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#32252086   // To Up

Hyperthyroidism.

Thyrotoxicosis is a general term for excess circulating and tissue thyroid hormone levels, whereas hyperthyroidism specifically denotes disorders involving a hyperactive thyroid gland (Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, toxic adenoma). Diagnosis and determination of the cause rely on clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Hyperthyroidism is treated with antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine ablation, or thyroidectomy. Other types of thyrotoxicosis are monitored and treated with β-blockers to control symptoms given that most of these conditions resolve spontaneously.
Michael T McDermott

1720 related Products with: Hyperthyroidism.



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#32252057   2020/04/06 To Up

Thyroid Tubercle of Zuckerkandl May Not Arise from the Ultimobranchial Body: Results from Histological Analysis.

Thyroid tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ) is a nodule arising from the posterolateral thyroid, considered to be a remnant of the ultimobranchial body (UB). Considering that C cells and solid cell nests also arise from the UB, we hypothesized that these would be present in the TZ. We examined the presence of C cells and solid cell nests in the TZ using the histological analyses of 21 patients with grade 2 or 3 TZs following Pelizzo's grading system. Out of 21 TZs, 19 (90.5%) were located in the right lobe of the thyroid. Microscopically, solid cell nests were found within the TZ in 1 case (4.8%), and within the main thyroid tissues in 3 cases (14.3%). Calcitonin-positive C cells were scattered within the TZ in 1 case (4.8%), and within the main thyroid tissue in 15 cases (71.4%). The distribution of C cells within the main thyroid tissue was denser than that within the TZ. The above-mentioned results indicated the lack of C cells and solid cell nests in the TZ. Although the TZ may have an embryological origin different from that of ordinary thyroid tissue, it is unlikely that the remnants of the UB are involved in the formation of the TZ.
Miyoko Higuchi, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Ayana Suzuki, Hiroo Masuoka, Akira Miyauchi

2117 related Products with: Thyroid Tubercle of Zuckerkandl May Not Arise from the Ultimobranchial Body: Results from Histological Analysis.

1 module1 module100 μg 15 ml 1 module1 module1 mg1.5 x 10^6 cells500 Units1 module

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#32252028   2020/04/01 To Up

Thyroid squamous cell carcinoma: a unique type of cancer in World Health Organization classification.

The aim is to review the features of 117 primary squamous cell carcinomas of thyroid which meet the histological criteria of World Health Organization classification of endocrine tumours. The carcinomas occur in 83 women and 34 men (female to male ratio is 2.4 to 1) and with median age at presentation of 64. Half of these squamous cell carcinomas of thyroid were moderately differentiated. PAX-8 protein is a sensitive marker for confirming the thyroid origin of the carcinoma. The carcinoma is also positive for p63, p40 cytokeratins 5/6, 7,19 and negative for cytokeratins 20 and 10/13. P53 overexpression is common. The most important differential diagnosis is direct infiltration or metastatic involvement by squamous cell carcinoma from other organs. Limited mutation analysis revealed BRAF mutation in some squamous cell carcinomas of the thyroid. The genetic profile appears to be different from anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid had lymph node involvement in 59% and distant metastases in 26%. The median survival of the patients was 8 months. Curative surgery offers the best survival for the patients with the carcinoma. To conclude, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland has distinctive clinical, pathological and molecular profiles. It is important to recognize this unique variant of thyroid carcinoma for possible curative surgical resection and to do more genomic works on the entity to uncover the molecular pathogenesis.
Alfred King-Yin Lam

2480 related Products with: Thyroid squamous cell carcinoma: a unique type of cancer in World Health Organization classification.



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#32252026   2020/04/01 To Up

Pulmonary and overall healthcare utilization after childhood and young adult thyroid cancer.

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with excellent prognosis. However, little is known about the long-term utilization of healthcare resources among survivors. The objective of this study was to compare utilization of healthcare resources among DTC survivors to the general population, with a focus on pulmonary-related resource utilization. Population-based linked data were used to retrospectively ascertain DTC patients from the Ontario Cancer Registry, age <30 years at diagnosis between 1992 and 2011. DTC cases were individually matched 1:10 to the general population on age, gender, diagnosis year, and rural status. Billing records for all-cause hospitalizations, emergency department visits, pulmonary subspecialist visits, and chest imaging were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRR). A total of 2456 individuals with DTC were identified, with women representing the majority (82.8%) of cases. Compared to controls, hospitalization and emergency department visit IRRs were 2.56 (95%CI, 2.49-2.63) and 2.22 (95%CI, 2.18-2.26), respectively. An excess of pulmonary diagnostic imaging was observed for chest radiography (IRR, 2.7; 95%CI, 2.6-2.8) and pulmonary CT's (IRR, 17.5; 95%CI, 15.8-19.3). Patients who underwent radioactive iodine therapy had a higher incidence of pulmonary-related healthcare utilization than those who did not. The highest healthcare utilization for all modalities was observed in the 30-to-90 days after DTC diagnosis with a steady decline further from diagnosis; however, elevated utilization was observed throughout the observation period. Health services utilization is high for primary DTC survivors, irrespective of the time since diagnosis. Radioactive iodine therapy is associated with higher rates of utilization. These findings have ramifications for treatment, surveillance and for policy-formulation.
Giancarlo Di Giuseppe, Aleksandra Zuk, Jonathan D Wasserman, Jason D Pole

1214 related Products with: Pulmonary and overall healthcare utilization after childhood and young adult thyroid cancer.

