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Search results for: Amyloid Beta N Terminal, Human Antibody

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#33608391   2021/03/03 To Up

Flexible and Accurate Substrate Processing with Distinct Presenilin/γ-Secretases in Human Cortical Neurons.

Mutations in the genes (, ) have been linked to the majority of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although great efforts have been made to investigate pathogenic mutations, which ultimately cause an increase in the toxic form of β-amyloid (Aβ), the intrinsic physiological functions of PS in human neurons remain to be determined. In this study, to investigate the physiological roles of PS in human neurons, we generated conditional knock-out (KO) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), in which PS1 can be selectively abrogated under Cre transduction with or without additional KO. We showed that iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) do not confer a maintenance ability in the absence of both PS1 and PS2, showing the essential role of PS in Notch signaling. We then generated -null human cortical neurons, where PS1 was intact until full neuronal differentiation occurred. Aβ40 production was reduced exclusively in human /-null neurons along with a concomitant accumulation of amyloid β precursor protein (APP)-C-terminal fragments CTFs, whereas Aβ42 was decreased in neurons devoid of Unlike previous studies in mice, in which APP cleavage is largely attributable to PS1, γ-secretase activity seemed to be comparable between PS1 and PS2. In contrast, cleavage of another substrate, N-cadherin, was impaired only in neurons devoid of Moreover, PS2/γ-secretase exists largely in late endosomes/lysosomes, as measured by specific antibody against the γ-secretase complex, in which Aβ42 species are supposedly produced. Using this novel stem cell-based platform, we assessed important physiological PS1/PS2 functions in mature human neurons, the dysfunction of which could underlie AD pathogenesis.
Hirotaka Watanabe, Kent Imaizumi, Tetsuo Cai, Zhi Zhou, Taisuke Tomita, Hideyuki Okano

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#33300249   2020/12/10 To Up

Detection and quantification of novel C-terminal TDP-43 fragments in ALS-TDP.

The pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, containing C-terminal fragments of the protein TDP-43. Here, we tested the hypothesis that highly sensitive mass spectrometry with parallel reaction monitoring (MS-PRM) can generate a high-resolution map of pathological TDP-43 peptide ratios to form the basis for quantitation of abnormal C-terminal TDP-43 fragment enrichment. Human cortex and spinal cord, microscopically staged for the presence of p-TDP-43, p-tau, alpha-synuclein, and beta-amyloid pathology, were biochemically fractionated and analyzed by immunoblot and MS for the detection of full-length and truncated (disease-specific) TDP-43 peptides. This informed the synthesis of heavy isotope-labeled peptides for absolute quantification of TDP-43 by MS-PRM across 16 ALS, 8 Parkinson's, 8 Alzheimer's disease, and 8 aged control cases. We confirmed by immunoblot the previously described enrichment of pathological C-terminal fragments in ALS-TDP urea fractions. Subsequent MS analysis resolved specific TDP-43 N- and C-terminal peptides, including a novel N-terminal truncation site-specific peptide. Absolute quantification of peptides by MS-PRM showed an increased C:N-terminal TDP-43 peptide ratio in ALS-TDP brain compared to normal and disease controls. A C:N-terminal ratio >1.5 discriminated ALS from controls with a sensitivity of 100% (CI 79.6-100) and specificity of 100% (CI 68-100), and from Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease with a sensitivity of 93% (CI 70-100) and specificity of 100% (CI 68-100). N-terminal truncation site-specific peptides were increased in ALS in line with C-terminal fragment enrichment, but were also found in a proportion of Alzheimer cases with normal C:N-terminal ratio but coexistent limbic TDP-43 neuropathological changes. In conclusion this is a novel, sensitive, and specific method to quantify the enrichment of pathological TDP-43 fragments in human brain, which could form the basis for an antibody-free assay. Our methodology has the potential to help clarify if specific pathological TDP-43 peptide signatures are associated with primary or secondary TDP-43 proteinopathies.
Emily Feneberg, Philip D Charles, Mattéa J Finelli, Connor Scott, Benedikt M Kessler, Roman Fischer, Olaf Ansorge, Elizabeth Gray, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner

2044 related Products with: Detection and quantification of novel C-terminal TDP-43 fragments in ALS-TDP.

