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#35063864   2022/01/11 To Up

Plasma metabolomic profiles reveal regulatory effect of chitosan oligosaccharides on loperamide-induced constipation in mice.

Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) can improve the symptoms of constipation. In this study, we further explored the regulator effect of COS on aberrant plasma metabolomics in constipated mice. Using untargeted metabolomic analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS), we identified several most significantly changed metabolic pathways in plasma of constipated mice induced by loperamide, including those correlated with the metabolisms of sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid, tryptophan, bile acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids. The changes in these metabolic pathways were reversed by COS treatment largely. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of some key target genes related to the above metabolic pathways in colon samples were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. We showed that COS significantly suppressed the abnormal expression of these genes, including ceramide glucosyltransferase (CGT), sphingolipid 4-desaturase (DEGS2), alkaline ceramidase (ACER1), sphingosine kinase 2 (SPHK2), lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT1), and aromatic-L-amino-acid (DDC). These data provide insight into the mechanisms by which COS ameliorates loperamide-induced constipation in mice.
Xiaoyu Zhang, Baifei Hu, Guangjun Sun, Junping Zheng, Haiming Hu, Huabing Yang, Xue Cheng, Aizhen Lin, Hongtao Liu

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#34738436   // To Up

[Study on effect of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" on atherosclerosis in ApoE~(-/-) mice based on liver metabonomics].

In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based liver metabolomics approach was used to explore the mechanism of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" in improving atherosclerosis(AS) of mice with apolipoprotein E gene knockout(ApoE~(-/-)). AS mouse model was induced by high-fat diet. The pathological and biochemical indexes such as the histopathological changes, body weight, liver weight, blood lipid level and inflammatory factors in the liver of mice were determined. The metabolic profiling of mice liver samples was performed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Multiple statistical analysis methods including partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to screen and identify biomarkers. The levels of related enzymes including LCAT, sPLA2, EPT1 and ACER1 were detected. The results showed that "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" significantly reduced the areas of aortic plaque and fat vacuoles of liver in AS mice and decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets and liver coefficient. "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" also regulated the levels of blood lipid and inflammatory injury in the liver. The metabolites of the control group, the model group and the "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" group could be distinguished significantly. Fifteen potential biomarkers related to AS were discovered and preliminarily identified, seven of which could be regulated by "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" in a trend of returning to normal. Metabolic pathway analysis screened out two major metabolic pathways. "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" obviously regulated the levels of LCAT, sPLA2, EPT1 and ACER1. It was inferred that "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" could play a major role in AS treatment by regulating glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism disorders in the liver, with the mechanism probably relating to the intervention of the expression of LCAT, sPLA2, EPT1 and ACER1.
Peng-Bo Xu, Li-Dan Ding, Jing-Wen Qiu, Hua Zhong, Huan Wu, An Zhou, Hong-Fei Wu, Min Dai

2589 related Products with: [Study on effect of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus" on atherosclerosis in ApoE~(-/-) mice based on liver metabonomics].

100ug2.5 mg 2 ml Ready-to-use 0.2 mg100.00 ug 6 ml Ready-to-use 1 g 25 ml 2 ml 100ul1 mg 25 ml Ready-to-use

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#33271224   2020/12/01 To Up

Alkaline ceramidase family: The first two decades.

Ceramidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ceramide, dihydroceramide, and phytoceramide into sphingosine (SPH), dihydrosphingosine (DHS), and phytosphingosine (PHS), respectively, along with a free fatty acid. Ceramidases are classified into the acid, neutral, and alkaline ceramidase subtypes according to the pH optima for their catalytic activity. YPC1 and YDC1 were the first alkaline ceramidase genes to be identified and cloned from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae two decades ago. Subsequently, alkaline ceramidase genes were identified from other species, including one Drosophila melanogaster ACER gene (Dacer), one Arabidopsis thaliana ACER gene (AtACER), three Mus musculus ACER genes (Acer1, Acer2, and Acer3), and three Homo sapiens ACER genes (ACER1, ACER2, and ACER3). The protein products of these genes constitute a large protein family, termed the alkaline ceramidase (ACER) family. All the biochemically characterized members of the ACER family are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane segments in the Golgi complex or endoplasmic reticulum, and they each have unique substrate specificity. An increasing number of studies suggest that the ACER family has diverse roles in regulating sphingolipid metabolism and biological processes. Here we discuss the discovery of the ACER family, the biochemical properties, structures, and catalytic mechanisms of its members, and its role in regulating sphingolipid metabolism and biological processes in yeast, insects, plants, and mammals.
Ruijuan Xu, Paul Antwi Boasiako, Cungui Mao

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#31949129   2020/01/16 To Up

Targeting alkaline ceramidase 3 alleviates the severity of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by reducing oxidative stress.

