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Search results for: C-C Chemokine Receptor 3 (CCR3) Antibody

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#34399621   2021/08/17 To Up

Blockade of Autocrine CCL5 Responses Inhibits Zika Virus Persistence and Spread in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurovirulent flavivirus that uniquely causes fetal microcephaly, is sexually transmitted, and persists in patients for up to 6 months. ZIKV persistently infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enables viral spread to neuronal compartments. We found that CCL5, a chemokine with prosurvival effects on immune cells, was highly secreted by ZIKV-infected hBMECs. Although roles for CCL5 in endothelial cell (EC) survival remain unknown, the presence of the CCL5 receptors CCR3 and CCR5 on ECs suggested that CCL5 could promote ZIKV persistence in hBMECs. We found that exogenous CCL5 induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in hBMECs and that ERK1/2 cell survival signaling was similarly activated by ZIKV infection. Neutralizing antibodies to CCL5, CCR3, or CCR5 inhibited persistent ZIKV infection of hBMECs. While knockout (KO) of CCL5 failed to prevent ZIKV infection of hBMECs, at 3 days postinfection (dpi), we observed a >90% reduction in ZIKV-infected CCL5-KO hBMECs and a multilog reduction in ZIKV titers. In contrast, the addition of CCL5 to CCL5-KO hBMECs dose-dependently rescued ZIKV persistence in hBMECs. Inhibiting CCL5 responses using CCR3 (UCB35625) and CCR5 (maraviroc) receptor antagonists reduced the number of ZIKV-infected hBMECs and ZIKV titers (50% inhibitory concentrations [ICs] of 2.5 to 12 μM), without cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC] of >80 μM). These findings demonstrate that ZIKV-induced CCL5 directs autocrine CCR3/CCR5 activation of ERK1/2 survival responses that are required for ZIKV to persistently infect hBMECs. Our results establish roles for CCL5 in ZIKV persistence and suggest the potential for CCL5 receptor antagonists to therapeutically inhibit ZIKV spread and neurovirulence. Our findings demonstrate that CCL5 is required for ZIKV to persistently infect human brain ECs that normally protect neuronal compartments. We demonstrate that ZIKV-elicited CCL5 secretion directs autocrine hBMEC activation of ERK1/2 survival pathways via CCR3/CCR5, and inhibiting CCL5/CCR3/CCR5 responses prevented ZIKV persistence and spread. Our findings demonstrate that ZIKV-directed CCL5 secretion promotes hBMEC survival and reveals an underlying mechanism of ZIKV pathogenesis and spread. We demonstrate that antagonists of CCR3/CCR5 inhibit ZIKV persistence in hBMECs and provide potential therapeutic approaches for preventing ZIKV persistence, spread, and neurovirulence.
Megan C Mladinich, Jonas N Conde, William R Schutt, Sook-Young Sohn, Erich R Mackow

2351 related Products with: Blockade of Autocrine CCL5 Responses Inhibits Zika Virus Persistence and Spread in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

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#34206004   2021/06/01 To Up

CC Chemokine Ligand 7 Derived from Cancer-Stimulated Macrophages Promotes Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion.

In the tumor microenvironment, macrophages have been suggested to be stimulated by tumor cells, becoming tumor-associated macrophages that promote cancer development and progression. We examined the effect of these macrophages on human ovarian cancer cell invasion and found that conditioned medium of macrophages stimulated by ovarian cancer cells (OC-MQs) significantly increased cell invasion. CC chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) expression and production were significantly higher in OC-MQs than in the control macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages from patients with ovarian cancer showed higher CCL7 expression levels than those from healthy controls. Inhibition of CCL7 using siRNA and neutralizing antibodies reduced the OC-MQ-CM-induced ovarian cancer cell invasion. CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) was highly expressed in human ovarian cancer cells, and a specific inhibitor of this receptor reduced the OC-MQ-CM-induced invasion. Specific signaling and transcription factors were associated with enhanced CCL7 expression in OC-MQs. CCL7-induced invasion required the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 via activation of extracellular signal-related kinase signaling in human ovarian cancer cells. These data suggest that tumor-associated macrophages can affect human ovarian cancer metastasis via the CCL7/CCR3 axis.
Miran Jeong, Yi-Yue Wang, Ju-Yeon Choi, Myong Cheol Lim, Jung-Hye Choi

2395 related Products with: CC Chemokine Ligand 7 Derived from Cancer-Stimulated Macrophages Promotes Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion.

