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#36485003   2022/12/09 To Up

Different, but the same: Inferring the hunting behaviour of the hypercarnivorous bush dog (Speothos venaticus) through finite element analysis.

Cerdocyonina is a clade composed by the South-American canids in which the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is one of the most elusive species. Known for its unique morphology within the group, this small, bear-like faced canid is the only member of the clade adapted to hypercarnivory, an almost exclusively meat-based diet currently present only in usually large, pack-hunting canids such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus). However, much of the biology of the bush dog is poorly understood, and inferences about its ecology, hunting strategies and diet are usually based on observation of captive individuals and anecdotal records, with reduced quantitative data to offer support. Here, we investigated the craniomandibular functional morphology of the bush dog through finite element analysis (FEA). FEA was employed to model the biting behaviour and to create extrinsic and intrinsic functional scenarios with different loads, corresponding to different bites used to subdue and process the prey. For comparison, the same modelling was applied to the skull of a grey wolf and a grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Our analysis showed that the bush dog's responses to loading are more similar to the wolf's than to the fox's in most scenarios, suggesting a convergent craniomandibular functional morphology between these two hypercarnivorous species, despite their distinct phylogenetic positions and body sizes. Differences between the three taxa are noteworthy and suggested to be related to the size of the usual prey. The modelled bite force for the bush dog is relatively strong, about half of that estimated for the wolf and about 40% stronger than the fox's bite. The results strengthen with quantitative data the inferences of the bush dog as a pack-hunting predator with prey size similar to its own, such as large rodents and armadillos, being specialised in subduing and killing its prey using multiple bites. Its similarity to the wolf also confirms anecdotal accounts of predation on mammals that are much larger than itself, such as peccaries and tapirs. These data highlight the ecological specialisation of this small canid in a continent where large, pack-hunting canids are absent.
Juan V Ruiz, Gabriel S Ferreira, Stephan Lautenschlager, Mariela C de Castro, Felipe C Montefeltro

2717 related Products with: Different, but the same: Inferring the hunting behaviour of the hypercarnivorous bush dog (Speothos venaticus) through finite element analysis.

0.1 mg 100 G1100 IU500 Units21100.00 ul1 ml1

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#36484960   2022/12/09 To Up

Obstructive sleep apnea-increased DEC1 regulates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that promotes development of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is a common risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). As a hypoxia-induced transcription factor, differentially expressed in chondrocytes (DEC1) negatively regulates the transcription of peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a recognized protective factor of PAH. However, whether and how DEC1 is associated with PAH pathogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we found that DEC1 was increased in lungs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of rat models of OSA-associated PAH. Oxidative indicators and inflammatory cytokines were also elevated in the blood of the rats. Similarly, hypoxia-treated PASMCs displayed enhanced DEC1 expression and reduced PPARγ expression in vitro. Functionally, DEC1 overexpression exacerbated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1) in PASMCs. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of Dec1 increased PPARγ expression but attenuated hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in PASMCs. Additionally, DEC1 overexpression promoted PASMC proliferation, which was drastically attenuated by a PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. Collectively, these results suggest that hypoxia-induced DEC1 inhibits PPARγ, and that this is a predominant mechanism underpinning oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in PASMCs during PAH. DEC1 could be used as a potential target to treat PAH.
Xiaoming Li, Xiang Zhang, Xiaozhi Hou, Xin Bing, Fangyuan Zhu, Xinhao Wu, Na Guo, Hui Zhao, Fenglei Xu, Ming Xia

2231 related Products with: Obstructive sleep apnea-increased DEC1 regulates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that promotes development of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

164 Arrays/Slide200ug8 Sample Kit10 mg12100ug4 Membranes/Box

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#36484939   2022/12/09 To Up

Trait-mediated leaf retention of atmospheric particulate matter in fourteen tree species in southern China.

