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Long noncoding RNA atlas of the inflammation caused by asthma in mice.

There is little evidence regarding the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in inflammation caused by asthma. In this study, we successfully generated an asthma mouse model that was induced by ovalbumin (OVA). The effects of dexamethasone (Dex) treatment on lung tissue were investigated using pathological and biochemical methods, including Diff-Quik staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, and western blotting (WB). The inflammation was effectively relieved with Dex treatment. High-throughput sequencing revealed that a total of 1490 lncRNAs were detected in lung tissue samples. Differential expression analysis revealed that the Dex group had 20 upregulated and 15 downregulated lncRNAs compared with those in the Model group. Moreover, nine differentially expressed and inflammation-related lncRNAs were verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the regulation networks of these nine lncRNAs, their potential binding microRNA (miRNAs), and the putative target genes showed that these lncRNAs play important roles in the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. We further identified the expression levels of three potential binding miRNAs by qRT-PCR. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the functions of lncRNAs in inflammation caused by asthma.

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[The Effects and Mechanisms of Dihydroartemisinin on Influenza A Virus H1N1 Induces TNF-α and IL-6 Expression in Bronchial Epithelial Cells].

To investigate the effects of dihydroartemis (DHA) on influenza A virus (IAV) A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) induces the pro-inflammatory factor and protein of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway expression in bronchial epithelial cells.

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Apatinib Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Autophagy in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway.

Patients with metastatic radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs targeting PTC for clinical application. Apatinib, a novel small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is highly selective for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and exhibits antitumor effects in a variety of solid tumors. Although apatinib has been shown to be safe and efficacious in radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, the mechanism underlying its antitumor effect is unclear. In this report, we explored the effects of apatinib on PTC and . VEGFR2 expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), qPCR, and western blotting (WB). The effects of apatinib on cell viability, colony formation, and migration in the Transwell assay were assessed , and its effect on tumor growth rate was assessed . In addition, the levels of proteins in signaling pathways were determined by WB. Finally, the autophagy level was assessed by WB, immunofluorescence (IF), and transmission electron microscopy. We found that high VEGFR2 expression is associated with tumor size, T stage, and lymph node metastasis in patients with PTC and that apatinib inhibits PTC cell growth, promotes apoptosis, and induces cell cycle arrest through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, apatinib induces autophagy, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated targeting of autophagy-associated gene 5 (ATG5) can further increase PTC cell apoptosis. Our data suggest that apatinib can induce apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway for the treatment of PTC and that autophagy is a potential novel target for future therapy in resistant PTC.

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Effects of CDK6 regulated by miR-298 on proliferation and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells.

Effects of CDK6 regulated by miR-298 on proliferation and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells were explored. Seventy-five cases of thyroid carcinoma and adjacent tissues were collected. The expression levels of miR-298 and CDK6 mRNA in tissues and cells were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, thyroid cancer cells and human normal thyroid cells Nthy-ori3-1 were purchased, with the former transfected with miR-298-mimics, miR-298-inhibitor, miR-NC, si-CDK6, si-NC, Sh-CDK6, Sh-NC to build cell models. Then the expression levels of miR-298 and CDK6 in thyroid cancer tissues and cells were detected by qRT-PCR, and the expression of CDK6, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 by WB. CCK-8 and flow cytometry were employed to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis, and dual luciferase report was adopted to determine the relationship between miR-298 and CDK6. miR-298 was underexpressed in thyroid cancer, and CDK6 was highly expressed in thyroid cancer. Cell experiments revealed that overexpression of miR-298 or inhibition of CDK6 expression could suppress cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and significantly increase the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 proteins, decrease Bcl-2 protein expression, which was contrary to the biological phenotype of cells after inhibition of miR-298 or further overexpression of CDK6. Dual luciferase report confirmed that miR-298 was a targeting site of CDK6. miR-298 can inhibit the proliferation of thyroid cells and promote apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells by regulating the expression of CDK6, which is expected to be a potential target for clinical application.

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Pioglitazone ameliorates neuronal damage after traumatic brain injury via the PPARγ/NF-κB/IL-6 signaling pathway.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the major cause of high mortality and disability rates worldwide. Pioglitazone is an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) that can reduce inflammation following TBI. Clinically, neuroinflammation after TBI lacks effective treatment. Although there are many studies on PPARγ in TBI animals, only few could be converted into clinical, since TBI mechanisms in humans and animals are not completely consistent. The present study, provided a potential theoretical basis and therapeutic target for neuroinflammation treatment after TBI. First, we detected interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) and Caspase-3 in TBI clinical specimens, confirming a presence of a high expression of inflammatory factors. Western blot (WB), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect PPARγ, IL-6, and p-NF-κB to identify the mechanisms of neuroinflammation. Then, in the rat TBI model, neurobehavioral and cerebral edema levels were investigated after intervention with pioglitazone (PPARγ activator) or T0070907 (PPARγ inhibitor), and PPARγ, IL-6 and p-NF-κB were detected again by qRT-PCR, WB and immunofluorescence (IF). The obtained results revealed that: 1) increased expression of IL-6, NO and Caspase-3 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients after TBI, and decreased PPARγ in brain tissue; 2) pioglitazone could improve neurobehavioral and reduce brain edema in rats after TBI; 3) the protective effect of pioglitazone was achieved by activating PPARγ and reducing NF-κB and IL-6. The neuroprotective effect of pioglitazone on TBI was mediated through the PPARγ/NF-κB/IL-6 pathway.

