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Purification from rat liver of a novel constitutively expressed member of the aldo-keto reductase 7 family that is widely distributed in extrahepatic tissues.

Antiserum raised against human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1 (hAFAR1) has been used to identify a previously unrecognized rat aldo-keto reductase (AKR). This novel enzyme is designated rat aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 2 (rAFAR2) and it characteristically migrates faster during SDS/PAGE than does the archetypal ethoxyquin-inducible rAFAR protein (now called rAFAR1). Significantly, rAFAR2 is essentially unreactive with polyclonal antibodies raised against rAFAR1. Besides its distinct electrophoretic and immunochemical properties, rAFAR2 appears to be regulated differently from rAFAR1 as it is expressed in most rat tissues and does not appear to be induced by ethoxyquin. Multiple forms of rAFAR2 have been identified. Anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, followed by adsorption chromatography on columns of Matrex Orange A and Cibacron Blue, have been employed to purify rAFAR2 from rat liver cytosol. The Q-Sepharose chromatography step resulted in the resolution of rAFAR2 into three peaks of AKR activity, two of which were purified and shown to be capable of catalysing the reduction of 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 9,10-phenathrenequinone. The two most highly purified rAFAR2-containing preparations eluted from the Cibacron Blue column were 91 and 98% homogeneous. Analysis of these by SDS/PAGE indicated that the least anionic (peak CBA5) comprised a polypeptide of 37.0 kDa, whereas the most anionic (peak CBA6) contained two closely migrating polypeptides of 36.8 and 37.0 kDa; by contrast, in the present study, rAFAR1 was estimated by SDS/PAGE to be composed of 38.0 kDa subunits. Final purification of the 37 kDa polypeptide in CBA5 and CBA6 was accomplished by reversed-phase HPLC. Partial proteolysis of the two preparations of the 37 kDa polypeptide with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yielded fragments of identical size, suggesting that they represent the product of a single gene. Furthermore, the peptide maps from CBA5 and CBA6 differed substantially from that yielded by rAFAR1, indicating that they are genetically distinct from the inducible reductase. A peptide generated by CNBr digestion of the 37 kDa polypeptide from CBA6 was shown by Edman degradation to share 88% sequence identity with residues Tyr(168)-Leu(183) of rAFAR1. This provides evidence that the rat protein identified by its cross-reactivity with anti-hAFAR1 serum is an additional member of the AKR7 family.
V P Kelly, L S Ireland, E M Ellis, J D Hayes

1338 related Products with: Purification from rat liver of a novel constitutively expressed member of the aldo-keto reductase 7 family that is widely distributed in extrahepatic tissues.

100 UG900 tests 100ul20 ul100ug Lyophilized100ug100ug Lyophilized50ug100ug Lyophilized

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An anti-peptide antibody targeted to a specific region of rat cytochrome P-450IA2 inhibits enzyme activity.

An anti-peptide antibody has been produced which binds to and specifically inhibits the activity of cytochrome P-450IA2 in rat hepatic microsomes. This was achieved by raising an antibody against a synthetic peptide (Ser-Glu-Asn-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Asn), the sequence of which occurs in cytochrome P-450IA2 at positions 290-296. The selection of this region of cytochrome P-450IA2 was based on several criteria, including prediction of surface and loop areas, identification of variable regions between cytochromes P-450IA2 and P-450IA1, and consideration of a site on cytochrome P-450IA1 where chemical modification has been shown to cause substantial enzyme inactivation. The specificity of antibody binding was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by immunoblotting using hepatic microsomal preparations and purified cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes. This showed that the antibody binds specifically to rat and mouse cytochrome P-450IA2 and to no other cytochrome P-450, as was predicted from the amino acid sequences of the peptide and the cytochromes P-450. The effect of the antibody upon enzyme activity was studied in hepatic microsomes from rats treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. The antibody was shown to inhibit specifically the activity of reactions catalysed by cytochrome P-450IA2 (phenacetin O-de-ethylase and 2-acetylaminofluorene activation), but had no effect on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, which is catalysed by cytochrome P-450IA1, or on aflatoxin B1 activation.
R J Edwards, A M Singleton, B P Murray, D Sesardic, K J Rich, D S Davies, A R Boobis

1008 related Products with: An anti-peptide antibody targeted to a specific region of rat cytochrome P-450IA2 inhibits enzyme activity.

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Hepatic mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 system. Distinctive features of cytochrome P-450 involved in the activation of aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene.

Rat liver mitoplasts containing less than 1% microsomal contamination contain cytochrome P-450 at 25% of the microsomal level and retain the capacity for monooxygenase activation of structurally different carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and dimethylnitrosamine. Both phenobarbital (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) induce the level of mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 by 2.0- to 2.5-fold above the level of control mitoplasts. The enzyme activities for AFB1 (3-fold) and BaP (16-fold) metabolism were selectively induced by PB and 3-MC, respectively. Furthermore, the metabolism of AFB1 and BaP by intact mitochondria was supported by Krebs cycle substrates but not by NADPH. Both PB and 3-MC administration cause a shift in the CO difference spectrum of mitoplasts (control, 448 nm; PB, 451 nm; and 3-MC, 446 nm) suggesting that they induce two different forms of mitochondrial cytochromes P-450. Mitoplasts solubilized with cholate and fractionated with polyethylene glycol exhibit only marginal monooxygenase activities. The activity, however, was restored to preparations from both PB-induced and 3-MC-induced mitochondrial enzymes (AFB1 activation, ethylmorphine, and benzphetamine deamination and BaP metabolism) by addition of purified rat liver cytochrome P-450 reductase, and beef adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase. The latter proteins failed to reconstitute activity to purified microsomal cytochromes P-450b and P-450c that were fully active with P-450 reductase. Monospecific rabbit antibodies against cytochrome P-450b and P-450c inhibited both P-450 reductase and adrenodoxin-supported activities to similar extents. Anti-P-450b and anti-P-450c provided Ouchterlony precipitin bands against PB- and 3-MC induced mitoplasts, respectively. We conclude that liver mitoplasts contain cytochrome P-450 that is closely similar to the corresponding microsomal cytochrome P-450 but can be distinguished by a capacity to interact with adrenodoxin. These inducible cytochromes P-450 are of mitochondrial origin since their levels in purified mitoplasts are over 10 times greater than can arise from the highest possible microsomal contamination.
B G Niranjan, N M Wilson, C R Jefcoate, N G Avadhani

1670 related Products with: Hepatic mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 system. Distinctive features of cytochrome P-450 involved in the activation of aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene.

1000 2 Pcs Per Pack2 mg450ML2 Pcs Per Pack50 ug50 ug 100ul100 MG

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