Search results for: Ah Receptor (AHR) Antibody
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#33432230 2021/01/11 To Up
IL-2 regulates tumor-reactive CD8 T cell exhaustion by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.CD8 T cell exhaustion dampens antitumor immunity. Although several transcription factors have been identified that regulate T cell exhaustion, the molecular mechanisms by which CD8 T cells are triggered to enter an exhausted state remain unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-2 (IL-2) acts as an environmental cue to induce CD8 T cell exhaustion within tumor microenvironments. We find that a continuously high level of IL-2 leads to the persistent activation of STAT5 in CD8 T cells, which in turn induces strong expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, thus catalyzing the conversion to tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP subsequently activates AhR nuclear translocation, causing a coordinated upregulation of inhibitory receptors and downregulation of cytokine and effector-molecule production, thereby rendering T cells dysfunctional in the tumor microenvironment. This molecular pathway is not only present in mouse tumor models but is also observed in people with cancer, identifying IL-2 as a novel inducer of T cell exhaustion.
Yuying Liu, Nannan Zhou, Li Zhou, Jing Wang, Yabo Zhou, Tianzhen Zhang, Yi Fang, Jinwei Deng, Yunfeng Gao, Xiaoyu Liang, Jiadi Lv, Zhenfeng Wang, Jing Xie, Yuanbo Xue, Huafeng Zhang, Jingwei Ma, Ke Tang, Yiliang Fang, Feiran Cheng, Chengjuan Zhang, Bing Dong, Yuzhou Zhao, Peng Yuan, Quanli Gao, Haizeng Zhang, F Xiao-Feng Qin, Bo Huang
1110 related Products with: IL-2 regulates tumor-reactive CD8 T cell exhaustion by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.100 ug100ug100.00 ug1 mg1100 ug2000 IU2500 Tests100.00 ug
#33124760 2020/10/30 To Up
DEK-targeting aptamer DTA-64 attenuates bronchial EMT-mediated airway remodelling by suppressing TGF-Î²1/Smad, MAPK and PI3K signalling pathway in asthma.This study is to investigate the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of DEK-targeting aptamer (DTA-64) on epithelial mesenchymaltransition (EMT)-mediated airway remodelling in mice and human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice, DTA-64 significantly reduced the infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils in lung tissue, attenuated the airway resistance and the proliferation of goblet cells. In addition, DTA-64 reduced collagen deposition, transforming growth factor 1 (TGF-Î²1) level in BALF and IgE levels in serum, balanced Th1/Th2/Th17 ratio, and decreased mesenchymal proteins (vimentin and Î±-SMA), as well as weekend matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and NF-ÎºB p65 activity. In the in vitro experiments, we used TGF-Î²1 to induce EMT in the human epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. DEK overexpression (ovDEK) or silencing (shDEK) up-regulated or down-regulated TGF-Î²1 expression, respectively, on the contrary, TGF-Î²1 exposure had no effect on DEK expression. Furthermore, ovDEK and TGF-Î²1 synergistically promoted EMT, whereas shDEK significantly reduced mesenchymal markers and increased epithelial markers, thus inhibiting EMT. Additionally, shDEK inhibited key proteins in TGF-Î²1-mediated signalling pathways, including Smad2/3, Smad4, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR. In conclusion, the effects of DTA-64 against EMT of asthmatic mice and BEAS-2B might partially be achieved through suppressing TGF-Î²1/Smad, MAPK and PI3K signalling pathways. DTA-64 may be a new therapeutic option for the management of airway remodelling in asthma patients.
Yilan Song, Zhiguang Wang, Jingzhi Jiang, Yihua Piao, Li Li, Chang Xu, Hongmei Piao, Liangchang Li, Guanghai Yan
2244 related Products with: DEK-targeting aptamer DTA-64 attenuates bronchial EMT-mediated airway remodelling by suppressing TGF-Î²1/Smad, MAPK and PI3K signalling pathway in asthma.2 Pieces/Box2 Pieces/Box5mg1 Set1 Set1ml2 Pieces/Box1 Set1 Set5mg1 Set1 Set
#32899152 2020/09/03 To Up
Epigenetic Regulations of AhR in the Aspect of Immunomodulation.Environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease manifestation, and as regarded today, AhR has become an important factor in studies of immunomodulation. Besides immunological aspects, AhR also plays a role in pharmacological, toxicological and many other physiological processes such as adaptive metabolism. In recent years, epigenetic mechanisms have provided new insight into gene regulation and reveal a new contribution to autoimmune disease pathogenesis. DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin alterations, microRNA and consequently non-genetic changes in phenotypes connect with environmental factors. Increasing data reveals AhR cross-roads with the most significant in immunology pathways. Although study on epigenetic modulations in autoimmune diseases is still not well understood, therefore future research will help us understand their pathophysiology and help to find new therapeutic strategies. Present literature review sheds the light on the common ground between remodeling chromatin compounds and autoimmune antibodies used in diagnostics. In the proposed review we summarize recent findings that describe epigenetic factors which regulate AhR activity and impact diverse immunological responses and pathological changes.
