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Indirect selective laser sintering printed microporous biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold promotes endogenous bone regeneration via activation of ERK1/2 signaling.

Fabrication technique determines the physicochemical and biological properties of scaffold, including porosity, mechanical strength, osteoconductivity, and bone regenerative potential. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)-based scaffolds are superior in bone tissue engineering due to their suitable physicochemical and biological properties. We developed an indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) printing strategy to fabricate 3D microporous BCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering purposes. The green part of BCP scaffold was fabricated by SLS at relevantly low temperature in the presence of epoxy resin (EP) and the remaining EP was decomposed, and eliminated by a subsequent sintering process to obtain the microporous BCP scaffolds. Physicochemical properties, cell adhesion, biocompatibility, in vitro osteogenic potential and rabbit critical size cranial bone defect healing potential of the scaffolds were extensively evaluated. This indirect SLS printing eliminated the drawbacks of conventional direct SLS printing at high working temperatures, i.e., wavy deformation of the scaffold, hydroxyapatite decomposition, and conversion of β-TCP to α-TCP. Among the scaffolds printed with various binder ratios (by weight) of BCP and EP, the scaffold with 50/50 binder ratio (S4) showed the highest mechanical strength and porosity with the smallest pore size. Scaffold S4 showed the highest effect on osteogenic differentiation of precursor cells in vitro, and this effect was ERK1/2 signaling dependent. Scaffold S4 robustly promoted precursor cells homing, endogenous bone regeneration, and vascularization in rabbit critical-size cranial defect. In conclusion, BCP scaffold fabricated by indirect SLS printing maintains the physicochemical properties of BCP and possess the capacity to recruit host precursor cells to the defect site and promote the endogenous bone regeneration possibly via activation of ERK1/2 signaling.

2610 related Products with: Indirect selective laser sintering printed microporous biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold promotes endogenous bone regeneration via activation of ERK1/2 signaling.

Recombinant Human IFN α- 2-Amino-3-hydroxy-2-(hydr Malachite Green Phosphate 20ml Amber vial, 24-400 s Glucose 6 phosphate Trans Calcium lactate pentahydr Polyclonal Antibody Bone Recombinant Human TNF Recombinant Human IFN-γ ERK1 Clindamycin phosphate CAS Recombinant Human IFN α-

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Hyaluronan molecular weight: effects on dissolution time of dissolving microneedles in the skin and on immunogenicity of antigen.

Biomaterials used as matrix for dissolving microneedles (dMNs) may affect the manufacturing process as well as the potency of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, e.g. the immunogenicity of incorporated vaccine antigens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the molecular weight of hyaluronan, a polymer widely used in the fabrication of dMNs, ranging in molecular weight from 4.8 kDa to 1.8 MDa, on the dissolution of microneedles in the skin in time as well as the antibody response in mice and T-cell activation in vitro. Hyaluronan molecular weight (HA-MWs) did not affect antibody responses (when lower than 150 kDa) nor CD4+ T-cell responses against model antigen ovalbumin. However, the HA-MWs had an effect on the fabrication of dMNs. The 1.8 MDa HA was not suitable for the fabrication of dMNs. Similarly, the 4.8 kDa HA generated dMN arrays less robust compared to the other HA-MWs requiring optimization of the drying conditions. Finally, higher HA-MWs led to longer application time of dMN arrays for a complete dissolution of microneedles into the skin. Specifically, we identified 20 kDa HA as the optimal HA-MW for the fabrication of dMNs as with this MW the dMNs are robust and dissolve fast in the skin without affecting immunogenicity.

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Design and Characterization of Chitosan/Citrate Films as Carrier for Oral Macromolecule Delivery.

The oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals requires the including of absorption enhancer, protease inhibitor and a suitable carrier system. The aim of the present work was to formulate and characterize chitosan solutions/films incorporating citric acid (CA) as potential excipient in comparison to the well-known acetic acid (AA)-based films as a reference. Films were made by the solvent casting method with/without glycerol (G), propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) as plasticizers. The minimum film forming temperature (MFFT) of the prepared solutions, film thickness, hardness/deformation, mucoadhesivity, moisture content, FT-IR spectra and surface free energy (SFE) were investigated. Chitosan has been reported as a safe and effective paracellular absorption enhancer for hydrophilic macromolecules, therefore there would be more rationale for incorporating CA as a solubility enhancer, a permeation enhancer and an enzyme inhibitor. CA shows good cross-linking, an ideal plasticizing property and increases both tensile strength and mucoadhesivity, thus its incorporation simplifies the formulation while improving effectiveness. We concluded that CA (3.5, 4 and 5 w/v %)-based chitosan solution could be used as a novel coating/subcoating polymer for oral macromolecule delivery, or as oral mucoadhesive films.

2878 related Products with: Design and Characterization of Chitosan/Citrate Films as Carrier for Oral Macromolecule Delivery.



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Screening and identification of salivary biomarkers for assessing the effects of exogenous testosterone administration on HPG and HPA axes and ECS.