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#33877898   2021/04/20 To Up

Development of Anti-Mouse CC Chemokine Receptor 3 Monoclonal Antibodies for Flow Cytometry.

CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), also known as CD193, belongs to class A of G protein-coupled receptors and is present in high levels in eosinophils, basophils, and airway epithelial cells. CCR3 is considered the therapeutic target for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and allergic diseases; therefore, the development of sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for CCR3 has been desired. This study aimed to establish a specific and sensitive mAb against mouse CCR3 (mCCR3) useful for flow cytometry analysis by employing the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. The generated anti-mCCR3 mAb, CMab-2 (rat IgG, kappa), was found to react with mCCR3-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mCCR3) cells, according to flow cytometric analysis. Also, it reacted with P388 (mouse lymphoid neoplasm) or J774-1 (mouse macrophage-like) cells, which express endogenous mCCR3. Taken together, CMab-2, generated by the CBIS method, can be a valuable tool for detecting mCCR3 on the surface of mouse cells.
Teizo Asano, Ren Nanamiya, Junko Takei, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Hideki Hosono, Tomohiro Tanaka, Masato Sano, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato

1204 related Products with: Development of Anti-Mouse CC Chemokine Receptor 3 Monoclonal Antibodies for Flow Cytometry.

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#33556295   // To Up

Platelets Independently Recruit into Asthmatic Lungs and Models of Allergic Inflammation via CCR3.

Platelet activation and pulmonary recruitment occur in patients with asthma and in animal models of allergic asthma, in which leukocyte infiltration, airway remodeling, and hyperresponsiveness are suppressed by experimental platelet depletion. These observations suggest the importance of platelets to various characteristics of allergic disease, but the mechanisms of platelet migration and location are not understood. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanism of platelet recruitment to extravascular compartments of lungs from patients with asthma and after allergen challenge in mice sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) extract (contains the DerP1 [ extract peptidase 1] allergen); in addition, we assessed the role of chemokines in this process. Lung sections were immunohistochemically stained for CD42b platelets. Intravital microscopy in allergic mice was used to visualize platelets tagged with an anti-mouse CD49b-PE (phycoerythrin) antibody. Platelet-endothelial interactions were measured in response to HDM (DerP1) exposure in the presence of antagonists to CCR3, CCR4, and CXCR4. Extravascular CD42b platelets were detected in the epithelium and submucosa in bronchial biopsy specimens taken from subjects with steroid-naive mild asthma. Platelets were significantly raised in the lung parenchyma from patients with fatal asthma compared with postmortem control-lung tissue. Furthermore, in DerP1-sensitized mice, subsequent HDM exposure induced endothelial rolling, endothelial adhesion, and recruitment of platelets into airway walls, compared with sham-sensitized mice, via a CCR3-dependent mechanism in the absence of aggregation or interactions with leukocytes. Localization of singular, nonaggregated platelets occurs in lungs of patients with asthma. In allergic mice, platelet recruitment occurs via recognized vascular adhesive and migratory events, independently of leukocytes via a CCR3-dependent mechanism.
Sajeel A Shah, Varsha Kanabar, Yanira Riffo-Vasquez, Zainab Mohamed, Simon J Cleary, Christopher Corrigan, Alan L James, John G Elliot, Janis K Shute, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford

1887 related Products with: Platelets Independently Recruit into Asthmatic Lungs and Models of Allergic Inflammation via CCR3.