Anna Wajda, Joanna Åapczuk-RomaÅska, Agnieszka Paradowska-Gorycka300 units 5 G1100 ug
#32711051 2020/07/22 To Up
6-Formylindolo (3, 2-b) Carbazole (FICZ)-mediated protection of gut barrier is dependent on T cells in a mouse model of alcohol combined with burn injury.6-Formylindolo (3, 2-b) Carbazole (FICZ) is a ligand of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) which regulates Th17 release of IL-17 and IL-22 production. Earlier, we showed that ethanol combined with burn injury suppresses Th17 responses and disrupts intestinal barrier leading to increased gut bacterial growth and translocation. Since IL-22 is known for its role in intestinal barrier maintenance, we determined whether treatment of mice with FICZ restores T cell IL-22 release and protects intestine barrier following ethanol and burn injury. Wildtype and Rag1-/- mice were gavaged with ~2.9Â g/kg ethanol or water, and given a ~12.5% total body surface area burn. Mice were given FICZ (5Â Î¼g) in resuscitation fluid. FICZ treatment of wildtype mice normalized IL-22 and IL-17 in lamina propria and spleen T cells, as well as increased CYP1A1 expression in spleen T cells. This was accompanied by improved gut motility, decreased copy number of small intestine total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, attenuation of intestinal tissue levels of IL-6, KC, IL-18, decreased apoptosis, and prevention of gut leakiness following ethanol and burn injury. However, FICZ treatment of Rag1-/- mice did not improve any of the parameters listed after ethanol and burn injury. Additional data generated using mice treated with recombinant IL-22 alone or in combination with anti-IL-18 antibody suggest that full protection of gut barrier integrity requires both IL-18 inhibition and IL-22 restoration following ethanol and burn injury. Together our findings suggest that AHR ligand FICZ may have better therapeutic potential for maintenance of gut barrier function after ethanol and burn injury.
Xiaoling Li, Marisa E Luck, Adam M Hammer, Abigail R Cannon, Mashkoor A Choudhry
1879 related Products with: 6-Formylindolo (3, 2-b) Carbazole (FICZ)-mediated protection of gut barrier is dependent on T cells in a mouse model of alcohol combined with burn injury.0.1ml1mg0.1ml0.1ml100 ul0.1ml (1mg/ml)0.1ml0.1ml100ug Lyophilized0.1ml0.1ml (1mg/ml)0.1ml
#32607924 // To Up
Treatments for Childhood Atopic Dermatitis: an Update on Emerging Therapies.Atopic dermatitis (AD) is generally considered a T helper type 2-dominated disease. Pediatric AD is usually less severe than adult AD, but it may present as moderate to severe lesions that are inadequately managed by current modalities including emollients/moisturizers, topical corticosteroids (TCSs), topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), and even systemic immunosuppressants (such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil). In addition, systemic immunosuppressants are often not recommended for childhood AD by the current guidelines due to their toxicities. Therefore, there is still an unmet need for a safe and effective long-term therapy for pediatric AD patients whose disease is inadequately controlled or who are intolerant to current treatments. The emerging therapeutics for AD focuses on intervening in the inflammatory pathway by targeting specific cytokines/chemokines or their receptors. Monoclonal antibodies against immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin (IL)-4 receptor subunit Î±, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31 receptor subunit Î±, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have been evaluated clinically for AD. Encouraging results have been reported for many of the biologics, of which the most exciting is dupilumab. Other emerging systemic therapies include small molecules such as baricitinib, abrocitinib, upadacitinib, and tradipitant. Several novel topical agents are under clinical investigation for the treatment of AD, including topical phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modulating agents, and transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) antagonists. Accompanied by thorough characterization of different phenotype and endotype subsets, the application of precision medicine could provide new prospects for the optimal treatment of AD.
