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Search results for: Ser281

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#34324442   2021/09/22 To Up

MLK3 mediates impact of PKG1α on cardiac function and controls blood pressure through separate mechanisms.

cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1α (PKG1α) promotes left ventricle (LV) compensation after pressure overload. PKG1-activating drugs improve heart failure (HF) outcomes but are limited by vasodilation-induced hypotension. Signaling molecules that mediate PKG1α cardiac therapeutic effects but do not promote PKG1α-induced hypotension could therefore represent improved therapeutic targets. We investigated roles of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) in mediating PKG1α effects on LV function after pressure overload and in regulating BP. In a transaortic constriction HF model, PKG activation with sildenafil preserved LV function in MLK3+/+ but not MLK3-/- littermates. MLK3 coimmunoprecipitated with PKG1α. MLK3-PKG1α cointeraction decreased in failing LVs. PKG1α phosphorylated MLK3 on Thr277/Ser281 sites required for kinase activation. MLK3-/- mice displayed hypertension and increased arterial stiffness, though PKG stimulation with sildenafil or the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator BAY41-2272 still reduced BP in MLK3-/- mice. MLK3 kinase inhibition with URMC-099 did not affect BP but induced LV dysfunction in mice. These data reveal MLK3 as a PKG1α substrate mediating PKG1α preservation of LV function but not acute PKG1α BP effects. Mechanistically, MLK3 kinase-dependent effects preserved LV function, whereas MLK3 kinase-independent signaling regulated BP. These findings suggest augmenting MLK3 kinase activity could preserve LV function in HF but avoid hypotension from PKG1α activation.
Timothy D Calamaras, Suchita Pande, Robert Au Baumgartner, Seung Kyum Kim, Joseph C McCarthy, Gregory L Martin, Kelly Tam, Angela L McLaughlin, Guang-Rong Wang, Mark J Aronovitz, Weiyu Lin, Jonathan I Aguirre, Paulina Baca, Peiwen Liu, Daniel A Richards, Roger J Davis, Richard H Karas, Iris Z Jaffe, Robert M Blanton

1852 related Products with: MLK3 mediates impact of PKG1α on cardiac function and controls blood pressure through separate mechanisms.

10, 10ml whole blood 500 tests5mg1 kit(96 Wells)50 ug 6 ml Ready-to-use 10mg100ml

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#31679687   2019/11/01 To Up

DNA-PKcs is activated under nutrient starvation and activates Akt, MST1, FoxO3a, and NDR1.

Presence of unperfused regions containing cells under hypoxia and nutrient starvation; contributes to radioresistance in solid human tumors. We have previously reported that cultured cells; under nutrient starvation show resistance to ionizing radiation compare with cells under normal; condition, and that nutrient starvation increases ATM activity, which causes cellular resistance to; ionizing radiation (Murata et al., BBRC2018). For further investigation of molecular mechanisms; underlying radioresistance of cells under nutrient starvation, effects of nutrient starvation on activity; of DNA-PKcs have been investigated because both DNA-PKcs and ATM belong to the PIKK family; and are required for DNA DSBs repair. In addition to DNA-PKcs, effects of nutrient starvation on; activities of FoxO3a and its regulators Akt, MST1 and AMPK have been investigated because FoxO3a; mediates cellular responses to stress and is activated under nutrient starvation.
Soichiro Shiga, Yasuhiko Murata, Takuma Hashimoto, Yusuke Urushihara, Yohei Fujishima, Kanna Kudo, Yaoki Sonohara, Miku Kurusu, Kazuya Takeda, Keiichi Jingu, Yoshio Hosoi

2536 related Products with: DNA-PKcs is activated under nutrient starvation and activates Akt, MST1, FoxO3a, and NDR1.

