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Search results for: apolipoprotein L6

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#31857580   2019/12/19 To Up

MyoD induced enhancer RNA interacts with hnRNPL to activate target gene transcription during myogenic differentiation.

Emerging evidence supports roles of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) in regulating target gene. Here, we study eRNA regulation and function during skeletal myoblast differentiation. We provide a panoramic view of enhancer transcription and categorization of eRNAs. Master transcription factor MyoD is crucial in activating eRNA production. Super enhancer (se) generated seRNA-1 and -2 promote myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. seRNA-1 regulates expression levels of two nearby genes, myoglobin (Mb) and apolipoprotein L6 (Apol6), by binding to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL). A CAAA tract on seRNA-1 is essential in mediating seRNA-1/hnRNPL binding and function. Disruption of seRNA-1-hnRNPL interaction attenuates Pol II and H3K36me3 deposition at the Mb locus, in coincidence with the reduction of its transcription. Furthermore, analyses of hnRNPL binding transcriptome-wide reveal its association with eRNAs is a general phenomenon in multiple cells. Collectively, we propose that eRNA-hnRNPL interaction represents a mechanism contributing to target mRNA activation.
Yu Zhao, Jiajian Zhou, Liangqiang He, Yuying Li, Jie Yuan, Kun Sun, Xiaona Chen, Xichen Bao, Miguel A Esteban, Hao Sun, Huating Wang

1210 related Products with: MyoD induced enhancer RNA interacts with hnRNPL to activate target gene transcription during myogenic differentiation.

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#31340643   2019/08/07 To Up

Mechanism of Phosphatidylglycerol Activation Catalyzed by Prolipoprotein Diacylglyceryl Transferase.

Lipoproteins are essential for bacterial survival. Bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis is accomplished by sequential modification by three enzymes in the inner membrane, all of which are emerging antimicrobial targets. The X-ray crystal structure of prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) and apolipoprotein -acyl transferase (Lnt) has been reported. However, the mechanisms of the post-translational modification catalyzed by these enzymes have not been understood. Here, we studied the mechanism of the transacylation reaction catalyzed by Lgt, the first enzyme for lipoprotein modification using molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. Our results suggest that Arg143, Arg239, and Glu202 play a critical role in stabilizing the glycerol-1-phosphate head group and activating the glycerol C3-O ester bond of the phosphatidylglycerol (PG) substrate. With PG binding, the opening of the L6-7 loop mediated by the highly conserved Arg236 residue as a gatekeeper is observed, which facilitates the release of the modified lipoprotein product, as well as the entry of another PG substrate. Further QM/MM studies revealed that His103 acts as a catalytic base to abstract a proton from the cysteine residue of the preproliprotein, initiating the diacylglyceryl transfer from PG to preprolipoprotein. This is the first study on the mechanism of lipoprotein modification catalyzed by a post-translocational processing enzyme. The transacylation mechanism of Lgt would shed light on the development of novel antimicrobial therapies targeting the challenging enzymes involved in the post-translocational modification pathway of lipoproteins.
Warispreet Singh, Munir Bilal, James McClory, Daniel Dourado, Derek Quinn, Thomas S Moody, Iain Sutcliffe, Meilan Huang

2097 related Products with: Mechanism of Phosphatidylglycerol Activation Catalyzed by Prolipoprotein Diacylglyceryl Transferase.

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#30008882   2018/05/31 To Up

A meta-analysis of transcriptome datasets characterizes malignant transformation from melanocytes and nevi to melanoma.

Melanoma represents one of the most aggressive malignancies and has a high tendency to metastasize. The present study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms of two pathways to cancer transformation with the purpose of identifying potential biomarkers. Our approach is based on a meta-analysis of gene expression profiling contrasting two scenarios: A model that describes a transformation pathway from melanocyte to melanoma and a second model where transformation occurs through an intermediary nevus. Data consists of three independent, publicly available microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database comprising samples from melanocytes, nevi and melanoma. The present analysis identified 808 differentially expressed genes (528 upregulated and 360 downregulated) in melanoma compared with nevi, and 2,331 differentially expressed genes (946 upregulated and 1,385 downregulated) in melanoma compared with melanocytes. Further analysis narrowed down this list, since 682 differentially expressed genes were found in both models (417 upregulated and 265 downregulated). Enrichment analysis identified relevant dysregulated pathways. This article also presented a discussion on significant genes including ADAM like decysin 1, neudesin neurotrophic factor, , apolipoprotein L6, motif chemokine ligand ()8, basic, immunoglobulin-like variable motif containing and . These are of particular interest because they encode secreted proteins hence represent potential blood biomarkers for the early detection of malignant transformation in both scenarios. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4, an important therapeutic target in melanoma treatment, was also upregulated in both comparisons indicating a potential involvement in immune tolerance, not only at advanced stages but also during the early transformation to melanoma. The results of the present study may provide a research direction for studying the mechanisms underlying the development of melanoma, depending on its origin.
Daniel Ortega-Bernal, Claudia H González-De La Rosa, Elena Arechaga-Ocampo, Miguel Angel Alvarez-Avitia, Nora Sobrevilla Moreno, Claudia Rangel-Escareño

2110 related Products with: A meta-analysis of transcriptome datasets characterizes malignant transformation from melanocytes and nevi to melanoma.