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Effects of Environmental pH on the Growth of Gastric Cancer Cells.

Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and other acid-suppressing drugs are widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcer, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, gastritis, and gastric cancer (GC). About 80% of GC patients receive acid suppression treatment. PPI suppresses the production of gastric acid by inhibiting the function of H/K-ATPase in gastric parietal cells and raises the pH value to achieve therapeutic purposes. Some studies have found that PPI had a certain antitumor effect in the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells. But the effects of environmental pH on the growth of GC cells and its mechanism are unknown. Therefore, we hoped to find the effects of culture medium pH on the biological behavior of GC cells by in vitro experiments and provide guidance for the use of acid-suppressing drugs in GC patients.

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Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α and 2α Have Beneficial Effects in Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Against Stroke by Modulating Inflammatory Responses in Aged Rats.

Limb remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been proven to alleviate stroke injury in young rats, but its protective effect and its mechanism in aged rats are still unclear. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is one of the important markers of stroke, and its high expression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of stroke. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that RIPC could regulate the expression of HIF, leading to reduced inflammatory responses in aged rats. Stroke was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in aged rats, and RIPC was conducted in both hind limbs. The HIF-1α and HIF-2α mRNA and protein were examined by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting (WB). Inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood and brain were measured using AimPlex multiplex immunoassays. The protein levels of p-Akt, Akt, p-ERK, and ERK were examined by WB. We investigated that RIPC reduced the infarct size, improved neurological functions, and decreased the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in the ischemic brain. RIPC reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ in the peripheral blood and the levels of IL-1β and IFN-γ in the ischemic brain 48 h post-stroke. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of the HIF inhibitor, acriflavine hydrochloride (ACF), abolished the protection of RIPC with respect to infarct size and neurological functions and neutralized the downregulation of pro-inflammatory IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ. ACF also reversed the activation of the Akt signaling pathway induced by RIPC following stroke. HIF may play a key role in RIPC, which was likely mediated by the Akt signaling pathway and systemic modulation of the inflammatory response in aged rats.

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Evaluation of six commercial kits for the serological diagnosis of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. However, large-scale comparative analyses of the commercial kits for the serological diagnosis of this neglected disease are lacking. This study compared the performances of four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and two immunochromatographic tests (ICT) as screening tests for the serodiagnosis of human VL in the Mediterranean region.

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A roadmap for gene functional characterisation in crops with large genomes: Lessons from polyploid wheat.

Understanding the function of genes within staple crops will accelerate crop improvement by allowing targeted breeding approaches. Despite their importance, a lack of genomic information and resources has hindered the functional characterisation of genes in major crops. The recent release of high-quality reference sequences for these crops underpins a suite of genetic and genomic resources that support basic research and breeding. For wheat, these include gene model annotations, expression atlases and gene networks that provide information about putative function. Sequenced mutant populations, improved transformation protocols and structured natural populations provide rapid methods to study gene function directly. We highlight a case study exemplifying how to integrate these resources. This review provides a helpful guide for plant scientists, especially those expanding into crop research, to capitalise on the discoveries made in and other plants. This will accelerate the improvement of crops of vital importance for food and nutrition security.

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SNHG16 regulates invasion and migration of bladder cancer through induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common urinary malignancies in the world. Growing evidence suggests that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major contributor for BCa metastasis. lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) has been reported as a tumor promoter in many cancers. This study aims to investigate the function and mechanism of SNHG16 on EMT in BCa. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of SNHG16 in human BCa tissues and TGF-β-induced cells. Western blot (WB) was performed to evaluate the expression of EMT-related proteins. Transwell assay was exerted to assess the migration and invasion ability of SNHG16 in BCa. RNA pull-down assay was conducted to confirm the RNA-RNA interaction. The precise mechanism by which SNHG16 regulated EMT process in BCa was also explored. SNHG16 was found up-regulated in TGF-β-induced BCa cells and BCa tissues. Transwell assay showed that overexpression of SNHG16 significantly promoted the migration and invasion of BCa cells, whereas knock-down of SNHG16 caused the opposite effects. Then, the interaction between SNHG16 and miR-200a-3p was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay. And the effects of knock-down or overexpression of SNHG16 on migration and invasion were reversed by co-transfecting miR-200a-3p inhibitors or mimics. This study first demonstrated that SNHG16 was responsible for EMT of BCa cells via miR-200a-3p/ ZEB1/ZEB2 axis. These results provided a potential therapeutic strategy for BCa treatment, especially in metastatic BCa.

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