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Search results for: Anti-AMPA Receptor 2 (GluR2) (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody

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#31819340   2019/11/19 To Up

Expression of GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors on dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse retina.

The neuromodulator dopamine plays an important role in light adaptation for the visual system. Light can stimulate dopamine release from dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) by activating three classes of photosensitive retinal cells: rods, cones, and melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). However, the synaptic mechanisms by which these photoreceptors excite DACs remain poorly understood. Our previous work demonstrated that α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors contribute to light regulation of DAC activity. AMPA receptors are classified into Ca-permeable and Ca-impermeable subtypes. We sought to identify which subtype of AMPA receptors is involved in light regulation of DAC activity.
Lei-Lei Liu, Elizabeth J Alessio, Nathan J Spix, Dao-Qi Zhang

2208 related Products with: Expression of GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors on dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse retina.

2 ml1 mg16-22 Sample Kit0.2 mg1mg4 Membranes/Box100.00 ug100.00 ug1.00 flask100 μg2ug100

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#31195997   2019/06/13 To Up

Anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor GluR2 encephalitis in a myasthenia gravis patient with complete thymectomy: a case report.

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a newly recognized autoimmune disorders in which the targets are proteins or receptors involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is a subtype of glutamate receptor that mediates most of the fast excitatory neurotransmission in the brain.
Qingyang Luo, Xianghong Wu, Wen Huang

1515 related Products with: Anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor GluR2 encephalitis in a myasthenia gravis patient with complete thymectomy: a case report.

5 mg10 mg1 mg10 mg500 mg1 mg100ug10 mg100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized10 mg

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#30584244   2018/12/18 To Up

DR-region of Na/K ATPase is a target to treat excitotoxicity and stroke.

Na/K ATPase (NKA) is important in maintaining cellular functions. We found that loss of NKA activities in NKAα1 mice is associated with increased susceptibility to ischemic injuries following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). This is corroborated by the neuroprotective effects of an antibody raised against an extracellular DR region (DVEDSYGQQWTYEQR, sequence number as in rat) of NKAα subunit (DR-Ab) in both preventive and therapeutic settings. DR-Ab protects cortical neurons against glutamate-induced toxicity by stimulating activities of NKA and Na/Ca exchanger (NCX), which resulted in accelerated Ca extrusion. DR-Ab also enhanced the association between NKA and GluR2 and therefore reduced the internalization of both proteins from membrane induced by glutamate toxicity. The mechanism appears to involve suppression of GluR2 phosphorylation through PKCα/PICK pathway. Our data indicate that DR-region of NKA may be a novel therapeutic target for drug development for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Meimei Shi, Lei Cao, Xu Cao, Mengyuan Zhu, Xingzhou Zhang, Zhiyuan Wu, Siping Xiong, Zhizhong Xie, Yong Yang, Jingyu Chen, Peter T H Wong, Jin-Song Bian

1090 related Products with: DR-region of Na/K ATPase is a target to treat excitotoxicity and stroke.

0.1ml (1mg/ml)50ul0.1ml (1mg/ml)0.2ml0.1ml (1.3mg/ml)0.1 ml0.1ml50ul0.1 ml50ul0.1ml50ul (1mg/ml)

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#29115485   2017/11/03 To Up

Effect of willed movement training on neurorehabilitation after focal cerebral ischemia and on the neural plasticity-associated signaling pathway.

Neurorehabilitation training is a therapeutic intervention for the loss of neural function induced by focal cerebral ischemia, however, the effect varies depending on the neurorehabilitation exercises. Willed movement (WM) training is defined as task‑oriented training, which increases enthusiasm of patients to accomplish a specific task. The current study was performed to the evaluate effect of WM training on neurorehabilitation following focal cerebral ischemia, and further investigate the influence on neural plasticity‑associated signaling pathway. Sprague‑Dawley rats following temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) were randomly divided into four groups: tMCAO (no rehabilitation training), CR (control rehabilitation), EM (environmental modification) and WM groups. Rats in the CR group were forced to exercise (running) in a rotating wheel. In the WM group, food was used to entice rats to climb on a herringbone ladder. Herringbone ladders were also put into the cages of the rats in the CR and EM groups, however without the food attraction. WM group exhibited an improvement in neurobehavioral performance compared with other groups. TTC staining indicated an evident reduction in brain damage in the WM group. There were increased synaptic junctions following WM training, based on the observations of transmission election microscopy. Investigation of the molecular mechanism suggested that WM training conferred the greatest effect on stimulating the extracellular signal‑related kinase (ERK)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element‑binding protein 1 (CREB) pathway and glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2)/glutamate receptor interacting protein 1‑associated protein 1 (GRASP‑1)/protein interacting with C‑kinase 1 (PICK1) cascades among groups. Collectively, the improvement of neurobehavioral performance by WM training following tMCAO is suggested to involve the ERK/CREB pathway and GluR2/GRASP‑1/PICK1 cascades. The present study provided a preliminary foundation for future research on the therapeutic effect of WM training against stroke‑induced neuron damage.
Zhi-Wen Zhou, Qi-Dong Yang, Qing-Ping Tang, Jie Yang, Rong-Jing Guo, Wen Jiang