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#29802959   2018/05/23 To Up

Site-specific glycations of apolipoprotein A-I lead to differentiated functional effects on lipid-binding and on glucose metabolism.

Prolonged hyperglycemia in poorly controlled diabetes leads to an increase in reactive glucose metabolites that covalently modify proteins by non-enzymatic glycation reactions. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the proteins that becomes glycated in hyperglycemia. The impact of glycation on apoA-I protein structure and function in lipid and glucose metabolism were investigated. ApoA-I was chemically glycated by two different glucose metabolites (methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde). Synchrotron radiation and conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to study apoA-I structure and stability. The ability to bind lipids was measured by lipid-clearance assay and native gel analysis, and cholesterol efflux was measured by using lipid-laden J774 macrophages. Diet induced obese mice with established insulin resistance, L6 rat and C2C12 mouse myocytes, as well as INS-1E rat insulinoma cells, were used to determine in vivo and in vitro glucose uptake and insulin secretion. Site-specific, covalent modifications of apoA-I (lysines or arginines) led to altered protein structure, reduced lipid binding capability and a reduced ability to catalyze cholesterol efflux from macrophages, partly in a modification-specific manner. The stimulatory effects of apoA-I on the in vivo glucose clearance were negatively affected when apoA-I was modified with methylglyoxal, but not with glycolaldehyde. The in vitro data showed that both glucose uptake in muscle cells and insulin secretion from beta cells were affected. Taken together, glycation modifications impair the apoA-I protein functionality in lipid and glucose metabolism, which is expected to have implications for diabetes patients with poorly controlled blood glucose.
Joan Domingo-Espín, Oktawia Nilsson, Katja Bernfur, Rita Del Giudice, Jens O Lagerstedt

2879 related Products with: Site-specific glycations of apolipoprotein A-I lead to differentiated functional effects on lipid-binding and on glucose metabolism.

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#28709892   2017/07/12 To Up

Liuwei Dihuang soft capsules attenuates endothelial cell apoptosis to prevent atherosclerosis through GPR30-mediated regulation in ovariectomized ApoE-deficient mice.

Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH), a classical traditional Chinese medicine prescription, has been widely used to prevent and to treat various diseases with symptoms of 'Kidney-Yin' deficiency syndrome for over 1000 years in China. It is commonly used to treat functional decline associated with senile disease and menopausal syndrome, especially memory decline, insomnia, diabetes and osteoporosis. Modern experimental pharmacological studies indicated that the mechanism of LWDH treatment of menopausal syndrome may be associated with enhanced estrogenic effects. However, little attention has been paid to the potential impact of LWDH on atherosclerosis (AS) associated with female menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of LWDH intake on an animal model of female menopause AS and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism.
Yi Jing, Danfeng Cai, Qi Chen, Qingping Xiong, Tianhui Hu, Yuan Yao, Chao Lin, Xin Sun, Ying Lu, Xueyun Kong, Xiang Wu, Yu Li, Huimin Bian

1885 related Products with: Liuwei Dihuang soft capsules attenuates endothelial cell apoptosis to prevent atherosclerosis through GPR30-mediated regulation in ovariectomized ApoE-deficient mice.

500 gm.1.00 flask2 Pieces/Box1.00 flask96 wells1 kit1.00 flask96 tests1.00 flask1 kit

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#27193916   2016/05/18 To Up

In vivo PET imaging with [(18)F]FDG to explain improved glucose uptake in an apolipoprotein A-I treated mouse model of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is characterised by decreased HDL levels, as well as the level of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main apolipoprotein of HDLs. Pharmacological elevation of HDL and apoA-I levels is associated with improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. This is partly due to improved glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.
Blake J Cochran, William J Ryder, Arvind Parmar, Shudi Tang, Anthonin Reilhac, Andrew Arthur, Arnaud Charil, Hasar Hamze, Philip J Barter, Leonard Kritharides, Steven R Meikle, Marie-Claude Gregoire, Kerry-Anne Rye

2023 related Products with: In vivo PET imaging with [(18)F]FDG to explain improved glucose uptake in an apolipoprotein A-I treated mouse model of diabetes.

