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Search results for: T195


#32356192   2020/04/30 To Up

Sequencing of two transgenic early-flowering poplar lines confirmed vector-free single-locus T-DNA integration.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are attractive alternatives to the PCR-based characterisation of genetically modified plants for safety assessment and labelling since NGS is highly sensitive to the detection of T-DNA inserts as well as vector backbone sequences in transgenic plants. In this study, two independent transgenic male Populus tremula lines, T193-2 and T195-1, both carrying the FLOWERING LOCUS T gene from Arabidopsis thaliana under control of a heat-inducible promoter (pHSP::AtFT) and the non-transgenic control clone W52, were further characterised by NGS and third-generation sequencing. The results support previous findings that the T-DNA was hemizygously inserted in one genomic locus of each line. However, the T-DNA insertions consist of conglomerations of one or two T-DNA copies together with a small T-DNA fragment without AtFT parts. Based on NGS data, no additional T-DNA splinters or vector backbone sequences could be identified in the genome of the two transgenic lines. Seedlings derived from crosses between the pHSP::AtFT transgenic male parents and female wild type plants are therefore expected to be T-DNA splinter or vector backbone free. Thus, PCR analyses amplifying a partial T-DNA fragment with AtFT-specific primers are sufficient to determine whether the seedlings are transgenic or not. An analysis of 72 second generation-seedlings clearly showed that about 50% of them still reveal the presence of the T-DNA, confirming data already published. To prove if unanticipated genomic changes were induced by T-DNA integration, extended future studies using long-range sequencing technologies are required once a suitable chromosome-level P. tremula reference genome sequence is available.
Birgit Kersten, Ana Paula Leite Montalvão, Hans Hoenicka, Cristina Vettori, Donatella Paffetti, Matthias Fladung

1396 related Products with: Sequencing of two transgenic early-flowering poplar lines confirmed vector-free single-locus T-DNA integration.

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#28824003   2017/08/19 To Up

MEN4 and mutations: the latest of the MEN syndromes.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) refers to a group of autosomal dominant disorders with generally high penetrance that lead to the development of a wide spectrum of endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations. The most frequent among these conditions is MEN type 1 (MEN1), which is caused by germline heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and functional or nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary adenomas. Approximately 10% of patients with familial or sporadic MEN1-like phenotype do not have mutations or deletions. A novel MEN syndrome was discovered, initially in rats (MENX), and later in humans (MEN4), which is caused by germline mutations in the putative tumor suppressor The most common phenotype of the 19 established cases of MEN4 that have been described to date is PHPT followed by pituitary adenomas. Recently, somatic or germline mutations in were also identified in patients with sporadic PHPT, small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, lymphoma and breast cancer, demonstrating a novel role for as a tumor susceptibility gene for other neoplasms. In this review, we report on the genetic characterization and clinical features of MEN4.
Rami Alrezk, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A Stratakis

2281 related Products with: MEN4 and mutations: the latest of the MEN syndromes.

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#26719098   2015/12/31 To Up

Recurrent activating mutations of CD28 in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) comprise a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell neoplasms with a poor prognosis. Recently, mutations in TET2 and other epigenetic modifiers as well as RHOA have been identified in these diseases, particularly in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). CD28 is the major co-stimulatory receptor in T cells which, upon binding ligand, induces sustained T-cell proliferation and cytokine production when combined with T-cell receptor stimulation. We have identified recurrent mutations in CD28 in PTCLs. Two residues-D124 and T195-were recurrently mutated in 11.3% of cases of AITL and in one case of PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Surface plasmon resonance analysis of mutations at these residues with predicted differential partner interactions showed increased affinity for ligand CD86 (residue D124) and increased affinity for intracellular adaptor proteins GRB2 and GADS/GRAP2 (residue T195). Molecular modeling studies on each of these mutations suggested how these mutants result in increased affinities. We found increased transcription of the CD28-responsive genes CD226 and TNFA in cells expressing the T195P mutant in response to CD3 and CD86 co-stimulation and increased downstream activation of NF-κB by both D124V and T195P mutants, suggesting a potential therapeutic target in CD28-mutated PTCLs.
J Rohr, S Guo, J Huo, A Bouska, C Lachel, Y Li, P D Simone, W Zhang, Q Gong, C Wang, A Cannon, T Heavican, A Mottok, S Hung, A Rosenwald, R Gascoyne, K Fu, T C Greiner, D D Weisenburger, J M Vose, L M Staudt, W Xiao, G E O Borgstahl, S Davis, C Steidl, T McKeithan, J Iqbal, W C Chan