The contents of steroids and endocannabinoids along with the ratios between them would be candidate biomarkers for sensitively and comprehensively assessing the role of testosterone in regulating the activities of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). However, previous studies mostly used the contents rather than the ratios as biomarkers. This study aimed to systematically screen and identify sensitive biomarkers from 21 candidates including both the contents of nine steroids and one endocannabinoid and their ratios in saliva. Three screening criteria were whether there were intergroup differences, time-dependent changes and considerable relative stability during a 4-h period after exogenous testosterone administration. This study used LC-APCI-MS/MS to determine the salivary levels of the biomarkers on 62 male healthy undergraduates who were divided into testosterone administration and placebo control groups. The results revealed that salivary testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA and the ratios of testosterone to estradiol and AEA, and of cortisol to testosterone and DHEA were sensitive biomarkers for assessing the effects of testosterone administration on the three neuroendocrine systems because they all showed significant intergroup differences and time-dependent changes and good relative stability. Salivary cortisol, cortisone and the ratios of testosterone to androstenedione and DHEA and of androstenedione to estrone, and of cortisol to cortisone, androstenedione and AEA might be suitable biomarkers because they met only two of the three criteria, but needed to be validated in the future. The rest biomarkers were unsuitable because they mostly showed no significant intergroup differences, blunt time-dependent changes and poor relative stability.

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Androstadienone C19H26O C Androstane-3a, 17b-diol 5 ∆1-Androstene-3β,17β- Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor , Mouse (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androst-4-ene-3,17-dion-1 CAR,CAR,Constitutive acti ∆2-Androstene-1α,17β- Androstenedione 19

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Generation of scaffold incorporated with nanobioglass encapsulated in chitosan/chondroitin sulfate complex for bone tissue engineering.

Over the past decade, various composite materials fabricated using natural or synthetic biopolymers incorporated with bioceramic have been widely investigated for the regeneration of segmental bone defect. In the present study, nano-bioglass incorporated osteoconductive composite scaffolds were fabricated through polyelectrolyte complexation/phase separation and resuspension of separated complex in gelatin matrix. Developed scaffold exhibits controlled bioreactivity, minimize abrupt pH rise (~7.8), optimal swelling behavior (2.6-3.1) and enhances mechanical strength (0.62 ± 0.18 MPa) under wet condition. Moreover, in-vitro cell study shows that the fabricated scaffold provide suitable template for cellular attachment, spreading, biomineralization and collagen based matrix deposition. Also, the developed scaffold was evaluated for biocompatibility and bone tissue regeneration potential through implantation in non-union segmental bone defect created in rabbit animal model. The obtained histological analysis indicates strong potential of the composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration, vascularization and reconstruction of defects. Thus, the developed composite scaffold might be a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering applications.

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Bone cancer test tissue a Bone marrow tumor and adj Breast invasive ductal ca Alkaline Phospatase (ALP) Bone and cartilage cancer Multiple lung carcinoma ( Human normal bone and ost Bone and cartilage tumor Bone marrow tumor and nor Bladder cancer tissue arr Mouse Anti-Human Chondroi Laryngeal cancer and norm

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Nanobody affinity improvement: Directed evolution of the anti-ochratoxin A single domain antibody.

The characteristics of single domain and ease of gene manipulation of the single domain antibody (sdAb) make it suitable for affinity maturation in vitro. Since the affinity of antibodies can influence the immunoassays' sensitivity, a nanobody (Nb), the anti-ochratoxin A sdAb (AOA-sdAb), was herein selected as the model antibody to explore feasible approach for improving its affinity. Homology modeling and molecular docking were used to analyze the interaction between OTA and the AOA-sdAb. After alanine scanning verification, Gly53, Met79, Ser102, and Leu149 were determined as the key amino acids of the AOA-sdAb. Two site-directed saturated mutation libraries were constructed by two-site mutation against those four key amino acids. After biopanning and identification, a mutant Nb-G53Q&S102D was obtained with a half maximal inhibition concentration (IC) of 0.29 ng/mL and a K value of 52 nM, which is 1.4-fold and 1.36-fold lower than that of the original sdAb, respectively. The computer simulation analysis indicated that the hydrogen bond, hydrophobic interaction, and side chain steric hindrance of amino acid residues are critical for the binding affinity of the AOA-sdAb. Overall, the techniques shown in this study are effective ways at 'identifying residues involved in antigen binding' that can be altered by site-directed mutation.

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Anti-ARID2(AT-rich intera Anti-ACE-1 (Angiotension Anti-ADAM-10 (A Disintigr Anti-ADAM-12 (A Disintigr Anti-ADAM17(a disintegrin Normal rat multiple organ Anti-AGGF1(Angiogenic fac Rabbit Anti-Hepatitis C V Anti-ADAM-29 (A Disintegr Rabbit Anti-Hepatitis C V Anti-ADAMTS-2 (A Disintig Anti-ACE-1 (Angiotension

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