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#32787955   2020/08/12 To Up

Amyloid precursor protein glycosylation is altered in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that undergoes alternative proteolytic processing. Its processing through the amyloidogenic pathway originates a large sAPPβ ectodomain fragment and the β-amyloid peptide, while non-amyloidogenic processing generates sAPPα and shorter non-fibrillar fragments. Hence, measuring sAPPα and sAPPβ has been proposed as a means to identify imbalances between the amyloidogenic/non-amyloidogenic pathways in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. However, to date, no consistent changes in these proteolytic fragments have been identified in either the brain or cerebrospinal fluid of AD individuals.
Claudia P Boix, Inmaculada Lopez-Font, Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez, Javier Sáez-Valero

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#32531337   2020/06/10 To Up

Ion channel formation by N-terminally truncated Aβ (4-42): relevance for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Aβ deposition is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the full-length amyloid forming peptides (Aβ and Aβ), biochemical analyses of brain deposits have identified a variety of N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ variants in sporadic and familial AD patients. However, their relevance for AD pathogenesis remains largely understudied. We demonstrate that Aβ exhibits a high tendency to form β-sheet structures leading to fast self-aggregation and formation of oligomeric assemblies. Atomic force microscopy and electrophysiological studies reveal that Aβ forms highly stable ion channels in lipid membranes. These channels that are blocked by monoclonal antibodies specifically recognizing the N-terminus of Aβ. An Aβ variant with a double truncation at phenylalanine-4 and leucine 34, (Aβ), exhibits unstable channel formation capability. Taken together the results presented herein highlight the potential benefit of C-terminal proteolytic cleavage and further support an important pathogenic role for N-truncated Aβ species in AD pathophysiology.
Abhijith G Karkisaval, Agueda Rostagno, Rustam Azimov, Deependra K Ban, Jorge Ghiso, Bruce L Kagan, Ratnesh Lal

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#32497293   2020/06/29 To Up

N-terminal heterogeneity of parenchymal and vascular amyloid-β deposits in Alzheimer's disease.

The deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the form of extracellular plaques in the brain represents one of the classical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to 'full-length' Aβ starting with aspartic acid (Asp-1), considerable amounts of various shorter, N-terminally truncated Aβ peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry in autopsy samples from individuals with AD.
S Zampar, H W Klafki, K Sritharen, T A Bayer, J Wiltfang, A Rostagno, J Ghiso, L A Miles, O Wirths

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#32477092   2020/05/12 To Up

Extracellular Sortilin Proteopathy Relative to β-Amyloid and Tau in Aged and Alzheimer's Disease Human Brains.

Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) related to β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and intraneuronal phosphorylated tau (pTau) accumulation. tilin C-terminal gments (shortened as "sorfra") can deposit as senile plaque-like lesions within AD brains. The course and pattern of sorfra plaque formation relative to Aβ and pTau pathogenesis remain unknown. In the present study, cerebral and subcortical sections in postmortem human brains ( = 46) from aged and AD subjects were stained using multiple markers (6E10, β-secretase 1, pTau, and sortilin antibodies, as well as Bielschowsky silver stain). The course and pattern of sorfra plaque formation relative to Thal Aβ and Braak NFT pathogenic stages were determined. Sorfra plaques occurred in the temporal, inferior frontal and occipital neocortices in cases with Thal 1 and Braak III stages. They were also found additionally in the hippocampal formation, amygdala, and associative neocortex in cases with Thal 2-4 and Braak IV-V. Lastly, they were also found in the primary motor, somatosensory, and visual cortices in cases with Thal 4-5 and Braak VI. Unlike Aβ and pTau pathologies, sorfra plaques did not occur in subcortical structures in cases with Aβ/pTau lesions in Thal 3-5/Braak IV-VI stages. We establish here that sorfra plaques are essentially a cerebral proteopathy. We believe that the development of sorfra plaques in both cortical and hippocampal regions proceeds in a typical spatiotemporal pattern, and the stages of cerebral sorfra plaque formation partially overlap with that of Aβ and pTau pathologies.
Tian Tu, Juan Jiang, Qi-Lei Zhang, Lily Wan, Ya-Nan Li, Aihua Pan, Jim Manavis, Xiao-Xin Yan

1127 related Products with: Extracellular Sortilin Proteopathy Relative to β-Amyloid and Tau in Aged and Alzheimer's Disease Human Brains.

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#32067292   2020/02/17 To Up

Progression of Alzheimer's disease and effect of scFv-h3D6 immunotherapy in the 3xTg-AD mouse model: An in vivo longitudinal study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable disease that affects most of the 47 million people estimated as living with dementia worldwide. The main histopathological hallmarks of AD are extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. In recent years, Aβ-immunotherapy has been revealed as a potential tool in AD treatment. One strategy consists of using single-chain variable fragments (scFvs), which avoids the fragment crystallizable (Fc) effects that are supposed to trigger a microglial response, leading to microhemorrhages and vasogenic edemas, as evidenced in clinical trials with bapineuzumab. The scFv-h3D6 generated by our research group derives from this monoclonal antibody, which targets the N-terminal of the Aβ peptide and recognizes monomers, oligomers and fibrils. In this study, 3xTg-AD mice were intraperitoneally and monthly treated with 100 μg of scFv-h3D6 (a dose of ~3.3 mg/kg) or PBS, from 5 to 12 months of age (-mo), the age at which the mice were sacrificed and samples collected for histological and biochemical analyses. During treatments, four monitoring sessions using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/MRS) were performed at 5, 7, 9, and 12 months of age. MRI/MRS techniques are widely used in both human and mouse research, allowing to draw an in vivo picture of concrete aspects of the pathology in a non-invasive manner and allowing to monitor its development across time. Compared with the genetic background, 3xTg-AD mice presented a smaller volume in almost all cerebral regions and ages examined, an increase in both the intra and extracellular Aβ at 12-mo, and an inflammation process at this age, in both the hippocampus (IL-6 and mIns) and cortex (IL-6). In addition, treatment with scFv-h3D6 partially recovered the values in brain volume, and Aβ, IL-6, and mIns concentrations, among others, encouraging further studies with this antibody fragment.
J Güell-Bosch, S Lope-Piedrafita, G Esquerda-Canals, L Montoliu-Gaya, S Villegas

