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#33098708   2020/10/24 To Up

Targeted gene disruption of ATP synthases 6-1 and 6-2 in the mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by mitoTALENs.

We recently achieved targeted disruptions of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-associated genes in the mitochondrial genomes of rice and rapeseed by using mitochondria-targeted TALENs (mitoTALENs). It was the first report of stable and heritable targeted gene modification of plant mitochondrial genomes. Here, we attempted to use mitoTALENs to disrupt two mitochondrial genes in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using three different promoters and two types of TALENs. The targets were the two isoforms of the ATP synthase subunit 6 gene, atp6-1 and atp6-2. Each of these genes was successfully deleted and the mitochondrial genomes were recovered in a homoplasmic state. The nuclear genome also has a copy of atp6-1 and we were able to confirm that it was the mitochondrial gene and not the nuclear pseudo-gene that was knocked out. Among the three mitoTALENs promoters tried, the RPS5A promoter was the most effective. Conventional mitoTALENs were more effective than single-molecule mito-compact TALENs. Targeted mitochondrial gene deletion was achieved by crossing as well as by floral-dip transformation to introduce the mitoTALENs constructs into the nucleus. The gene disruptions were caused by large (kb-size) deletions. The ends of the remaining sequences were connected to distant loci, mostly by illegitimate homologous recombinations between repeats. Supporting Information.
Shin-Ichi Arimura, Hiroki Ayabe, Hajime Sugaya, Miki Okuno, Yoshiko Tamura, Yu Tsuruta, Yuta Watari, Shungo Yanase, Takaki Yamauchi, Takehiko Itoh, Atsushi Toyoda, Hideki Takanashi, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi

2636 related Products with: Targeted gene disruption of ATP synthases 6-1 and 6-2 in the mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by mitoTALENs.

50 ug20000 Units100ug Lyophilized5 50 ug10mg200ul50 ug10mg100ug Lyophilized

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#33098695   2020/10/24 To Up

Climate explains population divergence in drought-induced plasticity of functional traits and gene expression in a South African Protea.

Long term environmental variation often drives local adaptation and leads to trait differentiation across populations. Additionally, when traits change in an environment-dependent way through phenotypic plasticity, the genetic variation underlying plasticity will also be under selection. These processes could create a landscape of differentiation across populations in traits and their plasticity. Here, we performed a dry-down experiment under controlled conditions to measure responses in seedlings of a shrub species from the Cape Floristic Region, the common sugarbush (Protea repens). We measured morphological and physiological traits, and sequenced whole transcriptomes of leaf tissues from 8 populations that represent both the climatic and the geographic distribution of this species. We found that there is substantial variation in how populations respond to drought, but we also observed common patterns such as reduced leaf size and leaf thickness, and upregulation of stress- and down-regulation of growth-related gene groups. Both high environmental heterogeneity and milder source site climates were associated with higher plasticity in various traits and co-expression gene networks. Associations between traits, trait plasticity, gene networks and the source site climate suggest that temperature may play a bigger role in shaping these patterns when compared to precipitation, in line with recent changes in the region due to climate change. We also found that traits respond to climatic variation in an environment dependent manner: some associations between traits and climate were apparent only under certain growing conditions. Together, our results uncover common responses of P. repens populations to drought, and climatic drivers of population differentiation in functional traits, gene expression and their plasticity.
Melis Akman, Jane E Carlson, Andrew M Latimer

2493 related Products with: Climate explains population divergence in drought-induced plasticity of functional traits and gene expression in a South African Protea.

300 units100 ul50 ul100ug2ug50 ul100 ul 100ul96 assays5ug100ug

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#33098684   2020/10/24 To Up

BMI trajectories up to preschool age in a multi-ethnic population; relations with maternal gestational diabetes, BMI and gestational weight gain.

