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#35973612   2022/08/13 To Up

Sirex noctilio infestation led to inevitable pine death despite activating pathways involved in tolerance.

Defense-related metabolome traits in pine species after infestation by Sirex noctilio are largely unknown, despite, in most cases, trees being overwhelmed. Using LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics, we revealed the systemic metabolic changes induced by this insect in 14-year-old Pinus radiata trees, the most affected species worldwide. An immediate metabolome alteration was expressed in needles after infestation, including the up-regulation of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, oxyneolignans, auxins, proline, and tryptophan, among others. The flavan-3-ols (catechin and procyanidin B1) suggested a rapidly induced photoprotection mechanism aided by diverting proline as an alternative substrate for respiration to compensate for the progressive chlorosis that degrades photosystems. Meanwhile, glutathione, glutamate, and ascorbate levels significantly dropped in needles, which may indicate the critical oxidative stress that trees had to face since the onset of the infestation. They were not fully replenished after long-term infestation, and redox homeostasis was probably not achieved, compromising tree survival. Nevertheless, a huge auxins overexpression detected in needles throughout the infestation may reflect tolerance against the premature senescence caused by the woodwasp venom. In contrast, the metabolome of wood tissues remained initially unchanged, although it seems to collapse after three months. Overall, the metabolomics strategy adopted in this work evidenced its usefulness in uncovering the fundamental roles of plants' chemical defense that govern interactions with specific stressors.
Sebastián Riquelme, Jasna V Campos, Łukasz Pecio, Rosa Alzamora, Claudia Mardones, Ana M Simonet, Luis E Arteaga-Pérez, Rafael Rubilar, Oliver Fiehn, Andy J Pérez

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#35973506   2022/08/13 To Up

Host surface orientation impacts environmental film accumulations.

Two environmental films were passively collected in different orientations (vertical or horizontal) at the same location over two months. We characterized these films using bright field microscopy, total dissolved species analysis, pH analysis, vibrational interfacial spectroscopy, and contact angle goniometry. Results show that horizontal films have significantly higher surface coverage than the vertical samples (+50%). The vertical and horizontal films also show different particle morphologies but the particle size distributions are not statistically different. Vertical surfaces have smaller, less compact particulate suggesting particle adsorption depends on the surface area in contact with the parent substrate. Horizontal surfaces also generate more total dissolved solid material per unit area when washed with water (+61%). The dissolved solids from the vertical substrate are more acidic per unit mass, suggesting increased pH active species like nitrate, sulfate, or organic acids. Vibrational spectroscopy provides evidence of nitrates and sulfates in both films, but spectroscopic profiles show these ions are present in different forms. Contact angle goniometry measurements show horizontal films are more hydrophilic than vertical films, despite being deposited on the same substrate material. We also report significantly different hydrogen bonding environments for condensed water between the two films. Our results suggest that environmental films deposited on vertical vs horizontal surfaces will have significantly different characteristics, informing models for deposition and impacts to human and environmental health.
Jessica L DeYoung, Scott K Shaw

2062 related Products with: Host surface orientation impacts environmental film accumulations.