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#33587986   2021/02/12 To Up

Mini-review: The therapeutic role of cannabinoids in neuroHIV.

In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with an inflammatory component that specifically targets the brain and causes a high prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has attracted interest as a target for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, due to the potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids, including its potential therapeutic use in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the structural and functional changes of the eCB system under conditions of HAND. This will be followed by summarizing the current clinical and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis use and cannabinoids in the context of HIV-1 infection, with specifically focusing on viral load, cognition, inflammation, and neuroprotection. Lastly, we present some potential future directions to better understand the involvement of the eCB system and the role that cannabis use and cannabinoids play in neuroHIV.
Barkha J Yadav-Samudrala, Sylvia Fitting

1686 related Products with: Mini-review: The therapeutic role of cannabinoids in neuroHIV.

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#33537934   // To Up

Synthetic and Natural Derivatives of Cannabidiol.

The non-psychoactive component of Cannabis Sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), has centered the attention of a large body of research in the last years. Recent clinical trials have led to the FDA approval of CBD for the treatment of children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Even though it is not yet in clinical phases, its use in sleep-wake pathological alterations has been widely demonstrated.Despite the outstanding current knowledge on CBD therapeutic effects in numerous in vitro and in vivo disease models, diverse questions still arise from its molecular pharmacology. CBD has been shown to modulate a wide variety of targets including the cannabinoid receptors, orphan GPCRs such as GPR55 and GPR18, serotonin, adenosine, and opioid receptors as well as ligand-gated ion channels among others. Its pharmacology is rather puzzling and needs to be further explored in the disease context.Also, the metabolism and interactions of this phytocannabinoid with other commercialized drugs need to be further considered to elucidate its clinical potential for the treatment of specific pathologies.Besides CBD, natural and synthetic derivatives of this chemotype have also been reported exhibiting diverse functional profiles and providing a deeper understanding of the potential of this scaffold.In this chapter, we analyze the knowledge gained so far on CBD and its analogs specially focusing on its molecular targets and metabolic implications. Phytogenic and synthetic CBD derivatives may provide novel approaches to improve the therapeutic prospects offered by this promising chemotype.
Paula Morales, Nadine Jagerovic

2949 related Products with: Synthetic and Natural Derivatives of Cannabidiol.

100ug100 µg25 mg0.1 mg1000 tests0.1 mg100ug10 mg200 5 G25 2.5 mg

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#32914978   2020/09/23 To Up

Therapeutic Exploitation of GPR18: Beyond the Cannabinoids?

GPR18 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that belongs to the orphan class A family. Even though it shares low sequence homology with the cannabinoid receptors CBR and CBR, a growing body of research suggests its relationship with the endocannabinoid system, not only because it is able to recognize cannabinoid ligands but also because of its expression and ability to heteromerize with CBRs. In this review, we aim to analyze the biological relevance, reported modulators, and structural features of GPR18. In order to guide future drug design in this field, highlights from molecular modeling of GPR18 will be provided.
Paula Morales, Ana Lago-Fernandez, Dow P Hurst, Noori Sotudeh, Eugen Brailoiu, Patricia H Reggio, Mary E Abood, Nadine Jagerovic

2269 related Products with: Therapeutic Exploitation of GPR18: Beyond the Cannabinoids?



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#32824681   2020/08/18 To Up

The Role of Atypical Cannabinoid Ligands O-1602 and O-1918 on Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis with a Focus on Obesity.

