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#33080658   2020/10/20 To Up

[Equine chorionic gonadotrophin: Biology and veterinary use].

The pituitary gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) play a prominent role in the control of gonadal functions. Therefore, their use in the treatment of fertility disorders (e. g. anovulatory anestrus) as well as in biotechnology (e. g. superovulation, hormone programs for cycle synchronization) is of substantial interest. Preparations of FSH or LH are relatively expensive due to the laborious extraction from pituitary tissue and are therefore reserved for special indications. In primates and equids, the chorionic epithelium expresses an LH-like molecule (chorionic gonadotrophin, CG). Equine CG (eCG) selectively binds to LH receptors in equids. In all other domestic mammalian species, equine CG (eCG) shows an extraordinarily high FSH activity in addition to its LH activity ("dual activity"). Since its market launch, this has therefore gained considerable importance as a comparatively inexpensive FSH analogue, mainly for use in ruminants and pigs. In contrast to the human CG (hCG), which may be isolated non-invasively from the urine of pregnant women and is widely used as LH analogue, eCG must be extracted from the blood of pregnant donor mares, as eCG concentrations in urine are only minimal. Following reports of deaths and suffering of donor mares associated with eCG collection in South American settings, the current practice of eCG production has given rise to increasing public criticism. This has recently led to calls for a general production ban. Primary aim of this review is therefore to summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the properties and biology of this molecule, which is also highly interesting from the point of view of basic science.
Gerhard Schuler

1947 related Products with: [Equine chorionic gonadotrophin: Biology and veterinary use].

25 mg500 grams 5 G2 mL 5 G100ulOne 96-Well Strip Micropl10gm1 g

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#33080622   2020/10/20 To Up

Differential determinants of growth rates in subtropical evergreen and deciduous juvenile trees: Carbon gain, hydraulics and nutrient use efficiencies.

Growth rate varies across plant species and represents an important ecological strategy for competition, resource use and fitness. However, empirical studies often show a low predictability of functional traits to tree growth. We measured stem diameter and height growth rates of 96 juvenile trees (2 to 5 m tall) of eight evergreen and eight deciduous broadleaf tree species over three consecutive years in a subtropical forest in southwestern China. We examined the relationships between tree growth rates and 20 leaf/stem traits that associated with carbon gain, stem hydraulics and nutrient use efficiency, as well as the difference between evergreen and deciduous trees. We found that cross-species variations of stem diameter/height growth rate can be predicted by leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf mass per area, xylem theoretical specific hydraulic conductivity, wood density and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies. Higher leaf carbon assimilation and lower leaf/stem constructing costs facilitate deciduous species to be more resource acquisitive and consequently faster growth within a relatively shorter growing season, whereas evergreen species exhibit a more conservative strategies and thus slower growth. Further, stem growth rates of evergreen species showed were more dependence on leaf carbon gains, whereas stem hydraulic efficiency were more important for deciduous tree growth. Our results suggest that physiological traits (photosynthesis, hydraulics, nutrient use efficiency) can predict tree diameter and height growth of subtropical tree species. The differential resource acquisition and use strategies and their associations with tree growth between evergreen and deciduous trees provide insights in explaining the co-existence of evergreen and deciduous tree species in subtropical forests.
Jin-Hua Qi, Ze-Xin Fan, Pei-Li Fu, Yong-Jiang Zhang, Frank Sterck

2197 related Products with: Differential determinants of growth rates in subtropical evergreen and deciduous juvenile trees: Carbon gain, hydraulics and nutrient use efficiencies.

5 G1 kit(96 Wells) 5 G200ug100 μg25 mg100.00 ug96 wells (1 kit)1 g2.5 mg10 mg50 ug

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#33080620   2020/10/20 To Up

Photoperiod dependent transcriptional modifications in key metabolic pathways in Coffea arabica.

Photoperiod length induces in temperate plants major changes in growth rates, morphology, and metabolism, with for example modifications in the partitioning of photosynthates to avoid starvation at the end of long nights. However, this has never been studied for a tropical perennial species adapted to grow in a natural photoperiod close to 12 h/12 h all year long.
Doâa Djerrab, Benoît Bertrand, Jean-Christophe Breitler, Sophie Léran, Eveline Dechamp, Claudine Campa, Célia Barrachina, Geneviève Conejero, Hervé Etienne, Ronan Sulpice

1106 related Products with: Photoperiod dependent transcriptional modifications in key metabolic pathways in Coffea arabica.