Particulate air pollution is a serious threat to human health, especially in urban areas, and trees can act as biological filters and improve air quality. However, studies on greening tree species selection are rare. We measured three particular matter adsorption metrics (PM, PM, and PM captured per leaf area) and six functional traits for each of fourteen species and estimated their minimum light requirements based on field surveys. We found that shade-tolerant species captured more coarse particles (PM) than light-demanding species. For traits, a strong negative correlation was found between photosynthetic capacity and adsorption capacity for all three PM size fractions, indicating that in comparison to acquisitive species, conservative species captured larger amounts of particles. Moreover, denser wood species and smaller leaves were more efficient in capturing large particles (PM), while species with "expensive" leaves (high leaf N or P) were more efficient in capturing fine particles (PM), indicating that capturing large and fine particles was related to mechanical stability traits and leaf surface traits, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the metabolism (e.g., photosynthetic capacity) and chemistry (e.g., leaf N and leaf P) of leaves help explain species capacity to capture PM. We encourage future studies to investigate the ecosystem functions and stress tolerance of tree species with the same framework and trait-based methods.
Kangning Zhao, Dandan Liu, Yongfa Chen, Jiayi Feng, Dong He, Chunhua Huang, Zhiyuan Wang

1119 related Products with: Trait-mediated leaf retention of atmospheric particulate matter in fourteen tree species in southern China.

100ul96T50ul 100ul 100ul 100ul96T 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul96T

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#36484901   2022/12/09 To Up

Polyhydroxy Acids as Fabaceous Plant Components Induce Oviposition of the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema Mandarina.

The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina is a Fabaceae-feeding species, the females of which readily oviposit on Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata in mainland Japan. We previously demonstrated that the methanolic leaf extracts of these plants, and their highly polar aqueous fractions strongly elicit female oviposition. Furthermore, the three subfractions obtained by ion-exchange chromatographic separation of the aqueous fraction have been found to be less effective alone, but synergistically stimulate female oviposition when combined. This indicates that female butterflies respond to multiple compounds with different acidity. We have previously identified d-pinitol from the neutral/amphoteric subfractions and glycine betaine from the basic subfractions as oviposition stimulants of E. mandarina. The present study aimed to identify active compounds in the remaining acidic subfractions of A. julibrissin and L. cuneata leaf extracts. GC-MS analyses of trimethylsilyl-derivatized samples revealed the presence of six compounds in the acidic subfractions. In bioassays using these authentic chemicals, erythronic acid (EA) and threonic acid (TA) were moderately active in eliciting oviposition responses in E. mandarina, with their d-isomers showing slightly higher activity than their l-isomers. Female responsiveness differed between d-EA and l-TA, the major isomers of these compounds in plants, with the response to d-EA reaching a plateau at concentrations above 0.005% and that to l-TA peaking at a concentration of 0.01%. The natural concentrations of d-EA and l-TA in fresh A. julibrissin and L. cuneata leaves were sufficient to stimulate oviposition. Furthermore, mixing 0.001% d-EA or 0.001% l-TA, to which females are mostly unresponsive, with 0.1% d-pinitol resulted in a synergistic enhancement of the oviposition response. These findings demonstrate that E. mandarina females utilize both polyhydroxy acids, EA and TA, as chemical cues for oviposition.
Chisato Matsunaga, Naoki Kanazawa, Yuta Takatsuka, Takeshi Fujii, Shinji Ohta, Hisashi Ômura

1396 related Products with: Polyhydroxy Acids as Fabaceous Plant Components Induce Oviposition of the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema Mandarina.

1,000 tests500 1 mg100 ul96 assays100 ul1 kit430 tests50 ul50 ul100ul

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#36484869   2022/12/09 To Up

Severe Infection of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Bandicota bengalensis Inhabiting Commensal Areas of Punjab, India: Prevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, Molecular Identification and Phylogenesis.

The present study aimed to record the prevalence, risk factors, molecular identification, and phylogeny of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis found in the small intestine of the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis, a wild rodent species.
Shivani Rara, Neena Singla, Sukhmanpreet Kaur Brar, Dimple Mandla, Lachhman Das Singla

1021 related Products with: Severe Infection of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Bandicota bengalensis Inhabiting Commensal Areas of Punjab, India: Prevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, Molecular Identification and Phylogenesis.

100.00 ug100 μg50 ug0.5mg0.1 mg100 1 L.4 Membranes/Box100.00 ug100ul10ug100 units

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#36484838   2022/12/09 To Up

Alterations in the Expression of Antioxidant Enzyme Genes in Response to Pesticide Exposure During Embryonic Development in the Native Reptile Species Caiman latirostris.

