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Search results for: ACAT1

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#35600833   2022/05/06 To Up

Protective Roles of Sodium Butyrate in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bovine Ruminal Epithelial Cells by Activating G Protein-Coupled Receptors 41.

This study aimed to evaluate whether sodium butyrate (SB) attenuates the ruminal response to LPS-stimulated inflammation by activating GPR41 in bovine rumen epithelial cells (BRECs). We examined the SB regulation of GPR41 and its impact on LPS-induced inflammation using GPR41 knockdown BRECs. The LPS-induced BRECs showed increases in the expression of genes related to pro-inflammation and decreases in the expression of genes related to tight junction proteins; these were attenuated by pretreatment with SB. Compared with that in LPS-stimulated BRECs, the ratio of phosphorylated NF-κB (p65 subunit) to NF-κB (p65 subunit) and the ratio of phosphorylated IκBα to IκBα were suppressed with SB pretreatment. The LSB group abated LPS-induced apoptosis and decreased the expression of Bax, Caspase 3, and Caspase 9 mRNA relative to the LPS group. In addition, the LSB group had a lower proportion of cells in the G0-G1 phase and a higher proportion of cells in the S phase than the LPS group. The mRNA expression of ACAT1 and BDH1 genes related to volatile fatty acid (VFA) metabolism were upregulated in the LSB group compared to those in LPS-induced BRECs. In addition, pretreatment with SB promoted the gene expression of GPR41 in the LPS-induced BRECs. Interestingly, SB pretreatment protected BRECs but not GPR41KD BRECs. Our results suggest that SB pretreatment protects against the changes in BRECs LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating GPR41.
Tianyu Yang, Osmond Datsomor, Maocheng Jiang, Xiaoyu Ma, Guoqi Zhao, Kang Zhan

1957 related Products with: Protective Roles of Sodium Butyrate in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bovine Ruminal Epithelial Cells by Activating G Protein-Coupled Receptors 41.

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#35582424   2022/03/14 To Up

Expression of Membrane Bound O-Acyltransferase Domain Containing 7 after Myocardial Infarction and its Role in Lipid Metabolism .

Previous microarray analysis on peripheral blood leukocytes from three patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) showed that elevated expression of membrane bound o-acyltransferase domain containing 7() relative to control. To further verify these findings, we investigated more patients and explored the possible mechanisms . To study alterations in expression in leukocytes after AMI, and to explore the relationship between and lipid metabolism pathways in hepatocytes . Ninety patients with AMI and 90 controls were recruited from the Han population in Northeast China. RT-fluorescent PCR was used to measure mRNA levels. interference and overexpression vectors were constructed and transfected into L-02 hepatocytes and expression was examined by RT-qPCR and western blotting. The expression of and in the lipid metabolism pathway were investigated by RT-qPCR. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured by ELISA. It was found that mRNA levels were elevated in the leukocytes of patients with AMI. Hepatocytes were successfully transfected, shown by attenuated mRNA levels in the silenced group (0.41±0.04 vs 1.01±0.07 for control, P=0.0019 <0.01) and raised levels in the overexpressing cells (23.29±0.39 vs 1.00±0.06 for control, P <0.0001). These results were confirmed by western blotting. Expression of the lipid metabolism-related genes was altered in response to expression. Triglyceride levels increased after silencing (118.40 ± 2.26 vs 70.54 ± 0.25 for control, P<0.0001), as did those of cholesterol (628.30 ± 8.89 vs 544.70 ± 11.04, P = 0.0041) but were not altered on overexpression. did not affect the metabolism of triglycerides in hepatocytes through fatty acid synthesis and decomposition pathways. The level in the peripheral blood can be used as a marker for acute myocardial infarction but cannot be used as a single therapeutic target to regulate lipid metabolism.
Xiangdong Li, Zhiyuan Wang, Heyu Meng, Fanbo Meng, Ping Yang

2988 related Products with: Expression of Membrane Bound O-Acyltransferase Domain Containing 7 after Myocardial Infarction and its Role in Lipid Metabolism .