1000 tests100ug100ug200ul25 mg10 mg100ul100.00 ul10 mg100 mg100ul1,000 tests

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#30572676   2018/12/19 To Up

Construction of Novel Aspartokinase Mutant A380I and Its Characterization by Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

In this study, a novel monomer aspartokinase (AK) from was identified, and its monomer model was constructed. Site 380 was identified by homologous sequencing and monomer model comparison as the key site which was conserved and located around the binding site of the inhibitor Lys. Furthermore, the mutant A380I with enzyme activity 11.32-fold higher than wild type AK (WT-AK), was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis and high throughput screening. In the mutant A380I, the optimal temperature was raised from 26 °C (WT-AK) to 28 °C, the optimal pH remained unchanged at 8.0, and the half-life was prolonged from 4.5 h (WT-AK) to 6.0 h, indicating enhanced thermal stability. The inhibition of A380I was weakened at various inhibitor concentrations and even activated at certain inhibitor concentrations (10 mM of Lys, 5 mM or 10 mM of Lys + Thr, 10 mM of Lys + Met, 5 mM of Lys + Thr + Met). Molecular dynamics simulation results indicated that the occupancy rate of hydrogen bond between A380I and ATP was enhanced, the effect of Lys (inhibitor) on the protein was weakened, and the angle between Ser281-Tyre358 and Asp359-Gly427 was increased after mutation, leading to an open conformation (R-state) that favored the binding of substrate.
Caijing Han, Li Fang, Chunlei Liu, Yunna Gao, Weihong Min

2905 related Products with: Construction of Novel Aspartokinase Mutant A380I and Its Characterization by Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

10 mg100ul1000 TESTS/0.65ml 6 ml Ready-to-use 10 mg250ul100 mg 5 G102.5 mg1,000 tests

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#25725289   2015/02/26 To Up

Adenosine A1 receptor activation modulates human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) activity via PKC-mediated phosphorylation of serine-281.

Equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype 1 (ENT1) is critical for the regulation of the biological activities of endogenous nucleosides such as adenosine, and for the cellular uptake of chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs. Previous studies have implicated protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of ENT1 expression/function. It was hypothesized that hENT1 activity at the plasma membrane is regulated by PKC-mediated phosphorylation of Ser281. WT (wild-type)-hENT1 or S281A-hENT1 was stably transfected into a PK15 cell variant that is deficient in nucleoside transport. Using [(3)H]nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) binding and [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake analyses, it was determined that S281A-hENT1 exhibited functional characteristics similar to WT-hENT1. Direct activation of PKC with PMA or indirect activation with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) led to significant increases in [(3)H]NBMPR binding and [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake in WT-hENT1 transfected cells. The PKC inhibitor Gö6983 blocked these effects of both PMA and CCPA, and the CCPA-mediated increase was also blocked by the A1 adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. In contrast, neither PMA nor CCPA affected [(3)H]NBMPR binding or [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake in cells transfected with S281A-hENT1. shRNAi silencing studies implicated PKCδ in this regulation of hENT1 activity. Immunocytochemical analysis and cell surface biotinylation assays showed that activation of PKC with PMA, but not CCPA, led to a significant increase in the plasma membrane localization of hENT1. These data suggest that phosphorylation of hENT1 by PKC has effects on both the function and subcellular trafficking of hENT1. This signaling pathway represents a feedback loop whereby adenosine receptor signaling can lead to increased adenosine reuptake into cells via hENT1.
Scott J Hughes, Xenia Cravetchi, Gonzalo Vilas, James R Hammond

2993 related Products with: Adenosine A1 receptor activation modulates human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) activity via PKC-mediated phosphorylation of serine-281.

100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized 100ul10mg100ug Lyophilized 100ul 100ul10μg/vial1000 100ul 100UG 100ul

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#24747552   2014/04/18 To Up

Constitutively active NDR1-PIF kinase functions independent of MST1 and hMOB1 signalling.