O-1602 and O-1918 are atypical cannabinoid ligands for GPR55 and GPR18, which may be novel pharmaceuticals for the treatment of obesity by targeting energy homeostasis regulation in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to determine the effect of O-1602 or O-1918 on markers of oxidative capacity and fatty acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle. Diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats were administered a daily intraperitoneal injection of O-1602, O-1918 or vehicle for 6 weeks. CC myotubes were treated with O-1602 or O-1918 and human primary myotubes were treated with O-1918. GPR18 mRNA was expressed in the skeletal muscle of DIO rats and was up-regulated in red gastrocnemius when compared with white gastrocnemius. O-1602 had no effect on mRNA expression on selected markers for oxidative capacity, fatty acid metabolism or adiponectin signalling in gastrocnemius from DIO rats or in CC myotubes, while APPL2 mRNA was up-regulated in white gastrocnemius in DIO rats treated with O-1918. In CC myotubes treated with O-1918, PGC1α, NFATc1 and PDK4 mRNA were up-regulated. There were no effects of O-1918 on mRNA expression in human primary myotubes derived from obese and obese T2DM individuals. In conclusion, O-1602 does not alter mRNA expression of key pathways important for skeletal muscle energy homeostasis in obesity. In contrast, O-1918 appears to alter markers of oxidative capacity and fatty acid metabolism in CC myotubes only. GPR18 is expressed in DIO rat skeletal muscle and future work could focus on selectively modulating GPR18 in a tissue-specific manner, which may be beneficial for obesity-targeted therapies.
Anna C Simcocks, Lannie O'Keefe, Kayte A Jenkin, Lauren M Cornall, Esther Grinfeld, Michael L Mathai, Deanne H Hryciw, Andrew J McAinch

1873 related Products with: The Role of Atypical Cannabinoid Ligands O-1602 and O-1918 on Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis with a Focus on Obesity.

100.00 ug 100ul100ul100ul1 mg0.2 mg200ul100.00 ug2.5 mg100ug0.2 mg

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#32708653   2020/07/16 To Up

Resolvin D1 and D2 Inhibit Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 and Ankyrin 1 Ion Channel Activation on Sensory Neurons via Lipid Raft Modification.

Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 and Ankyrin 1 (TRPV1, TRPA1) cation channels are expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons and regulate nociceptor and inflammatory functions. Resolvins are endogenous lipid mediators. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is described as a selective inhibitor of TRPA1-related postoperative and inflammatory pain in mice acting on the G protein-coupled receptor DRV1/GPR32. Resolvin D2 (RvD2) is a very potent TRPV1 and TRPA1 inhibitor in DRG neurons, and decreases inflammatory pain in mice acting on the GPR18 receptor, via TRPV1/TRPA1-independent mechanisms. We provided evidence that resolvins inhibited neuropeptide release from the stimulated sensory nerve terminals by TRPV1 and TRPA1 activators capsaicin (CAPS) and allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), respectively. We showed that RvD1 and RvD2 in nanomolar concentrations significantly decreased TRPV1 and TRPA1 activation on sensory neurons by fluorescent calcium imaging and inhibited the CAPS- and AITC-evoked Ca-uptake on TRPV1- and TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. Since CHO cells are unlikely to express resolvin receptors, resolvins are suggested to inhibit channel opening through surrounding lipid raft disruption. Here, we proved the ability of resolvins to alter the membrane polarity related to cholesterol composition by fluorescence spectroscopy. It is concluded that targeting lipid raft integrity can open novel peripheral analgesic opportunities by decreasing the activation of nociceptors.
Maja Payrits, Ádám Horváth, Tünde Biró-Sütő, János Erostyák, Géza Makkai, Éva Sághy, Krisztina Pohóczky, Angéla Kecskés, Miklós Kecskés, János Szolcsányi, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Éva Szőke

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#32682373   // To Up

G-Protein Coupled Receptors Involved in the Resolution of Inflammation: Ligands and Therapeutic Perspectives.

Dysregulated inflammation is a central pathological process in diverse disease states, including neurodegenerative disorders. The recent concept of "resolution of inflammation" is offering a conceptual change for the diagnosis and the development of new therapeutic approaches for chronic inflammatory diseases. Resolution of inflammation terminates the inflammatory response promoting the return to tissue homeostasis through the action of several classes of mediators, termed specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), that include lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins. SPMs provide "stop signals" that reduce the number of immune cells at the site of insult and increase the clearance of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis. SPMs elicit their effects through the interaction with specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The elucidation of the pathways downstream of the GPCRs involved in the resolution of chronic inflammation is opening novel opportunities to generate novel anti-inflammatory agents. This review focuses on the SPMs and the receptors through which their effects are mediated. The medicinal chemistry of the modulators of the GPCRs involved in the resolution of inflammation will be illustrated, by highlighting the potential for developing new antiinflammatory drugs.
Margherita Mastromarino, Enza Lacivita, Nicola A Colabufo, Marcello Leopoldo

2278 related Products with: G-Protein Coupled Receptors Involved in the Resolution of Inflammation: Ligands and Therapeutic Perspectives.