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#32481253 // To Up
IDO, TDO, and AHR overexpression is associated with poor outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients in the rituximab era.Although Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) are involved in cancer immune escape, their prognostic impact on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown.To examine the prognostic impact of IDO, TDO, and AHR on patients with DLBCL.This was a retrospective study on treatment-naÃ¯ve patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL at the Henan Province People's Hospital between 01/2012 and 06/2015. Patients with inflammatory reactive lymph nodes were included as controls. All cases were reviewed by 2 pathologists. IDO, TDO, and AHR positivity was determined through immunochemistry. Survival was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox analyses.The positive expression of TDO (50.0% vs 16.7%, Pâ=â.005) and AHR (60.0% vs 8.3%, Pâ<â.001) were higher in DLBCL than in inflammatory control. The overall survival of IDO, TDO, and AHR positive expression in DLBCL patients was 34.6, 26.7, and 32.2 months, respectively, which is significantly shorter than that of the corresponding negative patients (49.0 months, Pâ=â.04; 58.2 months, Pâ<â.001; 58.0 months, Pâ<â.001; respectively). The multivariable analysis showed that TDO expression and Ann-Arbor stage were independently associated with PFS (TDO: HRâ=â8.347, 95%CI: 2.992-23.289, Pâ<â.001; stage: HRâ=â2.729, 95%CI: 1.571-4.739, Pâ<â.001) and OS (TDO: HRâ=â9.953, 95%CI: 3.228-30.686, Pâ<â.001; stage: HRâ=â2.681, 95%CI: 1.524-4.719, Pâ=â.001) in DLBCL patients.Overexpression of IDO, TDO, and AHR is associated with poor survival of patients with DLBCL and could be involved in the immune escape of cancer cells. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these proteins can be targeted by treatment regimens.
Xiangli Chen, Yuzhu Zang, Dujuan Li, Jianmin Guo, Yacai Wang, Yuqi Lin, Zhenghong Wei
2510 related Products with: IDO, TDO, and AHR overexpression is associated with poor outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients in the rituximab era.100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized1.00 flask100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized
#32461368 2020/05/27 To Up
Selective AhR knockout in langerin-expressing cells abates Langerhans cells and polarizes Th2/Tr1 in epicutaneous protein sensitization.The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) represents an environmental sensor regulating immune responses. In the skin, AhR is expressed in several cell types, including keratinocytes, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), and dermal dendritic cells (DC). The mechanisms how AhR activates or inhibits cutaneous immune responses remain controversial, owing to differences in the cell-specific functions of AhR and the different activating ligands. Therefore, we sought to investigate the role of AhR in LC and langerin and negative DC in the skin. To this aim, we generated Langerin-specific and CD11c-specific knockout () mice lacking AhR, respectively, in LC and Langerin dermal DC and in all CD11c cells. These were then tested in an epicutaneous protein (ovalbumin, Ova) sensitization model. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that Langerin-AhR but not CD11c-AhR mice harbored a decreased number of LC with fewer and stunted dendrites in the epidermis as well as a decreased number of LC in skin-draining lymph nodes (LN). Moreover, in the absence of AhR, we detected an enhanced T helper type-2 (Th2) [increased interleukin 5 (IL-5) and interleukin 13 (IL-13)] and T regulatory type-1 (Tr1) (IL-10) response when LN cells were challenged with Ova in vitro, though the number of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the LN remained comparable. Langerin-AhR mice also exhibited increased blood levels of Ova-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). In conclusion, deletion of AhR in langerin-expressing cells diminishes the number and activation of LC, while enhancing Th2 and Tr1 responses upon epicutaneous protein sensitization.
Chien-Hui Hong, Shang-Hung Lin, BjÃ¶rn E Clausen, Chih-Hung Lee
1808 related Products with: Selective AhR knockout in langerin-expressing cells abates Langerhans cells and polarizes Th2/Tr1 in epicutaneous protein sensitization.1.00 flask96 wells10 ug1x10e7 cells96 assays1x10e7 cells-1.00 flask
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#32161582 2020/02/25 To Up
Ozone-Induced Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation Controls Lung Inflammation via Interleukin-22 Modulation.Airborne ozone exposure causes severe lung injury and inflammation. The aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) (1), activated in pollutant-induced inflammation, is critical for cytokine production, especially IL-22 and IL-17A. The role of AhR in ozone-induced lung inflammation is unknown. We report here that chronic ozone exposure activates AhR with increased tryptophan and lipoxin A4 production in mice. AhR mice show increased lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and tissue remodeling with an increased recruitment of IL-17A and IL-22-expressing cells in comparison to control mice. IL-17A- and IL-22-neutralizing antibodies attenuate lung inflammation in AhR and control mice. Enhanced lung inflammation and recruitment of ILC3, ILC2, and T cells were observed after T cell-specific AhR depletion using the AhR-deficient mice. Together, the data demonstrate that ozone exposure activates AhR, which controls lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and tissue remodeling via the reduction of IL-22 expression.
ChloÃ© Michaudel, Florent Bataille, Isabelle Maillet, Louis Fauconnier, Cyril Colas, Harry Sokol, MarjolÃ¨ne Straube, AurÃ©lie Couturier-Maillard, Laure Dumoutier, Jacques van Snick, ValÃ©rie F Quesniaux, DieudonnÃ©e Togbe, Bernhard Ryffel
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