2625 related Products with: Effect of willed movement training on neurorehabilitation after focal cerebral ischemia and on the neural plasticity-associated signaling pathway.

6 ml Ready-to-use 0.2 mg2 Pieces/Box 25 ml Ready-to-use 100.00 ug2.5 mg2 Pieces/BoxInhibitors 2 ml Ready-to-use 100ug0.2 mg2 Pieces/Box

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#28498410   2017/05/10 To Up

Neuropeptide Y suppresses epileptiform discharges by regulating AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit in rat hippocampal neurons.

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit in epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons. Hippocampal neurons were harvested from neonatal Sprague‑Dawley rats aged <24 h and primarily cultured in vitro. At day 12 following culture, hippocampal neurons were divided into the following groups: Control, Mg2+‑free, NPY+Mg2+‑free and BIBP3226+NPY+Mg2+‑free. The action potential of neurons was measured using the whole cell patch clamp technique in the control, Mg2+‑free and NPY+Mg2+‑free groups. AMPA current (IAMPA) was detected and peak current density was calculated in each group. Alterations in total protein and phosphorylation of the GluR2 subunit were detected by western blot analysis, and GluR2 mRNA expression levels were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in each group. The whole cell patch clamp technique demonstrated an abnormal action potential in the Mg2+‑free group. The frequency and amplitude of the action potential were significantly greater in the Mg2+‑free group compared with the control group, and significantly reduced in the NPY+Mg2+‑free group compared with the Mg2+‑free group (P<0.05). In the Mg2+‑free group, compared with the control group, peak current density was significantly reduced (P<0.05), GluR2 subunit protein content was slightly reduced (P>0.05), phosphorylation levels of GluR2 subunit were significantly greater (P<0.05) and GluR2 mRNA was significantly reduced (P<0.05). In the NPY+Mg2+‑free group, compared with the Mg2+‑free group, peak current density was significantly greater (P<0.05), phosphorylation levels of GluR2 subunit were significantly reduced (P<0.05) and GluR2 mRNA expression was significantly greater (P<0.05). In the BIBP3226+NPY+Mg2+‑free group, compared with the NPY+Mg2+‑free group, peak current density was significantly reduced (P<0.05), phosphorylation levels of GluR2 subunit were significantly greater (P<0.05) and GluR2 mRNA expression was significantly reduced (P<0.05). After 3 h of treatment with Mg2+‑free extracellular fluid, epileptiform discharge was detected in the cells. NPY inhibited the discharge and its underlying mechanism may be that epileptiform discharge suppressed the function of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit. NPY relieved the inhibition of the GluR2 subunit via the Y1 receptor. This may provide a novel direction for future studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of epilepsy.
Wei Bu, Wen-Qing Zhao, Wen-Ling Li, Chang-Zheng Dong, Zhe Zhang, Qi-Jun Li

2470 related Products with: Neuropeptide Y suppresses epileptiform discharges by regulating AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit in rat hippocampal neurons.

50μl50ul50μl96 wells (1 kit)100 μg100 μg10 mg100ug Lyophilized2 Pieces/Box100 μg100ug1 ml

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#27163641   2016/05/06 To Up

Acute rosmarinic acid treatment enhances long-term potentiation, BDNF and GluR-2 protein expression, and cell survival rate against scopolamine challenge in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenolic ester of caffeic acid and is commonly found in the Nepetoideae subfamily of flowering mint plants. Because RA has previously exhibited antioxidant, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like effects, we evaluated its influences on cellular functions in neuronal cultures.
Eun-Sang Hwang, Hyun-Bum Kim, Ga-Young Choi, Seok Lee, Sung-Ok Lee, SangSeong Kim, Ji-Ho Park

2726 related Products with: Acute rosmarinic acid treatment enhances long-term potentiation, BDNF and GluR-2 protein expression, and cell survival rate against scopolamine challenge in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized25mg2200ul10 mg100ug Lyophilized1mg250ul100ug Lyophilized

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