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#35533918   2022/05/06 To Up

Phenotype-genotype correlation in aldosterone-producing adenomas characterized by intracellular cholesterol metabolism.

Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is histologically composed of clear and compact tumor cells. KCNJ5- mutated APAs were reported to be associated with higher plasma aldosterone concentration and more abundant clear tumor cells containing lipid droplets than non-KCNJ5- mutated APAs. However, the association among cholesterol uptake and/or synthesis, cellular morphology and genotypes has remained unknown. Therefore, in order to explore these differences, 52 APA cases (KCNJ5 mt: n = 33, non-KCNJ5 mt: n = 19; ATP1A1: n = 3, ATP2B3: n = 3, CACNA1D: n = 5, CTNNB1: n = 1, tumors without any mutation above: n = 7), zona glomerulosa (ZG) tissue adjacent to APA and 10 non-pathological adrenal glands (NAs) were examined for quantitative histopathological analysis of tumor morphology and immunohistochemical analysis of cholesterol receptors (SR-B1, LDL-R), cholesterol metabolic enzymes (ACAT1, ACAT2, HSL, DHCR24, StAR), and the enzymes required for steroid synthesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A, 3βHSD, CYP11B1, CYP11B2). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was further performed to profile cholesterol precursors and metabolites in 21 APA cases (KCNJ5 mt: n = 16, non-KCNJ5 mt: n = 5) and 14 adrenal cortex of adjacent adrenal tissues. Results demonstrated that both SR-B1 and DHCR24 were significantly lower in the ZG than in fasciculata or reticularis of NAs but LDL-R was not significantly different among them in immunohistochemical analysis. SR-B1 and DHCR24 were both significantly higher in APAs than in ZG tissue adjacent to APA. In GC-MS analysis, most cholesterol precursors and metabolites, except for lanosterol, and their metabolic ratios (= concentration of cholesterol/ precursor) were higher in APAs than in the adjacent adrenal cortex tissue. LDL-R, ACAT1/2, HSL, DHCR24 were all significantly lower in clear than in compact tumor cells of APA. LDL-R was significantly lower and cholesterol/lanosterol ratio was significantly higher in KCNJ5- mutated than non-KCNJ5- mutated APAs. We demonstrated SR-B1 mediated selective uptake of cholesterol ester and de novo cholesterol synthesis were both enhanced in APAs. In addition, cholesterol uptake and metabolism were different between clear and compact tumor cells. KCNJ5- mutated APAs were predominantly composed of clear tumor cells containing abundant cholesteryl ester but less activated LDL-R mediated uptake and increased de novo synthesis. Those findings above indicated their more pronounced functional deviation from the normal ZG cells in terms of their steroidogenic and intracellular cholesterol metabolism.
Shogo Harashima, Yuto Yamazaki, Naoki Motomura, Yoshikiyo Ono, Kei Omata, Yuta Tezuka, Ryo Morimoto, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Fumitoshi Satoh, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Go Eun Kwon, Man Ho Choi, Hironobu Sasano

2761 related Products with: Phenotype-genotype correlation in aldosterone-producing adenomas characterized by intracellular cholesterol metabolism.

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#35507892   2022/05/04 To Up

knockout extends the mutant mouse lifespan and ameliorates functional deficiencies in multiple organelles of mutant cells.

Multiple membrane organelles require cholesterol for proper function within cells. The Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) proteins export cholesterol from endosomes to other membrane compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plasma membrane (PM), trans-Golgi network (TGN), and mitochondria, to meet their cholesterol requirements. Defects in NPC cause malfunctions in multiple membrane organelles and lead to an incurable neurological disorder. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), a resident enzyme in the ER, converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters for storage. In mutant NPC cells, cholesterol storage still occurs in an NPC-independent manner. Here we report the interesting finding that in a mutant Npc1 mouse (Npc1nmf), Acat1 gene (Soat1) knockout delayed the onset of weight loss, motor impairment, and Purkinje neuron death. It also improved hepatosplenic pathology and prolonged lifespan by 34%. In mutant NPC1 fibroblasts, ACAT1 blockade (A1B) increased cholesterol content associated with TGN-rich membranes and mitochondria, while decreased cholesterol content associated with late endosomes. A1B also restored proper localization of syntaxin 6 and golgin 97 (key proteins in membrane trafficking at TGN) and improved the levels of cathepsin D (a key protease in lysosome and requires Golgi/endosome transport for maturation) and ABCA1 (a key protein controlling cholesterol release at PM). This work supports the hypothesis that diverting cholesterol from storage can benefit multiple diseases that involve cholesterol deficiencies in cell membranes.
Maximillian A Rogers, Catherine C Y Chang, Robert A Maue, Elaina M Melton, Andrew A Peden, William S Garver, Junghoon Lee, Peter Schroen, Mitchell Huang, Ta-Yuan Chang