The aim of this study was to quantify the expression levels of Catalase (cat) and copper, zinc Superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-sod) genes involved in the antioxidant response in Caiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman) blood, after embryonic exposure to the formulations cypermethrin (CYP), chlorpyrifos (CPF), glyphosate (GLY), and their binary and ternary mixtures. Experimental groups were: negative control (NC-distilled water), vehicle control (VC-ethanol), GLY-2%, CYP- 0.12%, CPF- 0.8%, a ternary mixture of them (TM), and three binary mixtures. The applications were made on the nest material in contact with the eggs at the beginning of the incubation period. After hatching, RNA was isolated from blood and expression levels analyzed through qPCR. The results showed downregulation in the expression of sod and cat genes in the three binary mixtures studied, compared to the controls. In addition, we found a possible antagonistic effect between different pesticides in the TM on the expression of both genes.
L M Odetti, M F Simoniello, G L Poletta

1405 related Products with: Alterations in the Expression of Antioxidant Enzyme Genes in Response to Pesticide Exposure During Embryonic Development in the Native Reptile Species Caiman latirostris.

50300 units101

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#36484828   2022/12/09 To Up

Enrichment and application of extracellular nonulosonic acids containing polymers of Accumulibacter.

Pseudaminic and legionaminic acids are a subgroup of nonulosonic acids (NulOs) unique to bacterial species. There is a lack of advances in the study of these NulOs due to their complex synthesis and production. Recently, it was seen that "Candidatus Accumulibacter" can produce Pse or Leg analogues as part of its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In order to employ a "Ca. Accumulibacter" enrichment as production platform for bacterial sialic acids, it is necessary to determine which fractions of the EPS of "Ca. Accumulibacter" contain NulOs and how to enrich and/or isolate them. We extracted the EPS from granules enriched with "Ca. Accumulibcater" and used size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) to separate them into different molecular weight (MW) fractions. This separation resulted in two high molecular weight (> 5500 kDa) fractions dominated by polysaccharides, with a NulO content up to 4 times higher than the extracted EPS. This suggests that NulOs in "Ca. Accumulibacter" are likely located in high molecular weight polysaccharides. Additionally, it was seen that the extracted EPS and the NulO-rich fractions can bind and neutralize histones. This opens the possibility of EPS and NulO-rich fractions as potential source for sepsis treatment drugs. KEY POINTS: • NulOs in "Ca. Accumulibacter" are likely located in high MW polysaccharides • SEC allows to obtain high MW polysaccharide-rich fractions enriched with NulOs • EPS and the NulOs-rich fractions are a potential source for sepsis treatment drugs.
Sergio Tomás-Martínez, Le Min Chen, Martin Pabst, David G Weissbrodt, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Yuemei Lin

2241 related Products with: Enrichment and application of extracellular nonulosonic acids containing polymers of Accumulibacter.

5 G 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul 100ul430 Tests / Kit100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized0.1ml100 mg

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#36484794   2022/12/09 To Up

Very Low Rates of Spontaneous Gene Deletions and Gene Duplications in Dictyostelium discoideum.

The study of spontaneous mutation rates has revealed a wide range of heritable point mutation rates across species, but there are comparatively few estimates for large-scale deletion and duplication rates. The handful of studies that have directly calculated spontaneous rates of deletion and duplication using mutation accumulation lines have estimated that genes are duplicated and deleted at orders of magnitude greater rates than the spontaneous point mutation rate. In our study, we tested whether spontaneous gene deletion and gene duplication rates are also high in Dictyostelium discoideum, a eukaryote with among the lowest point mutation rates (2.5 × 10 per site per generation) and an AT-rich genome (GC content of 22%). We calculated mutation rates of gene deletions and duplications using whole-genome sequencing data originating from a mutation accumulation experiment and determined the association between the copy number mutations and GC content. Overall, we estimated an average of 3.93 × 10 gene deletions and 1.18 × 10 gene duplications per gene per generation. While orders of magnitude greater than their point mutation rate, these rates are much lower compared to gene deletion and duplication rates estimated from mutation accumulation lines in other organisms (that are on the order of ~ 10 per gene/generation). The deletions and duplications were enriched in regions that were AT-rich even compared to the genomic background, in contrast to our expectations if low GC content was contributing to low mutation rates. The low deletion and duplication mutation rates in D. discoideum compared to other eukaryotes mirror their low point mutation rates, supporting previous work suggesting that this organism has high replication fidelity and effective molecular machinery to avoid the accumulation of mutations in their genome.
Shelbi E Gill, Frédéric J J Chain

1961 related Products with: Very Low Rates of Spontaneous Gene Deletions and Gene Duplications in Dictyostelium discoideum.

96T96T5ug2ug300 units50 ug100 samples50 ug50 ug50 ug 6 ml Ready-to-use 50 ug

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