1711 related Products with: Recurrent activating mutations of CD28 in peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

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#25703038   2015/03/18 To Up

An extended CCR5 ECL2 peptide forms a helix that binds HIV-1 gp120 through non-specific hydrophobic interactions.

C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) serves as a co-receptor for HIV-1. The CCR5 N-terminal segment, the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and the transmembrane helices have been implicated in binding the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Peptides corresponding to the sequence of the putative ECL2 as well as peptides containing extracellular loops 1 and 3 (ECL1 and ECL3) were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The aromatic residues in the C-terminal half of an ECL2 peptide were shown to interact with gp120. In the present study, we found that, in aqueous buffer, the segment Q188-Q194 in an elongated ECL2 peptide (R168-K197) forms an amphiphilic helix, which corresponds to the beginning of the fifth transmembrane helix in the crystal structure of CCR5. Two-dimensional saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy and dynamic filtering studies revealed involvement of Y187, F189, W190 and F193 of the helical segment in the interaction with gp120. The crystal structure of CCR5 shows that the aromatic side chains of F189, W190 and F193 point away from the binding pocket and interact with the membrane or with an adjacent CCR5 molecule, and therefore could not interact with gp120 in the intact CCR5 receptor. We conclude that these three aromatic residues of ECL2 peptides interact with gp120 through hydrophobic interactions that are not representative of the interactions of the intact CCR5 receptor. The HIV-1 inhibition by ECL2 peptides, as well as by ECL1 and ECL3 peptides and peptides corresponding to ECL2 of CXCR4, which serves as an alternative HIV-1 co-receptor, suggests that there is a hydrophobic surface in the envelope spike that could be a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors.
Meital Abayev, Adi Moseri, Oren Tchaicheeyan, Naama Kessler, Boris Arshava, Fred Naider, Tali Scherf, Jacob Anglister

2939 related Products with: An extended CCR5 ECL2 peptide forms a helix that binds HIV-1 gp120 through non-specific hydrophobic interactions.

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#25664608   2015/02/11 To Up

Why Ser and not Thr brokers catalysis in the trypsin fold.

Although Thr is equally represented as Ser in the human genome and as a nucleophile is as good as Ser, it is never found in the active site of the large family of trypsin-like proteases that utilize the Asp/His/Ser triad. The molecular basis of the preference of Ser over Thr in the trypsin fold was investigated with X-ray structures of the thrombin mutant S195T free and bound to an irreversible active site inhibitor. In the free form, the methyl group of T195 is oriented toward the incoming substrate in a conformation seemingly incompatible with productive binding. In the bound form, the side chain of T195 is reoriented for efficient substrate acylation without causing steric clash within the active site. Rapid kinetics prove that this change is due to selection of an active conformation from a preexisting ensemble of reactive and unreactive rotamers whose relative distribution determines the level of activity of the protease. Consistent with these observations, the S195T substitution is associated with a weak yet finite activity that allows identification of an unanticipated important role for S195 as the end point of allosteric transduction in the trypsin fold. The S195T mutation abrogates the Na(+)-dependent enhancement of catalytic activity in thrombin, activated protein C, and factor Xa and significantly weakens the physiologically important allosteric effects of thrombomodulin on thrombin and of cofactor Va on factor Xa. The evolutionary selection of Ser over Thr in trypsin-like proteases was therefore driven by the need for high catalytic activity and efficient allosteric regulation.
Leslie A Pelc, Zhiwei Chen, David W Gohara, Austin D Vogt, Nicola Pozzi, Enrico Di Cera

2893 related Products with: Why Ser and not Thr brokers catalysis in the trypsin fold.