Overload of palmitic acids is linked to the dysregulation of ceramide metabolism in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and ceramides are important bioactive lipids mediating the lipotoxicity of palmitic acid in NASH. However, much remains unclear about the role of ceramidases that catalyze the hydrolysis of ceramides in NASH. By analyzing the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we found that alkaline ceramidase 3 (ACER3) is upregulated in livers of patients with NASH. Consistently, we found that Acer3 mRNA levels and its enzymatic activity were also upregulated in mouse livers with NASH induced by a palmitate-enriched Western diet (PEWD). Moreover, we demonstrated that palmitate treatment also elevated Acer3 mRNA levels and its enzymatic activity in mouse primary hepatocytes. In order to investigate the function of Acer3 in NASH, Acer3 null mice and their wild-type littermates were fed a PEWD to induce NASH. Knocking out Acer3 was found to augment PEWD-induced elevation of C-ceramide and alleviate early inflammation and fibrosis but not steatosis in mouse livers with NASH. In addition, Acer3 deficiency attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis in livers with NASH. These protective effects of Acer3 deficiency were found to be associated with suppression of hepatocellular oxidative stress in NASH liver. In vitro studies further revealed that loss of ACER3/Acer3 increased C-ceramide and inhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress in mouse primary hepatocytes and immortalized human hepatocytes induced by palmitic-acid treatment. These results suggest that ACER3 plays an important pathological role in NASH by mediating palmitic-acid-induced oxidative stress.
Kai Wang, Chuanjiang Li, Xinxin Lin, Hang Sun, Ruijuan Xu, Qingping Li, Yiran Wei, Yiyi Li, Jianping Qian, Cuiting Liu, Qifan Zhang, Sheng Yu, Zhonglin Cui, Xixin Huang, Bili Zhu, Jie Zhou, Cungui Mao

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#31817238   2019/12/04 To Up

Role of Ceramidases in Sphingolipid Metabolism and Human Diseases.

Human pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes-induced insulin resistance, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases have altered lipid homeostasis. Among these imbalanced lipids, the bioactive sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) are pivotal in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Several enzymes within the sphingolipid pathway contribute to the homeostasis of ceramide and S1P. Ceramidase is key in the degradation of ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acids. In humans, five different ceramidases are known-acid ceramidase, neutral ceramidase, and alkaline ceramidase 1, 2, and 3-which are encoded by five different genes (, , , , and , respectively). Notably, the neutral ceramidase -acylsphingosine amidohydrolase 2 (ASAH2) shows considerable differences between humans and animals in terms of tissue expression levels. Besides, the subcellular localization of ASAH2 remains controversial. In this review, we sum up the results obtained for identifying gene divergence, structure, subcellular localization, and manipulating factors and address the role of ASAH2 along with other ceramidases in human diseases.
Farzana Parveen, Daniel Bender, Shi-Hui Law, Vineet Kumar Mishra, Chih-Chieh Chen, Liang-Yin Ke

1178 related Products with: Role of Ceramidases in Sphingolipid Metabolism and Human Diseases.

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#30926626   2019/03/29 To Up

New fluorogenic probes for neutral and alkaline ceramidases.

New fluorogenic ceramidase substrates derived from the -acyl modification of our previously reported probes (RBM14) are reported. While none of the new probes were superior to the known RBM14C12 as acid ceramidase substrates, the corresponding nervonic acid amide (RBM14C24:1) is an efficient and selective substrate for the recombinant human neutral ceramidase, both in cell lysates and in intact cells. A second generation of substrates, incorporating the natural 2-(-acylamino)-1,3-diol-4-ene framework (compounds RBM15) is also reported. Among them, the corresponding fatty acyl amides with an unsaturated -acyl chain can be used as substrates to determine alkaline ceramidase (ACER)1 and ACER2 activities. In particular, compound RBM15C18:1 has emerged as the best fluorogenic probe reported so far to measure ACER1 and ACER2 activities in a 96-well plate format.
Mireia Casasampere, Núria Bielsa, Daniel Riba, Laura Bassas, Ruijuan Xu, Cungui Mao, Gemma Fabriàs, José-Luis Abad, Antonio Delgado, Josefina Casas

2940 related Products with: New fluorogenic probes for neutral and alkaline ceramidases.

500 ml 5L 1000 ml 100ul 125 ml 500 mg96tests1 mg1 g 6 ml Ready-to-use 100ug

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#29401619   2018/01/22 To Up