1147 related Products with: Progression of Alzheimer's disease and effect of scFv-h3D6 immunotherapy in the 3xTg-AD mouse model: An in vivo longitudinal study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy.

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#32039447   // To Up

Proinflammatory cytokines induce accumulation of glypican-1-derived heparan sulfate and the C-terminal fragment of β-cleaved APP in autophagosomes of dividing neuronal cells.

Proinflammatory cytokines stimulate expression of β-secretase, which increases processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), ultimately leading to the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ). The N-terminal domain of β-cleaved APP supports Cu/NO-dependent release of heparan sulfate (HS) from the glypican-1 (Gpc-1) proteoglycan. HS is an inhibitor of β-secretase, thereby constituting a regulatory, negative feedback loop. Here, we have investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 on the interplay between APP processing and release of HS from Gpc-1 in neuronal cells. We have used deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a panel of monoclonal/polyclonal antibodies recognizing the released HS, the N-terminus of Aβ, Aβ, the C-terminus of APP and the autophagosome marker LC3 as well as the chemical lysosome marker LysoTrackerRed (LTR). We repeatedly found that N2a neuroblastoma cells and human neural stem cells grown in the presence of the cytokines developed large cytoplasmic clusters, which stained positive for HS, the N-terminus of Aβ, Aβ, the C-terminus of APP, LC3 and LTR, indicating accumulation of HS and APP/APP degradation products in enlarged autophagosomes/lysosomes. The SDS-PAGE of immunoisolates obtained from TNF-α-treated N2a cells by using anti-C-terminus of APP revealed the presence of SDS-stable complexes between HS and the C-terminal fragment of β-cleaved APP (βCTF) migrating in the range 10-18 kDa. Clustered accumulation of βCTF disappeared when HS release was prevented and slightly enhanced when HS release was increased. Hence, when proinflammatory cytokines induce increased processing of APP, inhibition of β-secretase by HS is insufficient, which may lead to the impaired autophagosomal degradation.
Fang Cheng, Lars-Åke Fransson, Katrin Mani

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#31834353   // To Up

Alzheimer-like amyloid and tau alterations associated with cognitive deficit in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Temporal lobe epilepsy represents a major cause of drug-resistant epilepsy. Cognitive impairment is a frequent comorbidity, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We hypothesized that the cognitive impairment in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy could be due to perturbations of amyloid and tau signalling pathways related to activation of stress kinases, similar to those observed in Alzheimer's disease. We examined these pathways, as well as amyloid-β and tau pathologies in the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients who underwent temporal lobe resection (n = 19), in comparison with age- and region-matched samples from neurologically normal autopsy cases (n = 22). Post-mortem temporal cortex samples from Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 9) were used as positive controls to validate many of the neurodegeneration-related antibodies. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue from temporal lobe epilepsy cases revealed increased phosphorylation of full-length amyloid precursor protein and its associated neurotoxic cleavage product amyloid-β*56. Pathological phosphorylation of two distinct tau species was also increased in both regions, but increases in amyloid-β1-42 peptide, the main component of amyloid plaques, were restricted to the hippocampus. Furthermore, several major stress kinases involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease pathology were significantly activated in temporal lobe epilepsy brain samples, including the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. In temporal lobe epilepsy cases, hippocampal levels of phosphorylated amyloid precursor protein, its pro-amyloidogenic processing enzyme beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, and both total and hyperphosphorylated tau expression, correlated with impaired preoperative executive function. Our study suggests that neurodegenerative and stress-related processes common to those observed in Alzheimer's disease may contribute to cognitive impairment in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. In particular, we identified several stress pathways that may represent potential novel therapeutic targets.
Sarah Gourmaud, Haochang Shou, David J Irwin, Kimberly Sansalone, Leah M Jacobs, Timothy H Lucas, Eric D Marsh, Kathryn A Davis, Frances E Jensen, Delia M Talos

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