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#25201729   2014/09/06 To Up

CYLD negatively regulates Hippo signaling by limiting Hpo phosphorylation in Drosophila.

Cylindromatosis (CYLD), a deubiquitinase and regulator of microtubule dynamics, has important roles in the regulation of inflammation, immune response, apoptosis, mitosis, cell migration and tumorigenesis. Although great progress has been made in the biochemical and cellular functions of CYLD, its role in animal development remains elusive. In this study, we identified Drosophila CYLD (dCYLD) as a negative regulator of the Hippo pathway in vivo. dCYLD associates and colocalizes with Hpo, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in the cytoplasm, and decreases Hpo activity through limiting its phosphorylation at T195. We also showed that dCYLD limits Hippo signal transduction as evidenced by decreasing phosphorylation and thereby increasing activity of Yki, the key downstream effector of the Hippo pathway. These findings uncover dCYLD as a negative regulator of the Hippo pathway and provide new insights into the physiological function of dCYLD in animal development.
Yan Chen, Zaizhu Wang, Ping Wang, Dengwen Li, Jun Zhou, Shian Wu

1364 related Products with: CYLD negatively regulates Hippo signaling by limiting Hpo phosphorylation in Drosophila.

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#23883111   2013/11/14 To Up

Mitochondrial polymorphisms impact outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury.

Patient outcomes are variable following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the biological underpinnings explaining this variability are unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction after TBI is well documented, particularly in animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mitochondrial polymorphisms on mitochondrial function and patient outcomes out to 1 year after a severe TBI in a human adult population. The Human MitoChip V2.0 was used to evaluate mitochondrial variants in an initial set of n=136 subjects. SNPs found to be significantly associated with patient outcomes [Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NRS), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), in-hospital mortality, and hospital length of stay] or neurochemical level (lactate:pyruvate ratio from cerebrospinal fluid) were further evaluated in an expanded sample of n=336 subjects. A10398G was associated with DRS at 6 and 12 months (p=0.02) and a significant time by SNP interaction for DRS was found (p=0.0013). The A10398 allele was associated with greater disability over time. There was a T195C by sex interaction for GOS (p=0.03) with the T195 allele associated with poorer outcomes in females. This is consistent with our findings that the T195 allele was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (p=0.01), but only in females. This is the first study associating mitochondrial DNA variation with both mitochondrial function and neurobehavioral outcomes after TBI in humans. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA variation may impact patient outcomes after a TBI potentially by influencing mitochondrial function, and that sex of the patient may be important in evaluating these associations in future studies.
Yvette P Conley, David O Okonkwo, Sandra Deslouches, Sheila Alexander, Ava M Puccio, Sue R Beers, Dianxu Ren

1223 related Products with: Mitochondrial polymorphisms impact outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury.

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#22872415   2012/08/08 To Up

Conformational dynamics of threonine 195 and the S1 subsite in functional trypsin variants.