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#33337555   // To Up

Interferon-γ amplifies airway smooth muscle-mediated CD4+ T cell recruitment by promoting the secretion of C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 3 ligands.

Asthmatic airways feature increased ASM mass that is largely attributable to hyperplasia, and which potentially contributes to excessive airway narrowing. T cells induce ASMC proliferation via contact-dependent mechanisms in vitro that may have importance for asthmatic ASM growth, as CD4+ T cells infiltrate ASM bundles in asthmatic human airways. In this study, we used an in vitro migration assay to investigate the pathways responsible for the trafficking of human CD4+ T cells to ASM. ASMCs induced chemotaxis of activated CD4+ T cells, which was inhibited by the CXCR3 antagonist AMG487 and neutralizing antibodies against its ligands CXCL10 and 11, but not CCR3 or CCR5 antagonists. CXCR3 expression was upregulated among all T cells following anti-CD3/CD28-activation. CD4+ T cells upregulated CXCL9, 10, and 11 expression in ASMCs in an IFN-γ/STAT1-dependent manner. Disruption of IFN-γ-signaling resulted in reduced T cell migration, along with the inhibition of CD4+ T cell-mediated STAT1 activation and CXCR3 ligand secretion by ASMCs. ASMCs derived from healthy and asthmatic donors demonstrated similar T cell-recruiting capacities. In vivo CXCL10 and 11 expression by asthmatic ASM was confirmed by immunostaining. We conclude that the CXCL10/11-CXCR3 axis causes CD4+ T cell recruitment to ASM that is amplified by T cell-derived IFN-γ.
Rui Sun, Joyce H Jang, Anne-Marie Lauzon, James G Martin

2518 related Products with: Interferon-γ amplifies airway smooth muscle-mediated CD4+ T cell recruitment by promoting the secretion of C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 3 ligands.

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#32326200   2020/04/21 To Up

Possible Mechanisms of Eosinophil Accumulation in Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP), including acute EP and chronic EP, is characterized by the massive pulmonary infiltration of eosinophils into the lung. However, the mechanisms underlying the selective accumulation of eosinophils in EP have not yet been fully elucidated. We reported that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from EP patients induced the transmigration of eosinophils across endothelial cells in vitro. The concentrations of eotaxin-2 (CCL24) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4 (CCL13), which are CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3 ligands, were elevated in the BALF of EP patients, and anti-CCR3 monoclonal antibody inhibited the eosinophil transmigration induced by the BALF of EP patients. The concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (CCL4), a CCR5 ligand that induces eosinophil migration, was increased in the BALF of EP patients. Furthermore, the concentration of interleukin (IL) 5 was increased in the BALF of EP patients, and it has been reported that anti-IL-5 antibody treatment resulted in remission and the reduction of glucocorticoid use in some cases of chronic EP. The concentrations of lipid mediators, such as leukotriene (LT) B, damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), such as uric acid, or extracellular matrix proteins, such as periostin, were also increased in the BALF of EP patients. These findings suggest that chemokines, such as CCR3/CCR5 ligands, cytokines, such as IL-5, lipid mediators, such as LTB, DAMPs, and extracellular matrix proteins may play roles in the accumulation or activation of eosinophils in EP.
Kazuyuki Nakagome, Makoto Nagata

1920 related Products with: Possible Mechanisms of Eosinophil Accumulation in Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

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#32051393   2020/02/12 To Up

Blocking the autocrine regulatory loop of Gankyrin/STAT3/CCL24/CCR3 impairs the progression and pazopanib resistance of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