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#32670289   2020/06/25 To Up

Distinct Profiles of Specialized Pro-resolving Lipid Mediators and Corresponding Receptor Gene Expression in Periodontal Inflammation.

Polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) play an important role in modulating inflammation. The aim of the study was to compare profiles of SPMs, SPM related lipid mediators and SPM receptor gene expression in gingiva of subjects with periodontitis to healthy controls. A total of 28 subjects were included; 13 periodontally healthy and 15 periodontitis before or after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Gingival tissues were collected from two representative posterior teeth prior to and 8 weeks after scaling and root planning; only once in the healthy group. Lipid mediator-SPM metabololipidomics was performed to identify metabolites in gingiva. qRT-PCR was performed to assess relative gene expression (2) of known SPM receptors. Intergroup comparisons were made using Wilcoxon tests. Thirty-six omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators and seven receptor genes were identified in gingiva. Profiles of lipid mediators and receptor gene expression were significantly different between the three groups. Levels of six lipid mediators, 5-HETE, 15-HETE, 15(S)-HEPE, 4-HDHA, 7-HDHA, and 17-HDHA in periodontitis before treatment were significantly higher than in periodontitis after treatment. The expression of in the healthy group was significantly higher than periodontitis subjects before and after treatment. The expression of in periodontitis before treatment was significantly higher than in periodontitis after treatment while the expression of in periodontitis before treatment was significantly lower than in periodontitis after treatment. Elevated levels of SPM biosynthetic pathway markers in periodontitis subjects before treatment indicated inflammation induced pro-resolution activity in gingiva, but receptors for these molecules were deficient in periodontitis pre-treatment suggesting that failure of resolution of inflammation contributes to excess, chronic inflammation in periodontitis.
Brittney Ferguson, Nishantha R Bokka, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Srinivas Ayilavarapu, Robin Weltman, Lisha Zhu, Wanqi Chen, W Jim Zheng, Nikola Angelov, Thomas E Van Dyke, Chun-Teh Lee

2998 related Products with: Distinct Profiles of Specialized Pro-resolving Lipid Mediators and Corresponding Receptor Gene Expression in Periodontal Inflammation.

300 units100ug100ug100ug100ug Lyophilized50 ug 2 Pieces/Box100ug Lyophilized8 Sample Kit200ul4 Sample Kit

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#32398659   2020/05/12 To Up

Omics-wide quantitative B-cell infiltration analyses identify GPR18 for human cancer prognosis with superiority over CD20.

Tumor-infiltrating B lymphocyte (TIL-B), and TIL-B-related biomarkers have clinical prognostic values for human cancers. CD20 (encoded by MS4A1) is a widely used TIL-B biomarker. Using TCGA-quantitative multiomics datasets, we first cross-compare prognostic powers of intratumoral CD20 protein, mRNA and TIL-B levels in pan-cancers. Here, we show that MS4A1 and TIL-B are consistently prognostic in 5 cancers (head and neck, lung, cervical, kidney and low-grade glioma), while unexpectedly, CD20 protein levels lack quantitative correlations with MS4A1/TIL-B levels and demonstrate limited prognosticity. Subsequent bioinformatics discovery for TIL-B prognostic gene identifies a single gene, GPR18 with stand-alone prognosticity across 9 cancers (superior over CD20), with further validations in multiple non-TCGA cohorts. GPR18's immune signature denotes major B-cell-T-cell interactions, with its intratumoral expression strongly tied to a "T-cell active", likely cytolytic, status across human cancers, suggesting its functional link to cytolytic T-cell activity in cancer. GPR18 merits biological and clinical utility assessments over CD20.
Yuchen Liu, Li Wang, Kwok-Wai Lo, Vivian Wai Yan Lui

2914 related Products with: Omics-wide quantitative B-cell infiltration analyses identify GPR18 for human cancer prognosis with superiority over CD20.

5 x 50 ug50 ug1 UnitOne 96-Well Microplate Ki1 kit(96 Wells)16 Arrays/Slide1.00 flask

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