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#32770858   2020/08/08 To Up

Updated information on new coronavirus disease 2019 occurrence, drugs, and prediction of a potential receptor.

The new coronavirus (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan in China, on 31 December 2019. COVID-19 is a new virus from the family of coronaviruses that can cause symptoms ranging from a simple cold to pneumonia. The virus is thought to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, as a well-known mechanism to enter the cell. It then transfers its DNA to the host in which the virus replicates the DNA. The viral infection leads to severe lack of oxygen, lung oxidative stress because of reactive oxygen species generation, and overactivation of the immune system by activating immune mediators. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the more precise mechanism(s) to manage the treatment of the disease. Regarding the mechanisms of the virus action, the suggested pharmacological and nutritional regimens have been described.
Forouzan Khodaei, Anam Ahsan, Mostafa Chamanifard, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati

1656 related Products with: Updated information on new coronavirus disease 2019 occurrence, drugs, and prediction of a potential receptor.

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#32770800   2020/08/08 To Up

Efficient mammal biodiversity surveys for ecological restoration monitoring.

Efficient biodiversity surveys are critical for successful restoration monitoring and management. We studied the effect of varying sampling effort on the observed species richness of surveys of small mammals (trapping transects), bats (passive acoustic detection), and medium to large mammals (trail cameras). Field studies provided mammalian biodiversity data for four bottomland hardwood restoration sites in northeastern Indiana. Subsampled data were used to simulate monitoring surveys with a range of levels of effort. We then used hierarchical Bayesian nonlinear mixed models to analyze how different components of sampling effort affected observed species richness, a key monitoring outcome. We found that observed small mammal richness increased with increased number of transects in a survey, while observed bat and medium to large mammal richness increased with increased duration of sampling. Variation between sites was important for observed richness of small mammals and bats but not for medium to large mammals. The key driver of richness observed in simulated surveys was related to the spatial scale at which target fauna interact with habitat, with decreasing richness accompanied by greater spatial scale of animal-habitat interactions. Our findings suggest taxon-specific recommendations for efficiently quantifying mammalian diversity of managed sites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Nicholas S Green, Mark L Wildhaber, Janice L Albers, Thomas W Pettit, Michael J Hooper

1991 related Products with: Efficient mammal biodiversity surveys for ecological restoration monitoring.

250 mg0.1 mg500 assays96 Well5 mg100ug100μg10 mg 1000 ml

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#32770767   2020/08/08 To Up

Irisin ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes injury via AMPK/mTOR signal pathway.

High glucose (HG)-induced cardiomyocytes (CMs) injury is a leading cause of diabetic cardiomyopathy with little treatment options. Irisin, a new myokine, which is cleaved from its precursor fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), has aroused great attentions as an essential cardioprotective factor and glucose metabolism regulator but little was known on diabetic cardiomyopathy yet. Here, we aim to clarify the role of irisin in the HG-induced CMs injury. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat CMs were cultured in a normal or high glucose medium for 12, 24 and 48 h respectively before exposing to irisin. The apoptosis level was determined by Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cell viability was measured with the conventional methylthiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Inflammatory factors, namely TNF-ɑ, IL-6, IL-1β were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, protein and mRNA expressions were measured by Western blot and qRT-PCR respectively. HG increases the apoptosis of CMs and activated the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in CMs. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein expressions of FNDC5 are decreased after HG exposure. Nevertheless, the increased apoptosis is alleviated by irisin treatment. Notably, irisn suppresses the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in injured CMs. Mechanically, after administration of Compound C, AMPK inhibitor, these cardioprotective effects resulting from irisin are reversed. Irisin plays a significant role in anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress in HG-induced CMs via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Jingyu Deng, Ning Zhang, Feng Chen, Chao Yang, Hongjuan Ning, Chun Xiao, Ke Sun, Yongfei Liu, Ming Yang, Taohong Hu, Zheng Zhang, Wei Jiang

1578 related Products with: Irisin ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes injury via AMPK/mTOR signal pathway.

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#32770752   2020/08/08 To Up

Forensic Identification of the Keratin Fibers of South American Camelids by Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Vicuña, Alpaca and Guanaco.

The keratin fleece of the endangered vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) commands a high value in international markets, and this trade has caused illegal poaching and a substantial decrease of vicuña populations. Morphological analysis of hairs does not have the resolution to determine the species of origin of camelid natural fibers. In addition, commerce in camelid fleece also includes the legal trade of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and guanaco (Llama guanicoe) wool.
Erin Price, Dominique Marie Larrabure, Benito A Gonzales, Pamela J McClure, Edgard Espinoza

2752 related Products with: Forensic Identification of the Keratin Fibers of South American Camelids by Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Vicuña, Alpaca and Guanaco.

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#32770710   2020/08/08 To Up

The epigenetics changes associated with anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity.