The poor prognosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients is due to progression and targeted drug resistance, but the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. This study examined the biological function and related mechanisms of gankyrin in ccRCC based on the results of our previous study. To this end, in vitro functional experiments; in vivo models of subcutaneous tumor formation, lung metastasis, and orthotopic ccRCC; and antibody chip detection, co-IP, ChIP assays were performed to examine the biological role and molecular mechanisms of gankyrin in ccRCC. Two hundred fifty-six ccRCC patients were randomly divided into training and validation cohorts to examine the prognostic value of gankyrin and other markers through IHC and statistical analyses. We observed that the gankyrin-overexpressing ccRCC cell lines 786-O and 769-P exhibited increased proliferation, invasion, migration, tumorigenicity, and pazopanib resistance and decreased apoptosis, while gankyrin knockdown achieved the opposite results. Mechanistically, gankyrin recruited STAT3 via direct binding, and STAT3 binding to the CCL24 promoter promoted its expression. Reciprocally, an increase in autocrine CCL24 enhanced the expression of gankyrin and STAT3 activation via CCR3 in ccRCC, forming a positive autocrine-regulatory loop. Furthermore, in vivo experimental results revealed that blocking the positive loop through gankyrin knockdown or treatment with the CCR3 inhibitor SB328437 reversed the resistance to pazopanib and inhibited lung metastasis in ccRCC. Moreover, a positive correlation between gankyrin and STAT3 or CCL24 expression in ccRCC specimens was observed, and improved accuracy for ccRCC patient prognosis was achieved by combining gankyrin and STAT3 or CCL24 expression with existing clinical prognostic indicators, including the TNM stage and SSIGN score. In summary, targeting the gankyrin/STAT3/CCL24/CCR3 autocrine-regulatory loop may serve as a remedy for patients with advanced ccRCC, and combining gankyrin and STAT3 or CCL24 expression with the current clinical indicators better predicts ccRCC patient prognosis.
Chao Wang, Yuning Wang, Tianyu Hong, Bing Cheng, Sishun Gan, Linbao Chen, Jing Zhang, Li Zuo, Jian Li, Xingang Cui

2515 related Products with: Blocking the autocrine regulatory loop of Gankyrin/STAT3/CCL24/CCR3 impairs the progression and pazopanib resistance of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

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#32033185   2020/02/04 To Up

Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronan Induces an Inflammatory Response in Ovarian Stromal Cells and Impairs Gamete Development In Vitro.

The ovarian stroma, the microenvironment in which female gametes grow and mature, becomes inflamed and fibrotic with age. Hyaluronan is a major component of the ovarian extracellular matrix (ECM), and in other aging tissues, accumulation of low molecular weight (LMW) hyaluronan fragments can drive inflammation. Thus, we hypothesized that LMW hyaluronan fragments contribute to female reproductive aging by stimulating an inflammatory response in the ovarian stroma and impairing gamete quality. To test this hypothesis, isolated mouse ovarian stromal cells or secondary stage ovarian follicles were treated with physiologically relevant (10 or 100 μg/mL) concentrations of 200 kDa LMW hyaluronan. In ovarian stromal cells, acute LMW hyaluronan exposure, at both doses, resulted in the secretion of a predominantly type 2 (Th2) inflammatory cytokine profile as revealed by a cytokine antibody array of conditioned media. Additional qPCR analyses of ovarian stromal cells demonstrated a notable up-regulation of the eotaxin receptor Ccr3 and activation of genes involved in eosinophil recruitment through the IL5-CCR3 signaling pathway. These findings were consistent with an age-dependent increase in ovarian stromal expression of Ccl11, a major CCR3 ligand. When ovarian follicles were cultured in 10 or 100 μg/mL LMW hyaluronan for 12 days, gametes with compromised morphology and impaired meiotic competence were produced. In the 100 μg/mL condition, LMW hyaluronan induced premature meiotic resumption, ultimately leading to in vitro aging of the resulting eggs. Further, follicles cultured in this LMW hyaluronan concentration produced significantly less estradiol, suggesting compromised granulosa cell function. Taken together, these data demonstrate that bioactive LMW hyaluronan fragments may contribute to reproductive aging by driving an inflammatory stromal milieu, potentially through eosinophils, and by directly compromising gamete quality through impaired granulosa cell function.
Jennifer E Rowley, Farners Amargant, Luhan T Zhou, Anna Galligos, Leah E Simon, Michele T Pritchard, Francesca E Duncan

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#31809737   // To Up

Identification of Functionally Distinct Mx1+αSMA+ Periosteal Skeletal Stem Cells.

