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Exploring Factors Influencing Injury Severity of Vehicle At-fault Accidents: A Comparative Analysis of Passenger and Freight Vehicles.The objective of this study is to find factors influencing the injury severity of vehicle at-fault accidents in Shenyang (China), and discuss the commonalities and differences between passenger and freight vehicle accidents. We analyzed 1647 traffic accidents from 2015 to 2017, in which motor vehicles were fully or mainly responsible, including 1164 traffic accidents caused by passenger vehicles and 483 traffic accidents caused by freight vehicles. Twenty influencing factors from the aspects of accident, driver, time, space and environmental attributes are analyzed to find their statistical connection with injury severity using the binary logistic regression model. For passenger vehicles, five influencing factors (side collision; illegal act while driving; hit-and-run; season and administrative division), showed statistically significant correlations with the injury severity. For freight vehicles, three influencing factors (illegal act while driving; season and administrative division), showed statistically significant correlations with the injury severity. Illegal act while driving is the only common influencing factor for the injury severity of both passenger and freight vehicle accidents. Side collision and hit-and-run are significant influencing factors for the injury severity of passenger vehicle accidents, but not for freight vehicle accidents. Season and administrative division present different results on influencing passenger and freight vehicle accidents. Based on these results, measures including driver education and road infrastructure improvement could be implemented to reduce the injury severity of accidents in passenger and freight vehicles.
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Sparse hand-held probe for optoacoustic ultrasound volumetric imaging: an experimental proof-of-concept study.We present an experimental proof-of-concept study on the performance of a sparse segmented annular array for optoacoustic imaging. A capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer was equipped with a negatively focused acoustic lens and scanned in an annular fashion to exploit the performance of the sparse array geometry proposed in our recent numerical studies [Biomed. Opt. Express10, 1545 (2019)BOEICL2156-708510.1364/BOE.10.001545; J. Biomed. Opt.23, 025004 (2018)JBOPFO1083-366810.1117/1.JBO.23.2.025004]. A dedicated water tank was made using a 3D printer for light delivery and mounting the sample. A phantom experiment was carried out to showcase the possibility of full-field optoacoustic ultrasound (OPUS) imaging and confirm the earlier numerical results. This proof of concept opens the door towards a prototype of OPUS imaging for (pre-) clinical studies.
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Investigation of flow dynamics of primary coolant in a delay tank of a swimming pool-type nuclear reactor using radiotracer technique.Radiotracer investigations were carried out for tracing primary coolant in a delay tank of a swimming pool type nuclear reactor. The delay tank was designed to provide a certain delay or residence time to the primary coolant so that the short-lived radioisotopes such as (nitrogen-16 and oxygen-19) decay to a safer level before exiting from the delay tank. However, soon after commissioning of the reactor, the radiation levels at the exit of the reactor core and delay tank, in the working area were found to be higher than the permissible levels. Therefore, the main objectives of the investigations were to measure breakthrough and residence times and, to investigate flow dynamics of the coolant within the tank. Residence time distributions (RTDs) of the coolant were measured in the delay tank using technetium-99m as sodium pertechnatate as a radiotracer. The breakthrough time (BTT) and mean residence time (MRT) were determined from the measured RTD and the same were found to be inadequate to allow the decay of short-lived radioisotopes to the permissible levels. Axial dispersion model with two parallel flow streams was used to simulate the measured RTD curves. Results of the model simulation indicated bypassing of the coolant. Based on the results of the radiotracer investigations, necessary modifications were carried out in the design of the tank. After implementing the modifications, the radiotracer experiments were repeated and, the BTT and the MRT were found to increase sufficient enough to allow decay of the produced radioisotopes and thus to reduce the radiation levels at the exit of the delay tank and in the working area to the safer and permissible levels.