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#26226615   2015/07/30 To Up

Several Human Liver Cell Expressed Apolipoproteins Complement HCV Virus Production with Varying Efficacy Conferring Differential Specific Infectivity to Released Viruses.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an exchangeable apolipoprotein, is necessary for production of infectious Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles. However, ApoE is not the only liver-expressed apolipoprotein and the role of other apolipoproteins for production of infectious HCV progeny is incompletely defined. Therefore, we quantified mRNA expression of human apolipoproteins in primary human hepatocytes. Subsequently, cDNAs encoding apolipoproteins were expressed in 293T/miR-122 cells to explore if they complement HCV virus production in cells that are non-permissive due to limiting endogenous levels of human apolipoproteins. Primary human hepatocytes expressed high mRNA levels of ApoA1, A2, C1, C3, E, and H. ApoA4, A5, B, D, F, J, L1, L2, L3, L4, L6, M, and O were expressed at intermediate levels, and C2, C4, and L5 were not detected. All members of the ApoA and ApoC family of lipoproteins complemented HCV virus production in HCV transfected 293T/miR-122 cells, albeit with significantly lower efficacy compared with ApoE. In contrast, ApoD expression did not support production of infectious HCV. Specific infectivity of released particles complemented with ApoA family members was significantly lower compared with ApoE. Moreover, the ratio of extracellular to intracellular infectious virus was significantly higher for ApoE compared to ApoA2 and ApoC3. Since apolipoproteins complementing HCV virus production share amphipathic alpha helices as common structural features we altered the two alpha helices of ApoC1. Helix breaking mutations in both ApoC1 helices impaired virus assembly highlighting a critical role of alpha helices in apolipoproteins supporting HCV assembly. In summary, various liver expressed apolipoproteins with amphipathic alpha helices complement HCV virus production in human non liver cells. Differences in the efficiency of virus assembly, the specific infectivity of released particles, and the ratio between extracellular and intracellular infectivity point to distinct characteristics of these apolipoproteins that influence HCV assembly and cell entry. This will guide future research to precisely pinpoint how apolipoproteins function during virus assembly and cell entry.
Kathrin Hueging, Romy Weller, Mandy Doepke, Gabrielle Vieyres, Daniel Todt, Benno Wölk, Florian W R Vondran, Robert Geffers, Chris Lauber, Lars Kaderali, François Penin, Thomas Pietschmann

2787 related Products with: Several Human Liver Cell Expressed Apolipoproteins Complement HCV Virus Production with Varying Efficacy Conferring Differential Specific Infectivity to Released Viruses.

25 5 51.00 flask1.00 flask1.00 flask1 mg1mg1.00 flask1 kit(96 Wells)25 1.00 flask

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#24901046   2014/06/05 To Up

Apolipoprotein L2 contains a BH3-like domain but it does not behave as a BH3-only protein.

Apolipoproteins of the L family are lipid-binding proteins whose function is largely unknown. Apolipoprotein L1 and apolipoprotein L6 have been recently described as novel pro-death BH3-only proteins that are also capable of regulating autophagy. In an in-silico screening to discover novel putative BH3-only proteins, we identified yet another member of the apolipoprotein L family, apolipoprotein L2 (ApoL2), as a BH3 motif-containing protein. ApoL2 has been suggested to behave as a BH3-only protein and mediate cell death induced by interferon-gamma or viral infection. As previously described, we observed that ApoL2 protein was induced by interferon-gamma. However, knocking down its expression in HeLa cells did not regulate cell death induced by interferon-gamma. Overexpression of ApoL2 did not induce cell death on its own. ApoL2 did not sensitize or protect cells from overexpression of the BH3-only proteins Bmf or Noxa. Furthermore, siRNA against ApoL2 did not alter sensitivity to a variety of death stimuli. We could, however, detect a weak interaction between ApoL2 and Bcl-2 by immunoprecipitation of the former, suggesting a role of ApoL2 in a Bcl-2-regulated process like autophagy. However, in contrast to what has been described about its homologs ApoL1 and ApoL6, ApoL2 did not regulate autophagy. Thus, the role, if any, of ApoL2 in cell death remains to be clarified.
J Galindo-Moreno, R Iurlaro, N El Mjiyad, J Díez-Pérez, T Gabaldón, C Muñoz-Pinedo

2333 related Products with: Apolipoprotein L2 contains a BH3-like domain but it does not behave as a BH3-only protein.

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#22085424   2011/11/07 To Up

Comparative reactivity of remnant-like lipoprotein particles (RLP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to LDL receptor and VLDL receptor: effect of a high-dose statin on VLDL receptor expression.

Comparison of the reactivity of remnant-like lipoprotein particles (RLP) and LDL particles to LDL receptor and VLDL receptor has not been investigated.
Michiko Imagawa, Sadao Takahashi, Yasuo Zenimaru, Tomoko Kimura, Jinya Suzuki, Isamu Miyamori, Tadao Iwasaki, Hiroaki Hattori, Tokuo T Yamamoto, Takamitsu Nakano, Katsuyuki Nakajima

1370 related Products with: Comparative reactivity of remnant-like lipoprotein particles (RLP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to LDL receptor and VLDL receptor: effect of a high-dose statin on VLDL receptor expression.

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