The human MST1/hMOB1/NDR1 tumour suppressor cascade regulates important cellular processes, such as centrosome duplication. hMOB1/NDR1 complex formation appears to be essential for NDR1 activation by autophosphorylation on Ser281 and hydrophobic motif (HM) phosphorylation at Thr444 by MST1. To dissect these mechanistic relationships in MST1/hMOB1/NDR signalling, we designed NDR1 variants carrying modifications that mimic HM phosphorylation and/or abolish hMOB1/NDR1 interactions. Significantly, the analyses of these variants revealed that NDR1-PIF, an NDR1 variant containing the PRK2 hydrophobic motif, remains hyperactive independent of hMOB1/NDR1-PIF complex formation. In contrast, as reported for the T444A phospho-acceptor mutant, NDR1 versions carrying single phospho-mimicking mutations at the HM phosphorylation site, namely T444D or T444E, do not display increased kinase activities. Collectively, these observations suggest that in cells Thr444 phosphorylation by MST1 depends on the hMOB1/NDR1 association, while Ser281 autophosphorylation of NDR1 can occur independently. By testing centrosome-targeted NDR1 variants in NDR1- or MST1-depleted cells, we further observed that centrosome-enriched NDR1-PIF requires neither hMOB1 binding nor MST1 signalling to function in centrosome overduplication. Taken together, our biochemical and cell biological characterisation of NDR1 versions provides novel unexpected insights into the regulatory mechanisms of NDR1 and NDR1's role in centrosome duplication.
Dorthe Cook, Lily Y Hoa, Valenti Gomez, Marta Gomez, Alexander Hergovich

1506 related Products with: Constitutively active NDR1-PIF kinase functions independent of MST1 and hMOB1 signalling.

10 mg5 μg1.0 mg100ul100IU100ug1 mg50 ug 5 μg4 x 25 units10 mg

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#24390483   2014/01/05 To Up

Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis reveals novel substrates of the kinase PrkC and phosphatase PrpC.

Reversible protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine (Ser/Thr/Tyr) residues plays a critical role in regulation of vital processes in the cell. Despite of considerable progress in our understanding of the role of this modification in bacterial physiology, the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during bacterial growth has rarely been systematically addressed. In addition, little is known about in vivo substrates of bacterial Ser/Thr/Tyr kinases and phosphatases. An excellent candidate to study these questions is the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, one of the most intensively investigated bacterial model organism with both research and industrial applications. Here we employed gel-free phosphoproteomics combined with SILAC labeling and high resolution mass spectrometry to study the proteome and phosphoproteome dynamics during the batch growth of B. subtilis. We measured the dynamics of 1666 proteins and 64 phosphorylation sites in five distinct phases of growth. Enzymes of the central carbon metabolism and components of the translation machinery appear to be highly phosphorylated in the stationary phase, coinciding with stronger expression of Ser/Thr kinases. We further used the SILAC workflow to identify novel putative substrates of the Ser/Thr kinase PrkC and the phosphatase PrpC during stationary phase. The overall number of putative substrates was low, pointing to a high kinase and phosphatase specificity. One of the phosphorylation sites affected by both, PrkC and PrpC, was the Ser281 on the oxidoreductase YkwC. We showed that PrkC phosphorylates and PrpC dephosphorylates YkwC in vitro and that phosphorylation at Ser281 abolishes the oxidoreductase activity of YkwC in vitro and in vivo. Our results present the most detailed phosphoproteomic analysis of B. subtilis growth to date and provide the first global in vivo screen of PrkC and PrpC substrates.
Vaishnavi Ravikumar, Lei Shi, Karsten Krug, Abderahmane Derouiche, Carsten Jers, Charlotte Cousin, Ahasanul Kobir, Ivan Mijakovic, Boris Macek

2219 related Products with: Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis reveals novel substrates of the kinase PrkC and phosphatase PrpC.

