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Facile Preparation of PNA-Peptide Conjugates with a Polar Maleimide-Thioether Linkage.Conjugation of a delivery peptide containing a thiol functionality (e.g., a cysteine residue) with a PNA oligomer displaying a single unprotected aliphatic primary amine (e.g., the N-terminus or a C-terminal lysine residue) can be achieved via a one-pot modification with a bisfunctional maleimide linker also displaying a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester group (e.g., Mal-PEG2-OSu). Here, an optimized protocol with respect to ratios between the reactants as well as recommended reaction times is presented. Formation and conversion of the maleimide-PNA intermediate was followed by analytical HPLC as exemplified by its conjugation to (KFF)K-Cys-NH. In addition, the reaction time required for direct conversion of a preformed Mal-(CH)-(C=O)-PNA oligomer in the presence of a slight excess of thiol-modified peptide (with a varying degree of sterical hindrance: HS-(CH)-CONH-(KFF)K-NH, (KFF)K-hCys-NH and (KFF)K-Cys-NH) is provided.
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#32087576 // Save this To Up
A Plant-Specific N-terminal Extension Reveals Evolutionary Functional Divergence within Translocator Proteins.Conserved translocator proteins (TSPOs) mediate cell stress responses possibly in a cell-type-specific manner. This work reports on the molecular function of plant TSPO and their possible evolutionary divergence. Arabidopsis thaliana TSPO (AtTSPO) is stress induced and has a conserved polybasic, plant-specific N-terminal extension. AtTSPO reduces water loss by depleting aquaporin PIP2;7 in the plasma membrane. Herein, AtTSPO was found to bind phosphoinositides in vitro, but only full-length AtTSPO or chimeric mouse TSPO with an AtTSPO N-terminus bound PI(4,5)Pin vitro and modified PIP2;7 levels in vivo. Expression of AtTSPO but not its N-terminally truncated variant enhanced phospholipase C activity and depleted PI(4,5)P from the plasma membrane and its enrichment in Golgi membranes. Deletion or point mutations within the AtTSPO N-terminus affected PI(4,5)P binding and almost prevented AtTSPO-PIP2;7 interaction in vivo. The findings imply functional divergence of plant TSPOs from bacterial and animal counterparts via evolutionary acquisition of the phospholipid-interacting N-terminus.
2288 related Products with: A Plant-Specific N-terminal Extension Reveals Evolutionary Functional Divergence within Translocator Proteins.Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi EGF Phospho-Specific Arra Proteins and Antibodies H Mouse Anti-Human Neuron S Anti Amyloid Precursor Pr Recombinant Rubella Viral Recombinant Human CLU Apo T-Cell Receptor Signaling Recombinant Human IFN-alp Recombinant Human AP2M1 P ACTH (N Terminal) Recombinant Human SDF-1 a
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