1763 related Products with: knockout extends the mutant mouse lifespan and ameliorates functional deficiencies in multiple organelles of mutant cells.

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#35435793   2022/04/18 To Up

Acetylation in the regulation of autophagy.

Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation, play crucial roles in the regulation of autophagy. Acetylation has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for autophagy. Acetylation regulates autophagy initiation and autophagosome formation by targeting core components of the ULK1 complex, the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex, and the LC3 lipidation system. Recent studies have shown that acetylation occurs on the key proteins participating in autophagic cargo assembly and autophagosome-lysosome fusion, such as SQSTM1/p62 and STX17. In addition, acetylation controls autophagy at the transcriptional level by targeting histones and the transcription factor TFEB. Here, we review the current knowledge on acetylation of autophagy proteins and their regulations and functions in the autophagy pathway with focus on recent findings. ACAT1: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1; ACSS2: acyl-CoA synthetase short chain family member 2; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy-related; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCAR2/DBC1: cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2; BECN1: beclin 1; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; CREBBP/CBP: CREB binding protein; EP300/p300: E1A binding protein p300; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GSK3: glycogen synthase kinase 3; HDAC6: histone deacetylase 6; HSPA8/HSC70: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8; KAT2A/GCN5: lysine acetyltransferase 2A; KAT2B/PCAF: lysine acetyltransferase 2B; KAT5/TIP60: lysine acetyltransferase 5; KAT8/MOF: lysine acetyltransferase 8; LAMP2A: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PKM2: pyruvate kinase M1/2; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTM: post-translational modification; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; RUBCN/Rubicon: rubicon autophagy regulator; RUBCNL/Pacer: rubicon like autophagy enhancer; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SNAP29: synaptosome associated protein 29; SNARE: soluble N-ethylamide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STX17: syntaxin 17; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TP53/p53: tumor protein p53; TP53INP2/DOR: tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2; UBA: ubiquitin-associated; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; VAMP8: vesicle associated membrane protein 8; WIPI2: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2.
Yinfeng Xu, Wei Wan

1186 related Products with: Acetylation in the regulation of autophagy.

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#35428233   2022/04/15 To Up

Identification and validation of transcription factor-driven enhancers of genes related to lipid metabolism in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas.

The role and mechanisms of lipid metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) metastasis have not been clarified. This study aims to identify lipid metabolism-related genes and transcription factors regulated by metastasis-associated enhancers (MAEs) in OSCC.
Liru Zhang, Shuangling Zhao, Yuanhang Liu, Feifei Lv, Xixue Geng

2272 related Products with: Identification and validation of transcription factor-driven enhancers of genes related to lipid metabolism in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas.

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#35399074   2022/04/10 To Up

Assessment of the diagnostic and prognostic relevance of ACAT1 and CE levels in plasma, peritoneal fluid and tumor tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer patients - a pilot study.

Abnormal accumulation of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) and ACAT1-mediated cholesterol esterified with fatty acids (CE) contribute to cancer progression in various cancers. Our findings of increased CE and ACAT1 levels in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines prompted us to investigate whether such an increase occurs in primary clinical samples obtained from human subjects diagnosed with EOC. We evaluated the diagnostic/prognostic potential of ACAT1 and CE in EOC by: 1) assessing ACAT1 and CE levels in plasma, peritoneal fluid, and ovarian/tumor tissues; 2) assessing diagnostic performance by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis; and 3) comparing expression of ACAT1 and CE with that of tumor proliferation marker, Ki67.
Vijayalakshmi Ayyagari, Maio Li, Zvi Pasman, Xinjia Wang, Somaja Louis, Paula Diaz-Sylvester, Kathleen Groesch, Teresa Wilson, Laurent Brard

1623 related Products with: Assessment of the diagnostic and prognostic relevance of ACAT1 and CE levels in plasma, peritoneal fluid and tumor tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer patients - a pilot study.