0.1mg500 gm.100 μg100ug100 100 μg100ug Lyophilized100 μg1 Set100 μg1 Set

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#33080559   2020/09/23 To Up

Effects of offshore windfarms on seabird abundance: Strong effects in spring and in the breeding season.

The increasing development of offshore wind farms (OWFs) worldwide leads to possible conflicts with the ecological requirements of top predators that largely depend on offshore areas. Seabird species exhibit different behavioural reactions to OWFs, ranging from avoidance resulting in habitat loss, to attraction causing an increased risk of colliding with the turbines. We investigated how OWFs affected the densities and distributions of guillemots and kittiwakes breeding in the southern North Sea and if the effects varied among seasons using a 'before-after control impact' (BACI) analysis approach based on a large-scale and long-term dataset covering 14 years before and 3 years after the construction of OWFs. Guillemot relative density in the OWF decreased by 63% in spring, and by 44% in the breeding season. Kittiwake relative density in the OWF decreased by 45% in the breeding season, and not significantly by 10% in spring. We furthermore estimated the response radii to the OWF for both species and seasons, finding that guillemots showed a response radius of ~9 km in spring and kittiwakes a radius of ~20 km in the breeding season. The results underline the value of large-scale and long-term assessments considering seasonal variation throughout the yearly cycle. The here provided information on the seasonally different reactions of seabirds to OWFs adds substantially to our current knowledge and provides the necessary basis for reliable estimations of OWF effects on guillemots and kittiwakes. Such evaluations are urgently needed for future planning and management recommendations to decision-makers.
Verena Peschko, Bettina Mendel, Sabine Müller, Nele Markones, Moritz Mercker, Stefan Garthe

1230 related Products with: Effects of offshore windfarms on seabird abundance: Strong effects in spring and in the breeding season.

100ug1100 μg10mg

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#33080557   2020/10/08 To Up

Quantitative assessment of C-polysaccharide in capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae by PNMR.

Capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae are key components of commercially available anti-pneumococcal vaccines; meanwhile C-polysaccharide is considered an impurity. World Health Organization recommends a strict control over the presence of this biomolecule due to the possibility of introducing an undesired response. An alternative way for assessing this impurity is focused on detect the phosphocholine residues by means of quantitative H-NMR. This could be tricky due to the amounts of this substituent may vary generating two C-polysaccharides forms. In this work we propose an improved quantitative NMR methodology based on P-NMR for the quantification of C-polysaccharide on capsular polysaccharide preparations. The technique also focuses on phosphocholine but, conversely to above-mentioned methods, allows to discriminate between phosphocholine linked in different positions. The methodology was run on samples of eleven vaccine serotypes, including seven with phosphate groups. From a rational acceptance criterion of 10 wt%, the method allows to quantified from 30 μg of the impurity in 3 mg of total polysaccharide (1 wt%) with a signal/noise ratio of 16:1. Repeatability and intermediate precision evaluation showed a relative standard deviation of 3.33 % and 8.34 % respectively. Additionally, the method provides information about structural identity of phosphate contained in capsular polysaccharides and C-polysaccharide species. This constitutes a new contribution from the NMR that highlights the power of these techniques for assessing imperative parameters in carbohydrate-based vaccines.
Raine Garrido, Bárbara Baró, Jean Pierre Soubal, Darielys Santana

1244 related Products with: Quantitative assessment of C-polysaccharide in capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae by PNMR.

5 G16 Arrays/Slide16 Arrays/Slide100 ml.16 Arrays/Slide16 Arrays/Slide25 ml.16 Arrays/Slide100 μg5mg

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#33080554   2020/07/07 To Up

Gamma irradiation for enhancing active chemical compounds in leaf extracts of Libidibia ferrea (Leguminosae).