The periosteum is critical for bone maintenance and healing. However, the in vivo identity and specific regulatory mechanisms of adult periosteum-resident skeletal stem cells are unknown. Here, we report animal models that selectively and durably label postnatal Mx1+αSMA+ periosteal stem cells (P-SSCs) and establish that P-SSCs are a long-term repopulating, functionally distinct SSC subset responsible for lifelong generation of periosteal osteoblasts. P-SSCs rapidly migrate toward an injury site, supply osteoblasts and chondrocytes, and recover new periosteum. Notably, P-SSCs specifically express CCL5 receptors, CCR3 and CCR5. Real-time intravital imaging revealed that the treatment with CCL5 induces P-SSC migration in vivo and bone healing, while CCL5/CCR5 deletion, CCR5 inhibition, or local P-SSC ablation reduces osteoblast number and delays bone healing. Human periosteal cells express CCR5 and undergo CCL5-mediated migration. Thus, the adult periosteum maintains genetically distinct SSC subsets with a CCL5-dependent migratory mechanism required for bone maintenance and injury repair.
Laura C Ortinau, Hamilton Wang, Kevin Lei, Lorenzo Deveza, Youngjae Jeong, Yannis Hara, Ingo Grafe, Scott B Rosenfeld, Dongjun Lee, Brendan Lee, David T Scadden, Dongsu Park

2242 related Products with: Identification of Functionally Distinct Mx1+αSMA+ Periosteal Skeletal Stem Cells.

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#30977156   2019/04/11 To Up

Chemokine receptor 3 is a negative regulator of trabecular bone mass in female mice.

Chemokines are secreted by a wide variety of cells; their functions are dependent on the binding to their chemokine receptors (CCRs) which induce directed chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells. Chemokines and their receptors can be induced under several different conditions. Based on data from clinical studies showing an increased expression of chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) in circulating monocytes of human subjects with lower bone mineral density (BMD) as compared to those with high BMD, we predicted a role for CCR3 in the development of peak bone mass. We, therefore, first evaluated the expression pattern of Ccr3 in bone cells, in comparison to other CCRs, that have common ligands with CCR3. While Ccr1 and Ccr3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels increased during both RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and AA-induced osteoblast differentiation, the levels of Ccr5 mRNA only increased during osteoblast differentiation. To examine if CCR3 influences osteoclast and/or osteoblast differentiation, we evaluated the consequence of blocking CCR3 function using neutralizing antibody on the expression of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation markers. Treatment with CCR3 neutralizing antibody increased mRNA levels of Trap and cathepsin K in osteoclasts and osteocalcin in osteoblasts compared to cells treated with control IgG. Based on these in vitro findings, we next assessed the role of CCR3 in vivo by evaluating the skeletal phenotypes of Ccr3 knockout and corresponding control littermate mice. Disruption of CCR3 resulted in a significant increase in femur areal BMD at 5 and 8 weeks of age by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Micro-CT analysis revealed a 25% increase in trabecular bone mass at 10 weeks of age caused by corresponding changes in trabecular number and thickness compared to wild type mice. Based on our findings, we conclude that disruption of CCR3 function favors bone mass accumulation, in part via enhancement of bone metabolism. Understanding the molecular pathways through which CCR3 acts to regulate osteoclast and osteoblast functions could lead to new therapeutic approaches to prevent inflammation-induced bone loss.
Subburaman Mohan, Yan Hu, Bouchra Edderkaoui

2104 related Products with: Chemokine receptor 3 is a negative regulator of trabecular bone mass in female mice.

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