Independent effects of gestational diabetes (GDM), maternal prepregnant obesity and gestational weight gain on offspring BMI and obesity are scarcely documented. We examined associations between GDM and children's BMI trajectories from birth to 4-5 years age, and effects of prepregnant obesity and gestational weight gain not mediated through GDM.
Ingun Toftemo, Anne Karen Jenum, Line Sletner

1726 related Products with: BMI trajectories up to preschool age in a multi-ethnic population; relations with maternal gestational diabetes, BMI and gestational weight gain.

50 UG100ug100μl1 kit100 μg100μl1 kit

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#33098621   2020/10/24 To Up

Silver nanocolloid affects hindbrain vascular formation during medaka embryogenesis.

Angiogenesis is essential for the normal development of an embryo. Silver nanocolloid (SNC) is known to induce vascular malformation in the medaka embryo. We focused on the development of the central arteries (CtAs) in the hindbrain of Japanese medaka. The CtAs and the basilar artery from which they branch are essential for transporting the blood and nutrients necessary to support the hindbrain parenchyma and the development of the pons and cerebellum from the hindbrain. We exposed medaka embryos at developmental stage 21 (6 somite stage), to 0, 0.5, 5, or 10 mg/L SNC and evaluated hatching rate, number of thrombi per embryo, head size (length and width), body length, and angiogenesis. Although all SNC-exposed embryos hatched, their head size and body length were small in comparison to controls; in addition, the number of thrombi in the head increased and head size and body length decreased as the SNC concentration increased. To evaluate vasculogenic abnormalities, we performed whole-mount in situ hybridization using a vascular marker (eg, fl7) and visualized the CtAs in medaka embryos. In control embryos, CtAs started to sprout at stage 32 (somite completion stage) and their extension was complete by stage 35 (pectoral fin blood circulation stage). In contrast, CtAs failed to sprout in SNC-exposed embryos, and thrombi were present. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis showed that SNC significantly suppressed the egfl7 expression level at stage 35. Together, our findings suggest that SNC induced decreased developments of head and body in medaka embryos due to insufficient angiogenesis and hindbrain vascular formation.
Tomomi Matsukura, Chisato Kataoka, Yohei Kawana, Misato Fujita, Shosaku Kashiwada

1842 related Products with: Silver nanocolloid affects hindbrain vascular formation during medaka embryogenesis.

100ug 30 ml 2ug96 Tests 500 ml 100 μg 125 ml 2ug x 202ug2ug 125 ml 96tests

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#33098600   2020/10/24 To Up

Phytochrome B and PCH1 protein dynamics store night temperature information.

Plants experience temperature fluctuations during the course of the daily cycle and although stem growth responds rapidly to these changes we largely ignore whether there is a short-term memory of previous conditions. Here we show that night temperatures affect the growth of the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings not only during the night but also during the subsequent photoperiod. Active phytochrome B (phyB) represses nighttime growth and warm temperatures reduce active phyB via thermal reversion. The function of PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF HYPOCOTYL1 (PCH1) is to stabilise active phyB in nuclear bodies but surprisingly, warmth reduces PCH1 gene expression and PCH1 stability. When phyB was active at the beginning of the night, warm night temperatures enhanced the levels of nuclear phyB and reduced hypocotyl growth rate during the following day. However, when end-of-day far-red light minimised phyB activity, warm night temperatures reduced the levels of nuclear phyB and enhanced hypocotyl growth rate during the following day. This complex growth pattern was absent in the phyB mutant. We propose that temperature-induced changes in the levels of PCH1 and in the size of the physiologically relevant nuclear pool of phyB amplify the impact of phyB-mediated temperature sensing.
Germán Murcia, Beatrix Enderle, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Jorge J Casal

2820 related Products with: Phytochrome B and PCH1 protein dynamics store night temperature information.

1000 TESTS/0.65ml5100100ml1001002020mg1mg100

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#33098500   2020/10/24 To Up

Chloroplast genome assembly of Handroanthus impetiginosus: comparative analysis and molecular evolution in Bignoniaceae.