This research was designed to evaluate the influence of the irradiation process of the leaf extracts of Libidibia ferrea (Leguminosae) on the production of secondary chemical compounds, including their biological activity. Leaves were collected and prepared to obtain the crude extract, which was then aliquoted and separately exposed to a Co-60 source with different doses, namely: 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, and 30 kGy. From irradiated and control samples, tests of toxicity were carried out with the microcrustacea Artemia salina Leach at three moments: 24 h, 60 and 180 days after the irradiation of the samples. Bioassays showed an increase in the toxicity of the irradiated extracts, correlated with the dose. The toxicity level did not change with the storage time, indicating the excellent stability of the samples. To assess the phytochemical profile of the crude and irradiated extracts, three techniques were employed: thin-layer chromatography (TLC), liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The phytochemical results emphasized the presence of phenols, tannins, and triterpenes. The analytical tests confirmed the role of ionizing radiation in breaking down macromolecules into simpler chemical species responsible for increasing chemical activity of the extract. This report presents and discusses ionizing radiation as an outstanding tool for enhancing active chemical compounds in leaf extracts of Libidibia ferrea, which reflects on their biochemical properties.
Luiz da Silva Maia-Neto, Ademir Amaral, Luciano Rodolfo Ferreira de Lucena, Simey de Souza Leão Pereira Magnata, Edvane Borges da Silva, André Maciel Netto, Antônio Fernando Morais de Oliveira, Ivone Antônia de Souza

1035 related Products with: Gamma irradiation for enhancing active chemical compounds in leaf extracts of Libidibia ferrea (Leguminosae).

100 G1 kit(96 Wells)20ug20ug100mg5 ug 1 G

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#33080516   2020/10/09 To Up

Design, synthesis and application of a dual-functional fluorescent probe for reactive oxygen species and viscosity.

A fluorescence probe based on cyanine fluorophore was designed and synthesized in this work, which can be used to determine viscosity and reactive oxygen species (e.g., OCl, ONOO) at different wavelengths. Under a low viscosity medium, the fluorescence quantum yield of the probe is very low; however, with the increase of the medium viscosity, the probe's emission at 571 nm is enhanced by nearly 25-fold due to the inhibition of intramolecular rotations. On the other hand, the probe shows a rapid and linear fluorescence response at 710 nm to OCl or ONOO within 1 min. The different spectral response regions of the probe permit the selective detection of both viscosity and reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the probe is demonstrated to be cell permeable and capable of detecting the viscosity and the total amount of OCl/ONOO in living cells with the help of confocal microscope fluorescence imaging.
Hongyu Li, Ya Liu, Xiaoyi Li, Xiaohua Li, Huimin Ma

1406 related Products with: Design, synthesis and application of a dual-functional fluorescent probe for reactive oxygen species and viscosity.

50 ug 100ul 100ul0.25 mg50 ug 0.2 mg96T25 µg250 ml1 ml0.1 mg

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#33080513   2020/10/08 To Up

Differentiated adsorption of thiobenzoic acid and thiobenzamide on silver nanoparticles determined by SERS spectroscopy.

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of thiobenzoic acid and thiobenzamide have been recorded on three different silver colloids in order to find the chemical species responsible for the spectra and to detect differences in the adsorption with respect to their oxygen counterparts, benzoic acid and benzamide, respectively. Very significant and unexpected shifts of opposite sign between the Raman and SERS wavenumbers have been detected. By comparing the experimental and DFT calculated wavenumbers, it can be concluded that the acid is bonded to the metal as thiobenzoate through the sulfur atom with unidentate coordination. SERS spectra of thiobenzamide can be explained by assuming that it is adsorbed as azanion, like in the case of benzamide, linking to the metal through the sulfur and nitrogen atoms of the ionized thiocarboxamide group. In order to support these conclusions, B3LYP/LanL2DZ force field calculations for different complexes of silver cations with the thiobenzoate anion, the neutral thiobenzamide as well as its azanion have been carried out. Additionally, the 8a;ν mode is the most enhanced band in the SERS of both adsorbates pointing to the participation of a metal-to-molecule resonant charge transfer mechanism.
María Rosa López-Ramírez, Daniel Aranda, Isabel López-Tocón, Juan Soto, José Luis Castro, Juan Carlos Otero

2729 related Products with: Differentiated adsorption of thiobenzoic acid and thiobenzamide on silver nanoparticles determined by SERS spectroscopy.