5 G25 mg1000 5 G100ul1 g96 wells (1 kit)100ug100ul

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#32251951   2020/04/02 To Up

Thyroid-disrupting effects and mechanism of thiazole-Zn-induced thyroid cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Thiazole-Zn is a systemic fungicide synthesized and developed in China that has been used for the prevention and treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases on fruits and vegetables. Thiazole-Zn is a new thyroid disruptor chemical. The purpose of this study was to clarify the thyroid-disrupting property of thiazole-Zn and the mechanism responsible for thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis inhibition in male rats induced by thiazole-Zn. First, the effects of different thiazole-Zn doses and exposure times on the thyroid weights, thyroid morphology and serum hormone levels of rats were investigated. The results showed that thiazole-Zn increased thyroid weights and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and induced thyroid cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in a dose-related and time-related manner. Furthermore, measurement of thyroid radioiodine uptake in vivo in rats confirmed that thiazole-Zn inhibited active iodide uptake into the thyroid, which reduced circulating levels of serum T3 and T4. Decreases in circulating THs resulted in a compensatory increase in serum TSH levels through a negative feedback system. Subsequently, sustained excessive stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH led to thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In addition, thiazole-Zn increased sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression in the rat thyroid, and the increased NIS expression promoted and restored iodide uptake into the thyroids of rats. The risk of iodine intake inhibition by thiazole-Zn to humans, especially susceptible individuals, such as children and pregnant women, warrants additional attention.
Yang Honglian, Liu Huanliang, Zhang Wei, She Xiaojun, Gao Xiujie, Ma Kefeng, Wang Kun, Cui Bo, Fang Yanjun, Xi Zhuge

1243 related Products with: Thyroid-disrupting effects and mechanism of thiazole-Zn-induced thyroid cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

5mg96 assays400 ug400 ug1 mg1 mg

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#32251889   2020/03/26 To Up

Reproduction in the Eared Dove: An exception to the classic model of seasonal reproduction in birds?

In avian species living at high altitudes and latitudes, reproductive events are largely controlled by photoperiod, with changes being perceived mainly through encephalic photoreceptors located in the hypothalamus. It is known that during long day periods (reproductive periods), the information transmitted by brain photoreceptors triggers the production of thyroid hormones that regulate GnRH secretion, inducing secretion of pituitary gonadotropins. As a result, gonads develop and grow and the production of gonadal sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol increases (classic gonadal cycle). During short day periods (non-reproductive periods) on the other hand, the gonads regress, and plasma gonadal steroid levels are low. By means of this mechanism, birds synchronize their physiology and reproductive behaviors with seasonal changes in the environment. However, it appears that not all avian species comply with this general reproductive pattern. For example, the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), a South American opportunistic breeding columbiform, has been reported to successfully reproduce throughout the year, making it an interesting avian system for studying the endocrine basis of avian reproduction. In view of a clear lack of seasonal variability in testicular weight and size (the classic gonadal regression/recrudescence cycle) in the male Eared Dove, we examined whether their reproductive aseasonality could be the result of being in a continuous state of reproductive preparedness. Our results show that despite the absence of a marked gonadal cycle in terms of gonadal volume, plasma testosterone levels in males were minimal during autumn-winter, reaching maximum values during spring-summer. This indicates that male gonad function is not seasonal in terms of spermatogenesis but that circulating testosterone levels are correlated with photoperiod, demonstrating an exception to the classic model of reproduction in birds.
Ludmila Maldonado, Tomas C Tempesti, Gustavo M Somoza, Susana I Peluc, Diego J Valdez

1170 related Products with: Reproduction in the Eared Dove: An exception to the classic model of seasonal reproduction in birds?

100 100 1 mg

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#32251269   2020/04/06 To Up

Identification of Genes with Prognostic Value in the Breast Cancer Microenvironment Using Bioinformatics Analysis.