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#35367536   2022/03/31 To Up

Melatonin attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Involvement of PPARα and fatty acid oxidation.

The present study focused on the protective effects of melatonin against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in mice and its possible mechanism of action in relation to the major regulator of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), peroxidase proliferative receptor α (PPARα). The experiment consisted of the following four groups: vehicle control, cisplatin (15 mg/kg), cisplatin & melatonin (20 mg/kg/day), and melatonin (20 mg/kg/day). Concomitant administration of melatonin significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in mice by decreasing serum levels of triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, reducing the number and size of lipid droplets in tubular epithelial cells, and decreasing the incidence of histopathological changes including tubular cell apoptosis. Moreover, melatonin administration protected kidney tissue by significantly upregulating the levels of PPARα reduced by cisplatin injection, resulting in increased FAO pathway-associated genes (PGC-1a, Acadm, Acat1, Acsm2, Acsm3, Bdh2, Echs and Pecr) as well as reducing protein levels of caspase-3, -9 and Bax. Melatonin not only partially modulated FAO via PPARα signaling, but also decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the caspase-3, -9 and Bax pathways. Our findings suggest that melatonin prevents cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in mice, possibly by upregulating the expression of PPARα, resulting in enhanced FAO and anti-apoptotic properties.
Tao Sun, Di Wang, Baoying Wang, Xianghua Liu, Ningning Li, Ke Shi

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#35359716   2022/03/11 To Up

Accelerates Atherosclerosis Macrophage-Driven Aberrant Proinflammatory Response and Lipid Metabolism.

Periodontitis, an oral chronic inflammatory disease, is reported to show an association with atherosclerotic vascular disease. is an oral commensal bacterium that is abundantly implicated in various forms of periodontal diseases; however, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerosis induced by to provide new insight on the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. We used an animal model, that is, ApoE mice were infected with by oral gavage, and co-culture models to assess the pathogenicity of The results indicate that ATCC 25586 invaded aortic tissues and substantially increased the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, changed plaque composition into a less-stable phenotype, characterized with increased subcutaneous macrophage infiltration, M1 polarization, lipid deposition, cell apoptosis, and reduced extracellular matrix and collagen content. The serum levels of pro-atherosclerotic factors, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), c-reactive protein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and microRNAs (miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-23b) were considerably increased after stimulation, whereas HDL-c level was reduced. induced macrophage apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. facilitated ox-LDL-induced cholesterol phagocytosis and accumulation by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes (AR-A1, ACAT1, ABCA1, and ABCG1). further worsened the atherosclerotic plaque microenvironment by considerably increasing the levels of IL-6; IL-1β; TNF-α; MCP-1; and MMP-2, 8, and 9 and by suppressing fibronectin (FN) 1 levels during foam cell formation. This study shows that ATCC 25586 is implicated in atherosclerosis by causing aberrant activation and lipid metabolism in macrophage.
Jieyu Zhou, Lin Liu, Peiyao Wu, Lei Zhao, Yafei Wu

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#35348427   // To Up

Sericin-mediated improvement of dysmorphic cardiac mitochondria from hypercholesterolaemia is associated with maintaining mitochondrial dynamics, energy production, and mitochondrial structure.

Sericin is a component protein in the silkworm cocoon [ Linnaeus (Bombycidae)] that improves dysmorphic cardiac mitochondria under hypercholesterolemic conditions. This is the first study to explore cardiac mitochondrial proteins associated with sericin treatment.
Kitiya Rujimongkon, Sumate Ampawong, Duangnate Isarangkul, Onrapak Reamtong, Pornanong Aramwit

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