Bignoniaceae species have conserved chloroplast structure, with hotspots of nucleotide diversity. Several genes are under positive selection, and can be targets for evolutionary studies. Bignoniaceae is one of the most species-rich family of woody plants in Neotropical seasonally dry forests. Here we report the assembly of Handroanthus impetiginosus chloroplast genome and evolutionary comparative analyses of ten Bignoniaceae species representing the genera for which whole-genome chloroplast sequences were available. The chloroplast genome of H. impetiginosus is 159,462 bp in size and has a similar structure compared to the other nine species. The total number of genes was slightly variable amongst the Bignoniaceae, ranging from 124 in H. impetiginosus to 144 in Anemopaegma acutifolium. The inverted repeat (IR) size was variable, ranging from 24,657 bp (Tecomaria capensis) to 40,481 bp (A. acutifolium), due to the contraction and retraction at its boundaries. However, gene boundaries were very similar among the ten species. We found 98 forward and palindromic dispersed repeats, and 85 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In general, chloroplast sequences were highly conserved, with few nucleotide diversity hotspots in the genes accD, clpP, rpoA, ycf1, ycf2. The phylogenetic analysis based on 77 coding genes was highly consistent with Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) IV. Our results also indicate that most genes are under negative selection or neutral evolution. We found no evidence of branch-site selection, implying that H. impetiginosus is not evolving faster than the other species analyzed, notwithstanding we found site positive selection signal in several genes. These genes can provide targets for evolutionary studies in Bignoniaceae and Lamiales species.
Mariane B Sobreiro, Lucas D Vieira, Rhewter Nunes, Evandro Novaes, Eric Coissac, Orzenil B Silva-Junior, Dario Grattapaglia, Rosane Garcia Collevatti

2732 related Products with: Chloroplast genome assembly of Handroanthus impetiginosus: comparative analysis and molecular evolution in Bignoniaceae.

100.00 ug20 ul100 μg 100ul100 μg1 ml

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#33098489   2020/10/24 To Up

Scoring systems for PD-L1 expression and their prognostic impact in patients with resectable gastric cancer.

The combined positive score (CPS) and tumor proportion score (TPS) have been developed to evaluate programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression, especially due to the potential benefit of the targeted therapy. However, the prognostic value of PD-L1 scoring systems in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate PD-L1 expression according to CPS and TPS in curative resected GC patients and its correlation with prognosis. We retrospectively evaluated 284 GC patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy by tissue microarray. PD-L1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. PD-L1 positivity by CPS and TPS was observed in 45 (15.8%) and 34 (12%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size (p = 0.028), undetermined Lauren type (p < 0.001), and heavy inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.009) were associated with CPS-positive GC. TPS-positive were more frequent in patients with larger tumor size (p = 0.004), undetermined type (p < 0.001), moderate/severe inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.001), total gastrectomy (p = 0.036), and poorly differentiated histology (p = 0.025). No differences were observed in the pT, pN, and pTNM status according to the PD-L1 scores. Both scores were associated with Epstein-Barr virus positivity, microsatellite instability and p53-normal expression. The disease-free survival (DFS) was worse for CPS-negative compared to CPS-positive group (p = 0.052). No difference was observed between TPS-positive and negative groups (p = 0.436). Total gastrectomy, advanced pT status, and CPS-negative were independent factor for worse survival in GC. CPS was an independent prognostic factor for survival and could be used as a prognostic biomarker in patients with resectable GC.
Marina Alessandra Pereira, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille Ramos, André Roncon Dias, Renan Ribeiro, Leonardo Cardili, Bruno Zilberstein, Ivan Cecconello, Ulysses Ribeiro, Evandro Sobroza de Mello, Tiago Biachi de Castria

2247 related Products with: Scoring systems for PD-L1 expression and their prognostic impact in patients with resectable gastric cancer.



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