BACKGROUND Stromal and immune cells play essential roles in the development of breast cancer (BC). This study was conducted to identify prognosis-related genes from the tumor microenvironment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The gene expression profiles of 622 BC samples were downloaded from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database. Stromal and immune scores were calculated by using the ESTIMATE (Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumours using Expression data) algorithm. Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the high score group and the low score group were screened. The intersecting DEGs were selected through Venn diagrams, and survival analysis was conducted. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery), and a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with the STRING database and Cytoscape. These genes were validated for prognostic value by use of the KM (Kaplan-Meier) plotter tool. RESULTS The low immune score group was associated with a poor prognosis. However, there was no difference in the prognosis between the high and low stromal score groups. A total of 248 intersecting DEGs were found in BC, and 61 genes were significantly associated with the prognosis of BC patients in the TCGA database. These genes were enriched in the immune response, components of the plasma membrane, and receptor activity. Furthermore, in the validation group, 31 of 61 genes were significantly associated with prognosis. CONCLUSIONS Our bioinformatics analysis identified 31 tumor microenvironment-related genes as potential prognostic predictors for breast cancer patients. Some of these genes that have not been widely investigated previously, such as CXCL9, GPR18, S1PR4, SASH3, and PYH1N1, might be additional predictive factors for BC patients.
Haoyu Ren, Daixing Hu, Yu Mao, Xinliang Su

2458 related Products with: Identification of Genes with Prognostic Value in the Breast Cancer Microenvironment Using Bioinformatics Analysis.



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#32251066   // To Up

Maternal Thyroid Disorders and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Progeny.

Maternal thyroid dysfunction is suspected of causing adverse neurodevelopmental effects, but current evidence is inconclusive. Epidemiologic investigations generally suggest an association between maternal thyroid dysfunction and neurodevelopment impairments in progeny, but clinical trials of thyroid treatment during pregnancy reported null effects. To better understand these discrepant findings, we evaluated the association between maternal thyroid conditions and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including examining the role of gestational thyroid-related hormone concentrations and thyroid medications use.
Ran S Rotem, Gabriel Chodick, Varda Shalev, Michael Davidovitch, Gideon Koren, Russ Hauser, Brent A Coull, Ellen W Seely, Vy T Nguyen, Marc G Weisskopf

1353 related Products with: Maternal Thyroid Disorders and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Progeny.



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#32250976   2020/04/03 To Up

High-specific-activity iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine for the treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma: a novel therapy for an orphan disease.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas represent less than 1% of all endocrine tumors. Approximately 15-20% of these tumors are malignant. The definition of malignancy relies on the presence of metastasis. Metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are usually advanced, incurable tumors with limited therapeutic options. About 50-60% of these tumors express the noradrenaline transporter in their cell membranes. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved high-specific-activity iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (HSA-I-131-MIBG) for the treatment of metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas that express the noradrenaline transporter. This review reports the benefits and toxicity of HSA-I-131-MIBG, its physical and dosimetric aspects, and radiation safety precautions, as well as its potential therapeutic value for other malignancies (neuroblastoma, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and medullary thyroid carcinoma).
Camilo Jimenez, Rodolfo Núñez, Richard Wendt

1360 related Products with: High-specific-activity iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine for the treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma: a novel therapy for an orphan disease.

96 Tests1 ml0.2 mg0.1 ml100μg100ug50

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#32250080   // To Up

Retrospective Analysis of 73 Hanging and Ligature Strangulation Cases.

Objective To retrospectively analyze 40 cases of hanging and 33 cases of ligature strangulation in Kunming, to explore the neck injury characteristics and similarities and differences of related asphyxia signs of corpses in hanging and ligature strangulation cases, in order to provide reference for forensic identification. Methods Statistics of hanging and ligature strangulation cases accepted by Kunming Municipal Public Security Bureau from 2000 to 2017 were collected. Data including the gender, age, injury tool, neck injury and related asphyxia signs of the deceased in hanging and ligature strangulation cases were statistically tested by SPSS 23.0. Results There were more males in hanging cases than females. However, there were more females than males in ligature strangulation cases. In hanging cases, suicide was common, while homicide was rare. In ligature strangulation cases, homicide was common, while suicide or accidental death was rare. The average age of the deceased in hanging cases were older than those in ligature strangulation cases. The ligature mark in hanging was usually above the thyroid cartilage. The ligature mark in ligature strangulation was usually at the same level of the thyroid cartilage. The most common vital reactions were exfoliation and subcutaneous hemorrhage at the ligature mark, common among the deceased in hanging cases. Hyoid fracture rate of the deceased in ligature strangulation cases was more common than those in hanging cases. Conclusion The gender, age distribution, position of ligature mark, detection rate of vital reactions at the ligature mark and hyoid fracture rate of the deceased can help distinguish hanging from ligature strangulation.
Z Y Pi, Y M Xing, B W Cheng

1804 related Products with: Retrospective Analysis of 73 Hanging and Ligature Strangulation Cases.

20 mg

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