Advances in cancer treatment have significantly improved the survival of cancer patients, but unfortunately, many of these treatments also have long-term complications. Cancer treatmement related cardiotoxicities is becoming a significant clinical problem that a new discipline, Cardio-Oncology, was established to advance the cardiovascular care of growing cancer patient populations. Anthracyclines are a class of chemotherapeutic agents used to treat many cancers in adults and children. Their clinical use is limited by anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC), which can lead to heart failure (HF). Early-onset cardiotoxicity appears within a year of treatment, while late-onset cardiotoxicity occurs more than one year and even up to decades after treatment completion. The pathophysiology of AIC was hypothesized to be caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to lipid peroxidation, defective mitochrondrial biogenesis, and DNA damage of the cardiomyocytes. The accumulation of anthracycline metabolites was also proposed to cause mitochondrial damage and the induction of cardiac cell apoptosis, which induces arrhythmias, contractile dysfunction, and cardiomyocyte death. This article will provide a general overview of cardiotoxicity focusing on the effect of anthracyclines and their epigenetic molecular mechanisms on cardiotoxicity.
Marwa Tantawy, Frances G Pamittan, Sonal Singh, Yan Gong

1817 related Products with: The epigenetics changes associated with anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity.

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#32770706   2020/08/08 To Up

Impacts of the season and reproductive status on fecal reproductive and adrenocortical steroid metabolites in zoo Cuban crocodiles (Crocodylus rhombifer).

Conservation strategies for crocodilians often include captive breeding to create stable assurance populations. Evaluating adrenal and gonadal hormone patterns can provide animal managers with data to more effectively monitor animal welfare and reproductive status. This study evaluated the effects of season (breeding, nesting, or off), sex (male and female), and reproductive status of females (egg-laying/housed with a male or non-laying/housed solo) on concentrations of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM), fecal androgen metabolite (FAM), and fecal progestogen metabolite (FPM) in seven Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park. Overall, seasonal changes in FGM and FPM concentrations were only observed in egg-laying females; FGM and FPM concentrations were both higher during the nesting season compared to the breeding and off seasons. Seasonal changes in FAM concentrations were only observed in males; males had higher FAM concentrations during the breeding and nesting seasons compared to the off season. Future studies investigating the use of fecal hormone metabolites in crocodilians are necessary to understand differences between individuals and species, to further elucidate the interactions between hormones and environmental factors, such as social housing, and to develop long-term datasets for the management of this species.
Lauren Augustine, Kyle Miller, Alan Peters, Ashley D Franklin, Cathleen M Steinbeiser, Janine L Brown, Natalia A Prado

2119 related Products with: Impacts of the season and reproductive status on fecal reproductive and adrenocortical steroid metabolites in zoo Cuban crocodiles (Crocodylus rhombifer).

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#32770676   2020/08/08 To Up

Stopover refueling, movement, and departure decisions in the White-throated Sparrow: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors during spring migration.

1. Differential migration timing between sex or age classes are examples of how migratory movement strategies can differ among sub-groups within a population. However, in songbirds, evidence for intrinsic differences in en route migratory behavior is often mixed, suggesting that the local environmental context may play a role in accentuating or diminishing patterns. 2. We evaluated how multiple intrinsic and extrinsic variables influenced refueling rates, local movement behavior, and departure decisions in the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) during spring migration. This species exhibits a unique genetically-based plumage dimorphism, providing a unique class of individual in which to evaluate patterns and processes of differential migration, in addition to sex, age, and migration distance. 3. At a migratory stopover site, plasma metabolite analysis was used to quantify individual variation in stopover refueling rate. In after second year adults, automated and manual radio telemetry was used to quantify daily activity timing, daily movement distances, stopover duration, and departure time. Arrival timing to the stopover site was determined using capture data. Non-breeding and previous breeding/natal latitude were determined using analysis of hydrogen isotopes in claws and feathers. 4. Males arrived at the stopover site 11 days on average before females, but no difference in migration timing was observed between plumage morph or age classes. After second year adults with more southern previous breeding latitudes arrived at stopover earlier whereas second year birds making their first return migration arrived at stopover in an inverse relationship to non-breeding latitude. Stopover refueling rate did not differ between ages, sexes, or plumage morphs, and daily departure probability of adults was higher under warmer temperatures and favorable tailwinds. White-striped morphs moved greater distances during stopover, initiated daily activity earlier in the morning, and departed for migration earlier in the evening than tan-striped morphs. 5. Our results show that while individual phenotype can influence some aspects of local stopover-scale movement behavior, evidence for differential stopover behavior was weak. Differential migration timing is unlikely to result from intrinsic differences in en route refueling rate and departure decisions, especially because the latter is strongly influenced by meteorological conditions.
Andrew T Beauchamp, Christopher G Guglielmo, Yolanda E Morbey

2738 related Products with: Stopover refueling, movement, and departure decisions in the White-throated Sparrow: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors during spring migration.

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#32770659   2020/08/08 To Up

Push-pull to manage leaf-cutting ants: an effective strategy in forestry plantations.

Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are amongst the most important forestry pests in South America. Currently, their control is carried out almost exclusively through the application of toxic baits of restricted use. Here we evaluate a push-pull strategy (i.e., the simultaneous use of attractant and repellent stimuli in order to divert pests) to manage LCAs Acromyrmex spp. in young willow plantations in the area of Delta of the Parana River, Argentina, a wetland ecosystem. First, we surveyed ants' selection of farmland vegetation during one year. Then, we estimated ants' preferences between the willow Salix babylonica and a subsample of plant species from farmland vegetation under laboratory conditions. Finally, we designed and performed a fully crossed experimental field assay to evaluate a push-pull strategy by using farmland vegetation as pull stimulus.
Daiana V Perri, Norma B Gorosito, Pablo E Schilman, Edgardo Casaubón, Camila Dávila, Patricia C Fernández

2091 related Products with: Push-pull to manage leaf-cutting ants: an effective strategy in forestry plantations.

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