125 ml 10 mg 30 ml 500 mg10 mg1 mg100 assays 500 G 1 G 6 ml Ready-to-use 1 G 5 G

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#33080451   2020/10/01 To Up

Melatonin slightly alleviates the effect of heat shock on bovine oocytes and resulting blastocysts.

Heat stress is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disruption of bovine oocyte function. Here, we examined whether the antioxidant melatonin can alleviate the deleterious effects of heat stress on oocyte developmental competence. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured for 22 h at 38.5 °C (control) or for 22 h at 41.5 °C (heat shock) with or without 1.0 × 10 M melatonin. At the end of maturation, a subgroup of oocytes was examined for nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential. A second subgroup of oocytes underwent fertilization (18 h), and putative zygotes were cultured in an incubator equipped with a time-lapse system for ∼190 h. Cleavage rate and the proportion of blastocysts, as well as embryo kinetics were recorded. Expanded blastocysts were collected and their transcript abundance was evaluated. Heat shock increased ROS and reduced the proportion of oocytes that resumed meiosis and reached the metaphase-II stage. Exposing oocytes to heat shock with melatonin alleviated these effects to some extent, expressed by a marginal reduction in ROS level and increased proportion of metaphase-II stage oocytes. Neither the distribution of oocyte cortical granules nor polarization of the mitochondrial membrane differed between control and heat-shocked oocytes cultured with or without melatonin. Heat shock reduced the proportion of embryos that cleaved and developed to blastocysts, characterized by alterations in kinetics of the developed embryos expressed by a delay in the first cleavage, second cleavage and blastocyst formation for heat-shock vs. control groups. Melatonin did not restore the competence or kinetics of embryos developed from heat-shocked oocytes. However, expanded blastocysts developed from heat-shocked oocytes treated with melatonin expressed a higher transcript abundance of genes associated with mitochondrial function, relative to the control and heat-shock group. In summary, melatonin improved the oxidative status of heat-shocked oocytes to some extent and had a beneficial effect on maternal mitochondrial transcripts in the developed blastocysts.
Shira Yaacobi-Artzi, Chen Shimoni, Dorit Kalo, Peter J Hansen, Zvi Roth

1080 related Products with: Melatonin slightly alleviates the effect of heat shock on bovine oocytes and resulting blastocysts.

500gm100 μg96T 0.2 mg 500 ml500gm0.1 mg1KG500 ml10 ml

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#33080442   2020/10/10 To Up

Methylation-dependent antioxidant-redox imbalance regulates hypertensive kidney injury in aging.

The prevalence of hypertension increases with age, and oxidative stress is a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced kidney damage in aging. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) family is one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and several NADPH oxidase isoforms are highly expressed in the kidney. Although epigenetic protein modification plays a role in organ injury, the methylation of the oxidant-antioxidant defense system and their role in hypertension-induced kidney damage in aging remains underexplored. The present study investigated the role of NADPH oxidase 4, superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase, and NOS in Ang-II induced kidney damage in aging. Wild type (WT, C57BL/6J) mice aged 12-14 and 75-78 weeks were used and treated with or without Ang-II (1000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks with control mice receiving saline. Aged mice with or without Ang-II exhibited higher mean BP, lower renal blood flow, and decreased renal vascular density compared to young mice. While superoxide, 4-HNE, p22, Nox4, iNOS were increased in the aged kidney, the expression of eNOS, MnSOD, CuSOD, catalase, Sirt1, and -3 as well as the ratio of GSH/GSSG, and activities of SODs and catalase were decreased compared to young control mice. The changes further deteriorated with Ang-II treatment. In Ang-II treated aged mice, the expressions of DNMTs were increased and associated with increased methylation of SODs, Sirt1, and Nox4. We conclude that hypermethylation of antioxidant enzymes in the aged kidney during hypertension worsens redox imbalance leading to kidney damage.
Sathnur Pushpakumar, Lu Ren, Subir Kumar Juin, Suravi Majumder, Rohan Kulkarni, Utpal Sen

1605 related Products with: Methylation-dependent antioxidant-redox imbalance regulates hypertensive kidney injury in aging.

96T 50 UG

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