Replacing the catalytic serine in trypsin with threonine (S195T variant) leads to a nearly complete loss of catalytic activity, which can be partially restored by eliminating the C42-C58 disulfide bond. The 0.69 μs of combined explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed continuous rearrangement of T195 with different conformational preferences between five trypsin variants tested. Among three conformational families observed for the T195 residue, one showed the T195 hydroxyl in a conformation analogous to that of the serine residue in wild-type trypsin, positioning the hydroxyl oxygen atom for attack on the carbonyl carbon of the peptide substrate. MD simulations demonstrated that this conformation was more populated for the C42A/C58V/S195T and C42A/C58A/S195T triple variants than for the catalytically inactive S195T variant and correlated with restored enzymatic activities for triple variants. In addition, observation of the increased motion of the S214-G219 segment in the S195T substituted variants suggested an existence of open and closed conformations for the substrate binding pocket. The closed conformation precludes access to the S1 binding site and could further reduce enzymatic activities for triple variants. Double variants with intact serine residues (C42A/C58A/S195 and C42A/C58V/S195) also showed interchange between closed and open conformations for the S214-G219 segment, but to a lesser extent than the triple variants. The increased conformational flexibility of the S1 subsite, which was not observed for the wild-type, correlated with reduced enzymatic activities and suggested a possible mode of substrate regulation for the trypsin variants tested.
Trevor Gokey, Teaster T Baird, Anton B Guliaev

2687 related Products with: Conformational dynamics of threonine 195 and the S1 subsite in functional trypsin variants.

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#22075147   // To Up

Tao-1 phosphorylates Hippo/MST kinases to regulate the Hippo-Salvador-Warts tumor suppressor pathway.

Recent studies have shown that the Hippo-Salvador-Warts (HSW) pathway restrains tissue growth by phosphorylating and inactivating the oncoprotein Yorkie. How growth-suppressive signals are transduced upstream of Hippo remains unclear. We show that the Sterile 20 family kinase, Tao-1, directly phosphorylates T195 in the Hippo activation loop and that, like other HSW pathway genes, Tao-1 functions to restrict cell proliferation in developing imaginal epithelia. This relationship appears to be evolutionarily conserved, because mammalian Tao-1 similarly affects MST kinases. In S2 cells, Tao-1 mediates the effects of the upstream HSW components Merlin and Expanded, consistent with the idea that Tao-1 functions in tissues to regulate Hippo phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that one family of Ste20 kinases can activate another and identify Tao-1 as a component of the regulatory network controlling HSW pathway signaling, and therefore tissue growth, during development.
Julian C Boggiano, Pamela J Vanderzalm, Richard G Fehon

2632 related Products with: Tao-1 phosphorylates Hippo/MST kinases to regulate the Hippo-Salvador-Warts tumor suppressor pathway.

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#14690684   // To Up

Characterization of protein kinase A phosphorylation: multi-technique approach to phosphate mapping.

A multi-technique approach to identification and mapping of phosphorylation on protein kinase A (PKA) is described. X-ray crystallography revealed phosphorylation at T197 and S338 while mass spectrometry (MS) on the intact protein suggested phosphorylation at three sites. Tryptic digestion, followed by MS, confirmed the presence of three phosphates. However, metal affinity treatment of the digest prior to MS revealed the presence of a fourth phosphopeptide. Subsequent analysis of the digests using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with quadrupole ion trap (QIT) MS confirmed phosphorylation at S10 and S338 and suggested phosphorylation at S139 and T195/197. Unfortunately, identification of pS139 was inconclusive due to low signal intensity and early elution in reversed-phase LC while poor MS/MS data prevented localization of the phosphate to T195 or T197. Phosphopeptide modification with ethanethiol, followed by LC QIT-MS/MS, identified four phosphopeptides in a single experiment. In addition, the fragmentation data provided significantly more sequence information than data obtained from unmodified peptides. Data from this study suggested that PKA was completely phosphorylated at S10, T197, and S338 and partially phosphorylated at S139. These results illustrate that critical information can be lost unless multiple MS techniques are used for identification and validation of phosphorylation.
Jianwei Shen, Richard A Smith, Vincent S Stoll, Rohinton Edalji, Clarissa Jakob, Karl Walter, Emily Gramling, Sally Dorwin, Diane Bartley, Angelo Gunasekera, Jianguo Yang, Thomas Holzman, Robert W Johnson

2824 related Products with: Characterization of protein kinase A phosphorylation: multi-technique approach to phosphate mapping.

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