Alkaline ceramidase 2 is essential for the homeostasis of plasma sphingoid bases and their phosphates.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles in cardiovascular development and immunity. S1P is abundant in plasma because erythrocytes-the major source of S1P-lack any S1P-degrading activity; however, much remains unclear about the source of the plasma S1P precursor, sphingosine (SPH), derived mainly from the hydrolysis of ceramides by the action of ceramidases that are encoded by 5 distinct genes, acid ceramidase 1 ( ASAH1)/ Asah1, ASAH2/ Asah2, alkaline ceramidase 1 ( ACER1)/ Acer1, ACER2/ Acer2, and ACER3/ Acer3, in humans/mice. Previous studies have reported that knocking out Asah1 or Asah2 failed to reduce plasma SPH and S1P levels in mice. In this study, we show that knocking out Acer1 or Acer3 also failed to reduce the blood levels of SPH or S1P in mice. In contrast, knocking out Acer2 from either whole-body or the hematopoietic lineage markedly decreased the blood levels of SPH and S1P in mice. Of interest, knocking out Acer2 from whole-body or the hematopoietic lineage also markedly decreased the levels of dihydrosphingosine (dhSPH) and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate (dhS1P) in blood. Taken together, these results suggest that ACER2 plays a key role in the maintenance of high plasma levels of sphingoid base-1-phosphates-S1P and dhS1P-by controlling the generation of sphingoid bases-SPH and dhSPH-in hematopoietic cells.-Li, F., Xu, R., Low, B. E., Lin, C.-L., Garcia-Barros, M., Schrandt, J., Mileva, I., Snider, A., Luo, C. K., Jiang, X.-C., Li, M.-S., Hannun, Y. A., Obeid, L. M., Wiles, M. V., Mao, C. Alkaline ceramidase 2 is essential for the homeostasis of plasma sphingoid bases and their phosphates.
Fang Li, Ruijuan Xu, Benjamin E Low, Chih-Li Lin, Monica Garcia-Barros, Jennifer Schrandt, Izolda Mileva, Ashley Snider, Catherine K Luo, Xian-Cheng Jiang, Ming-Song Li, Yusuf A Hannun, Lina M Obeid, Michael V Wiles, Cungui Mao

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#28126483   2017/01/23 To Up

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene family of Bombyx mori.

We previously reported regarding an ecdysone-inducible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We found another four ACE genes in the Bombyx genome. The present study was undertaken to clarify the evolutionally changed function of the ACE of Bombyx mori. Core regions of deduced amino acid sequences of ACE genes were compared with those of other insect ACE genes. Five Bombyx genes have the conserved Zn-binding-site motif (HEXXH); however, BmAcer4 has only one and BmAcer3 has no catalytic ligand. BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were expressed in several organs. BmAcer3 was expressed in testes, and BmAcer4 and BmAcer5 were expressed in compound eyes; however, the transcription levels of these three genes were very low. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western analysis were conducted to determine the tissue distribution and developmental expression of BmAcer1and BmAcer2. Transcripts of BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were found in the reproductive organs during the larval and pupal stages. BmAcer1 was dominant in fat bodies during the feeding stage and showed high expression in the epidermis, wing discs, and pupal wing tissues after the wandering stage. Its expression patterns in epidermis, wing discs, and wing tissues resembled the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer in the larval and pupal stages. Acer1 was observed in the hemolymph at all stages, appearing to be the source of it are fat bodies, wings, and epidermis, and functioning after being secreted into the hemolymph. BmAcer2 was abundant in the midgut during the feeding stage and after the wandering stage and in silk glands after the pupal stage. We conclude that the evolution of BmAcer occurred through duplication, and, thereafter, functional diversification developed.
Hai-Yan Yan, Kazuei Mita, Xia Zhao, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Minoru Moriyama, Huabin Wang, Masashi Iwanaga, Hideki Kawasaki

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#27771292   2016/10/11 To Up

Ceramidases, roles in sphingolipid metabolism and in health and disease.

Over the past three decades, extensive research has been able to determine the biologic functions for the main bioactive sphingolipids, namely ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) (Hannun, 1996; Hannun et al., 1986; Okazaki et al., 1989). These studies have managed to define the metabolism, regulation, and function of these bioactive sphingolipids. This emerging body of literature has also implicated bioactive sphingolipids, particularly S1P and ceramide, as key regulators of cellular homeostasis. Ceramidases have the important role of cleaving fatty acid from ceramide and producing sphingosine, thereby controlling the interconversion of these two lipids. Thus far, five human ceramidases encoded by five different genes have been identified: acid ceramidase (AC), neutral ceramidase (NC), alkaline ceramidase 1 (ACER1), alkaline ceramidase 2 (ACER2), and alkaline ceramidase 3 (ACER3). These ceramidases are classified according to their optimal pH for catalytic activity. AC, which is localized to the lysosomal compartment, has been associated with Farber's disease and is involved in the regulation of cell viability. Neutral ceramidase, which is localized to the plasma membrane and primarily expressed in the small intestine and colon, is involved in digestion, and has been implicated in colon carcinogenesis. ACER1 which can be found in the endoplasmic reticulum and is highly expressed in the skin, plays an important role in keratinocyte differentiation. ACER2, localized to the Golgi complex and highly expressed in the placenta, is involved in programed cell death in response to DNA damage. ACER3, also localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex, is ubiquitously expressed, and is involved in motor coordination-associated Purkinje cell degeneration. This review seeks to consolidate the current knowledge regarding these key cellular players.
Nicolas Coant, Wataru Sakamoto, Cungui Mao, Yusuf A Hannun

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