5 G100ug1 mg16 Arrays/Slide500 assays1 module100ul1,000 tests 100ul96T/Kit1 module100ug

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#24044413   2013/10/07 To Up

Analysis of the interaction of tarantula toxin Jingzhaotoxin-III (β-TRTX-Cj1α) with the voltage sensor of Kv2.1 uncovers the molecular basis for cross-activities on Kv2.1 and Nav1.5 channels.

Animal venoms contain a fascinating array of divergent peptide toxins that have cross-activities on different types of voltage-gated ion channels. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Jingzhaotoxin-III (JZTX-III), a 36-residue peptide from the tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao, is specific for Nav1.5 and Kv2.1 channels over the majority of other ion channel subtypes. JZTX-III traps the Nav1.5 DII voltage sensor at closed state by binding to the DIIS3-S4 linker. In this study, electrophysiological experiments showed that JZTX-III had no effect on five voltage-gated potassium channel subtypes (Kv1.4, Kv3.1, and Kv4.1-4.3), whereas it significantly inhibited Kv2.1 with an IC50 of 0.71 ± 0.01 μM. Mutagenesis and modeling data suggested that JZTX-III docks at the Kv2.1 voltage-sensor paddle. Alanine replacement of Phe274, Lys280, Ser281, Leu283, Gln284, and Val288 could decrease JZTX-III affinity by 7-, 9-, 34-, 12-, 9-, and 7-fold, respectively. Among them, S281 is the most crucial determinant, and the substitution with Thr only slightly reduced toxin sensitivity. In contrast, a single conversion of Ser281 to Ala, Phe, Ile, Val, or Glu increased the IC50 value by >34-fold. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis experiments indicated that the functional surface of JZTX-III bound to the Kv2.1 channel is composed of four hydrophobic residues (Trp8, Trp28, Trp30, and Val33) and three charged residues (Arg13, Lys15, and Glu34). The bioactive surfaces of JZTX-III interacting with Kv2.1 and Nav1.5 are only partially overlapping. These results strongly supported the hypothesis that animal toxins might use partially overlapping bioactive surfaces to target the voltage-sensor paddles of two different types of ion channels. Increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of toxins interacting with voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels may provide new molecular insights into the design of more potent ion channel inhibitors.
Huai Tao, Jin J Chen, Yu C Xiao, Yuan Y Wu, Hai B Su, Dan Li, Heng Y Wang, Mei C Deng, Mei C Wang, Zhong H Liu, Song P Liang

1005 related Products with: Analysis of the interaction of tarantula toxin Jingzhaotoxin-III (β-TRTX-Cj1α) with the voltage sensor of Kv2.1 uncovers the molecular basis for cross-activities on Kv2.1 and Nav1.5 channels.

100ul500IU20 ug100ug1 g100ug250 mg 1000 ml 50 mg100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ul

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#23201506   2012/11/30 To Up

Novel H2-oxidizing [NiFeSe]hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F.

[NiFeSe]hydrogenases are promising biocatalysts in H2-based technology due to their high catalytic activity and O2-stability. Here, we report purification and characterization of a new membrane-associated [NiFeSe]hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F ([NiFeSe]DvMF). The [NiFeSe]DvMF was composed of two subunits, corresponding to a large subunit of 58.3 kDa and a small subunit of 29.3 kDa determined by SDS-PAGE. Unlike conventional [NiFeSe]hydrogenases having catalytic bias toward H2-production, the [NiFeSe]DvMF showed 11-fold higher specific activity of H2-oxidation (2444 U/mg) than that of H2-production (217 U/mg). At the optimal reaction temperature of the enzyme (65°C), the specific activity of H2-oxidation could reach up to 21,553 U/mg. Amperometric assays of the [NiFeSe]DvMF clearly indicated that the enzyme had a remarkable O2-stability. According to the amino acid sequence alignment, the conserved cysteine residue at position 281 in medial cluster of other [NiFeSe]hydrogenases was specifically replaced by a serine residue (Ser281) in the [NiFeSe]DvMF. These results indicate that the [NiFeSe]DvMF can play as a new H2-oxidizing and O2-stable biocatalyst, along with providing helpful insights into the structure-function relationship of [NiFeSe]hydrogenases.
Kyoshiro Nonaka, Nga T Nguyen, Ki-Seok Yoon, Seiji Ogo

2273 related Products with: Novel H2-oxidizing [NiFeSe]hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F.