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Higher normalized concentrations of tetracycline resistance found in ballast and harbor water compared to ocean water.Although ballast water is a known vector for the global transport of microorganisms, the Ballast Water Management Convention only sets limits for indicator organisms and does not consider antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Herein, we examined the concentration of indicator organisms and prevalence of three ARGs (sul1, tet (M), and vanA) in a total of 53 ballast, 21 harbor, and 8 ocean samples collected in Singapore, China, South Africa, and California. E. coli was found in significantly higher concentrations in ballast samples obtained in Singapore and China compared to South Africa (Singapore, p = 0.040) and California (Singapore, p < 0.001; China, p = 0.038). Harbor samples from China had significantly higher concentrations of E. coli than Singapore (p = 0.049) and California (p = 0.001). When compared to ocean samples, there were significantly higher concentrations of normalized tet(M) in ballast samples from California (p = 0.011) and Singapore (p = 0.019) and in harbor samples from California (p = 0.018), Singapore (p = 0.010), and South Africa (p = 0.008). These findings suggest that microbial loads significantly differ among ports. Furthermore, certain ARGs are enriched in ballast and harbor waters when compared to ocean water, which suggests that ballast waters have the potential to either transport higher concentrations of certain ARGs or that ballast tank conditions may exert selective pressure for some ARGs.
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Overexpression of an endogenous raw starch digesting mesophilic α-amylase gene in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Z3 by in vitro methylation protocol.Mesophilic α-amylases function effectively at low temperatures with high rates of catalysis and require less energy for starch hydrolysis. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an essential producer of mesophilic α-amylases. However, due to the existence of the restriction-modification system (RMS), introducing exogenous DNAs into wild-type B. amyloliquefaciens is especially tricky.
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Mosquito-Independent Transmission of West Nile virus in Farmed Saltwater Crocodiles ().West Nile virus, Kunjin strain (WNV) is endemic in Northern Australia, but rarely causes clinical disease in humans and horses. Recently, WNV genomic material was detected in cutaneous lesions of farmed saltwater crocodiles (), but live virus could not be isolated, begging the question of the pathogenesis of these lesions. Crocodile hatchlings were experimentally infected with either 10 ( = 10) or 10 ( = 11) TCID-doses of WNV and each group co-housed with six uninfected hatchlings in a mosquito-free facility. Seven hatchlings were mock-infected and housed separately. Each crocodile was rotationally examined and blood-sampled every third day over a 3-week period. Eleven animals, including three crocodiles developing typical skin lesions, were culled and sampled 21 days post-infection (dpi). The remaining hatchlings were blood-sampled fortnightly until experimental endpoint 87 dpi. All hatchlings remained free of overt clinical disease, apart from skin lesions, throughout the experiment. Viremia was detected by qRT-PCR in infected animals during 2-17 dpi and in-contact animals 11-21 dpi, indicating horizontal mosquito-independent transmission. Detection of viral genome in tank-water as well as oral and cloacal swabs, collected on multiple days, suggests that shedding into pen-water and subsequent mucosal infection is the most likely route. All inoculated animals and some in-contact animals developed virus-neutralizing antibodies detectable from 17 dpi. Virus-neutralizing antibody titers continued to increase in exposed animals until the experimental endpoint, suggestive of persisting viral antigen. However, no viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in any tissue sample, including from skin and intestine. While this study confirmed that infection of saltwater crocodiles with WNV was associated with the formation of skin lesions, we were unable to elucidate the pathogenesis of these lesions or the nidus of viral persistence. Our results nevertheless suggest that prevention of WNV infection and induction of skin lesions in farmed crocodiles may require management of both mosquito-borne and water-borne viral transmission in addition to vaccination strategies.
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Detection and quantification of Salmonella spp. in poultry slaughterhouses of southern Brazil.Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. The use of quantitative techniques is important for assessing the risk and determining the capacity of each step of the slaughtering process to decrease or increase bacterial contamination. We aimed to detect and to quantify the presence of Salmonella in Brazilian processing plants by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).
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Serotype diversity and slaughterhouse-level risk factors related to Salmonella contamination on poultry carcasses in Algiers.In Algeria, the latest studies on Salmonella demonstrated warning contamination rates in farms and slaughterhouses. This pathogen can contaminate poultry meat and put humans at risk especially that such product is nowadays widely consumed.
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