and transformed macrophages. Pretreatment with tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody, restored autophagic degradation and reversed p62 accumulation in a paracrine manner in macrophages. These findings demonstrate that SLE involves IL-6-induced impairment of autophagic degradation through augmentation of IL-6R in human macrophages.
Hui-Ching Hsu, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Tin-Syuan Lin, Chieh-Yu Shen, Song-Chou Hsieh

2569 related Products with: Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with impaired autophagic degradation via interleukin-6 in macrophages.

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#33119615   2020/10/29 To Up

G82S RAGE polymorphism influences amyloid-RAGE interactions relevant in Alzheimer's disease pathology.

Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimers disease(AD) due to its ability to bind amyloid-beta (Aβ42) and mediate inflammatory response. G82S RAGE polymorphism is associated with AD but the molecular mechanism for this association is not understood. Our previous in silico study indicated a higher binding affinity for mutated G82S RAGE, which could be caused due to changes in N linked glycosylation at residue N81. To confirm this hypothesis, in the present study molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to simulate the wild type (WT) and G82S glycosylated structures of RAGE to identify the global structural changes and to find the binding efficiency with Aβ42 peptide. Binding pocket analysis of the MD trajectory showed that cavity/binding pocket in mutant G82S glycosylated RAGE variants is more exposed and accessible to external ligands compared to WT RAGE, which can enhance the affinity of RAGE for Aβ. To validate the above concept, an in vitro binding study was carried using SHSY5Y cell line expressing recombinant WT and mutated RAGE variant individually to which HiLyte Fluor labeled Aβ42 was incubated at different concentrations. Saturated binding kinetics method was adopted to determine the Kd values for Aβ42 binding to RAGE. The Kd value for Aβ42- WT and Aβ42-mutant RAGE binding were 92±40 nM (95% CI-52 to 152nM; R2-0.92) and 45±20 nM (95% CI -29 to 64nM; R2-0.93), respectively. The Kd value of <100nM observed for both variants implicates RAGE as a high-affinity receptor for Aβ42 and mutant RAGE has higher affinity compared to WT. The alteration in binding affinity is responsible for activation of the inflammatory pathway as implicated by enhanced expression of TNFα and IL6 in mutant RAGE expressing cell line which gives a mechanistic view for the G82S RAGE association with AD.
Rani Cathrine C, Bincy Lukose, P Rani

2910 related Products with: G82S RAGE polymorphism influences amyloid-RAGE interactions relevant in Alzheimer's disease pathology.

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#32962825   2020/08/13 To Up

Soluble cluster of differentiation 74 regulates lung inflammation through the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway.

The soluble form of the migration inhibitory factor receptor cluster of differentiation 74 (sCD74) has previously been shown to be elevated during the development of acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. However, the biological role of increased sCD74 in ALI remans poorly understood. Synthesized recombinant sCD74 protein was administered to mice intratracheally. Pro-inflammatory genes in lung tissue and the inflammatory factors in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Additionally, RAW264.7, A549, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with sCD74, and the resulting pro-inflammatory factor protein and gene expression levels were analyzed in the supernatants and cell lysates. Meanwhile, the level of nuclear factor (NF)-κB components in cell lysates after stimulating macrophages with sCD74 was also assessed. After administration of 0.5 mg/kg body weight sCD74 to mice, the expression of Tnfa, Mip2, and Il6 increased in lung tissues after 2 h by 2.1-, 3.4-, and 2.8-fold, respectively. Moreover, the BALF concentrations of TNF-α and MIP-2 reached maximal levels of 560 and 107 pg/mL at 8 h compared to those in the saline group, respectively. Similarly, TNFA, MIP2, and IL6 expression increased by 4.0-, 11.8-, and 2.6-fold, respectively, 2 h after stimulating macrophages with 1000 ng/mL sCD74. The levels of phospho-IκB and phospho-p65 were also significantly increased in the cytoplasm and nucleus of macrophages following sCD74 stimulation. Taken together, these results suggest that sCD74 is a critical cellular factor involved in the lung acute inflammatory response through nuclear factor-κB signaling.
Banghui Zhu, Guosheng Wu, Chen Wang, Yongqiang Xiao, Jian Jin, Kangan Wang, Yong Jiang, Yu Sun, Daofeng Ben, Zhaofan Xia

2182 related Products with: Soluble cluster of differentiation 74 regulates lung inflammation through the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway.

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#32934336   2020/09/15 To Up

Elevated IL-6R on CD4 T cells promotes IL-6 driven Th17 cell responses in patients with T1R leprosy reactions.

Th17 cells play vital role during pathogenesis of leprosy reactions. Previously, we have reported that IL-23 is involved in Th17 cells differentiation. Subsequently, our group also showed that IL-6 induces Th17 cell differentiation along with TGF-β in leprosy reactions. Here, we next asked the question that whether IL-6 or IL-23 induced Th17 cells are different in nature? In this study, Type 1 Reactions (T1R) showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher percentage of IL-17A producing CD4IL6R T cells as compared to non-reaction (NR) patients. Furthermore, recombinant IL-6, IL-23 and TGF-β promoted IL-17A secretion by CD4IL6R T cells. Subsequently, IL-6R and IL-23R blocking experiments showed significantly (p < 0.002) down regulated IL-17A in T1R reaction as compared to NR leprosy patients. The present study for the first time establishes that pathogenic Th17 cells produce IL-17 in an IL-6 dependent manner in leprosy T1R reactions. Thus, present approaches that specifically target Th17 cells and/or the cytokines that promote their development, such as IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23A may provide more focused treatment strategies for the management of Mycobacterium leprae and its reactions.
Chaman Saini, Rupesh K Srivastava, Mohd Tarique, Santosh Kurra, Neena Khanna, V Ramesh, Alpana Sharma

1665 related Products with: Elevated IL-6R on CD4 T cells promotes IL-6 driven Th17 cell responses in patients with T1R leprosy reactions.

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