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#20206184   2010/03/03 To Up

Unusual conformation of the SxN motif in the crystal structure of penicillin-binding protein A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

PBPA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a class B-like penicillin-binding protein (PBP) that is not essential for cell growth in M. tuberculosis, but is important for proper cell division in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We have determined the crystal structure of PBPA at 2.05 A resolution, the first published structure of a PBP from this important pathogen. Compared to other PBPs, PBPA has a relatively small N-terminal domain, and conservation of a cluster of charged residues within this domain suggests that PBPA is more related to class B PBPs than previously inferred from sequence analysis. The C-terminal domain is a typical transpeptidase fold and contains the three conserved active-site motifs characteristic of penicillin-interacting enzymes. Whilst the arrangement of the SxxK and KTG motifs is similar to that observed in other PBPs, the SxN motif is markedly displaced away from the active site, such that its serine (Ser281) is not involved in hydrogen bonding with residues of the other two motifs. A disulfide bridge between Cys282 (the "x" of the SxN motif) and Cys266, which resides on an adjacent loop, may be responsible for this unusual conformation. Another interesting feature of the structure is a relatively long connection between beta 5 and alpha 11, which restricts the space available in the active site of PBPA and suggests that conformational changes would be required to accommodate peptide substrate or beta-lactam antibiotics during acylation. Finally, the structure shows that one of the two threonines postulated to be targets for phosphorylation is inaccessible (Thr362), whereas the other (Thr437) is well placed on a surface loop near the active site.
Alena Fedarovich, Robert A Nicholas, Christopher Davies

2415 related Products with: Unusual conformation of the SxN motif in the crystal structure of penicillin-binding protein A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

96tests100.00 ug1100.00 ug100.00 ug 100ul

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#18533145   2008/04/23 To Up

Targeted deletion of Tssk1 and 2 causes male infertility due to haploinsufficiency.

Targeted deletion of Tssk1 and 2 resulted in male chimeras which produced sperm/spermatogenic cells bearing the mutant allele, however this allele was never transmitted to offspring, indicating infertility due to haploinsufficiency. Morphological defects in chimeras included failure to form elongated spermatids, apoptosis of spermatocytes and spermatids, and the appearance of numerous round cells in the epididymal lumen. Characterization of TSSK2 and its interactions with the substrate, TSKS, were further investigated in human and mouse. The presence of both kinase and substrate in the testis was confirmed, while persistence of both proteins in spermatozoa was revealed for the first time. In vivo binding interactions between TSSK2 and TSKS were established through co-immunoprecipitation of TSSK2/TSKS complexes from both human sperm and mouse testis extracts. A role for the human TSKS N-terminus in enzyme binding was defined by deletion mapping. TSKS immunoprecipitated from both mouse testis and human sperm extracts was actively phosphorylated. Ser281 was identified as a phosphorylation site in mouse TSKS. These results confirm both TSSK 2 and TSKS persist in sperm, define the critical role of TSKS' N-terminus in enzyme interaction, identify Ser 281 as a TSKS phosphorylation site and indicate an indispensable role for TSSK 1 and 2 in spermiogenesis.
Bingfang Xu, Zhonglin Hao, Kula N Jha, Zhibing Zhang, Craig Urekar, Laura Digilio, Silvia Pulido, Jerome F Strauss, Charles J Flickinger, John C Herr

2997 related Products with: Targeted deletion of Tssk1 and 2 causes male infertility due to haploinsufficiency.

200ul 25 G10 mg200ul100 mg200ug 1 G10 mg 5 G200ug100 mg250 m Pcs Per Pack

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