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#32650356   2020/07/03 To Up

Covid-19: A systemic disease treated with a wide-ranging approach: A case report.

At the end of December 2019, the Health Commission of the city of Wuhan, China, alerted the World Health Organization (WHO) to a pneumonia cluster in the city. The cause was identified as being a new virus, later named SARS-CoV-2. We can distinguish three clinical phases of the disease with a distinct pathogenesis, manifestations and prognosis. Here, we describe the case of a 45-year-old male, successfully treated for Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The patient was feeling sick in early April 2020; he had a fever and pharyngodynia. When he came to our COVID hospital, his breathing was normal. The nasopharyngeal swab specimen turned out positive. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed mild interstitial pneumonia. The patient was admitted to our department and treated with hydroxychloroquine, ritonavir, darunavir, azithromycin and enoxaparin. On day seven of the disease, the patient's respiratory condition got worse as he was developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). He was given tocilizumab and corticosteroids and was immediately treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). His condition improved, and in the ensuing days, the treatment gradually switched to a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC); after 18 days, the patient's clinical condition was good.The successful results we have been able to obtain are closely associated with avoidance of invasive ventilation that may lead to intensive care unit (ICU)-related superinfections. In our opinion, it is fundamental to understand that COVID-19 is a systemic disease that is a consequence of an overwhelming inflammatory response, which can cause severe medical conditions, even in young patients.
Rosanna Massabeti, Maria Stella Cipriani, Ivana Valenti

2511 related Products with: Covid-19: A systemic disease treated with a wide-ranging approach: A case report.



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#32650355   2020/06/27 To Up

Antirheumatic drugs for COVID-19 treatment based on the phases of the disease: Current concept.

COVID-19 disease is the most recent pandemic, since it has affected more than four and a half million people and caused more than 300,000 deaths. It is a very complex systemic disease in terms of pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. Pharmacological treatment may include antiviral and antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, corticosteroids as well as low-molecular-weight heparins to prevent the evolution of the disease from reaching the severe inflammatory phase that can lead to respiratory complications, multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and finally death. Therefore, pending the development of the much sought-after vaccine, there needs to be a multidisciplinary approach to tackling this disease, and it is essential to use different medical treatments at the correct pathogenic moment. The aim of this article is to evaluate the rationale and reason behind the use of antirheumatic drugs, by expert point of view, in the various phases of the disease. Another important aspect in the management of the disease is to identify patients at high risk, both to change their lifestyle and to correct the state of their health through non-pharmacological measures for improving their immuno-balance. Our literature review reveals the important role and the therapeutic potential of antirheumatic agents in preventing the progression of the disease and aiding recovery from the disease. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence to support the use of these agents, indicating that further randomized controlled studies are required.
Marco Valentini, Hassan Zmerly

1796 related Products with: Antirheumatic drugs for COVID-19 treatment based on the phases of the disease: Current concept.

1100.1 mg100 IU1 ml500 Units11

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#32650338   2020/07/10 To Up

Structural basis for RIFIN-mediated activation of LILRB1 in malaria.

The Plasmodium species that cause malaria are obligate intracellular parasites, and disease symptoms occur as they replicate within human blood. Despite risking immune detection, the parasite delivers proteins that bind host receptors to infected erythrocyte surfaces. In the causative agent of the most deadly human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, RIFINs form the largest erythrocyte surface protein family. Some RIFINs can bind inhibitory immune receptors, acting as targets for unusual antibodies containing a LAIR1 ectodomain, or as ligands for LILRB1. RIFINs stimulate LILRB1 activation and signalling, thereby potentially dampening human immune responses. To understand this process, we determined a structure of a RIFIN bound to LILRB1. We show that the RIFIN mimics the natural activating ligand of LILRB1, MHC class I, in its LILRB1-binding mode. A single RIFIN mutation disrupts the complex, blocks LILRB1 binding by all tested RIFINs and abolishes signalling in a reporter assay. In a supported lipid bilayer system, which mimics NK cell activation by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, both RIFIN and MHC are recruited to the NK cell immunological synapse and reduce cell activation, as measured by perforin mobilisation. Therefore, LILRB1-binding RIFINs mimic the binding mode of the natural ligand of LILRB1 and suppress NK cell function.
Thomas E Harrison, Alexander M Mørch, James H Felce, Akihito Sakoguchi, Adam J Reid, Hisashi Arase, Michael L Dustin, Matthew K Higgins

1440 related Products with: Structural basis for RIFIN-mediated activation of LILRB1 in malaria.

2 mg500 MG100μg 100 G100ug25 Bags/Unit250 mg 1 G100ug500 tests500 tests 1 G

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#32650161   2020/07/07 To Up

Safety and efficacy of rice seed-based oral allergy vaccine for Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japanese monkeys.

Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis (JCP) is one of the major seasonal IgE-mediated type I allergies from February to April each year. Not only human patients but also Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) are afflicted with this pollinosis in Japan, which exhibit similar clinical allergic symptoms such as allergenic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Therefore, monkeys naturally sensitized to JC pollen allergens are expected to serve as a suitable animal model for exploiting the allergy vaccine for JCP, since allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment for allergy diseases. We generated transgenic rice containing the hypoallergenic JC pollen Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 allergen derivatives as tolerogen. In this study, safety and efficacy of transgenic rice seed were evaluated by oral administration to Japanese monkeys. Healthy monkeys were not sensitized to Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 allergens, even when administered for one to ten months. By contrast, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation and IgE antibody specific to these allergens were reduced in Japanese monkeys with JCP. Especially, suppression of allergen-specific PBMC proliferation was observed within only two months after administration. These findings indicate that this transgenic rice acts as effective tolerogen to induce oral immune tolerance against JC allergens.
Saburo Saito, Hidenori Takagi, Yuhya Wakasa, Kenjirou Ozawa, Fumio Takaiwa

2019 related Products with: Safety and efficacy of rice seed-based oral allergy vaccine for Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japanese monkeys.

100 5 G500 MG250 mg 100 G1000 1 G

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#32650143   2020/07/04 To Up

Seroconversion and indolent course of COVID-19 in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with fingolimod and teriflunomide.


Bollo Luca, Guerra Tommaso, Davide Fiore Bavaro, Monno Laura, Saracino Annalisa, Angarano Gioacchino, Paolicelli Damiano, Trojano Maria, Iaffaldano Pietro

1171 related Products with: Seroconversion and indolent course of COVID-19 in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with fingolimod and teriflunomide.

500 mg25 mg50 ug 10 mg16 Arrays/Slide

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#32650057   2020/07/07 To Up

Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of flufenamic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are one of the most serious surgery complications, and their prevention is of utmost importance. Flufenamic acid is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug approved for clinical use to relieve inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In this study, we explored the antibacterial efficacy of flufenamic acid and the mechanisms underlying this effect. By using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, resistance induction assays, and the antibiotic synergy test, we demonstrated that flufenamic acid inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant staphylococci and did not induce resistance when it was used at the MIC. Furthermore, flufenamic acid acted synergistically with the beta-lactam antibiotic oxacillin and did not show significant toxicity toward mammalian cells. The biofilm inhibition assay revealed that flufenamic acid could prevent biofilm formation on medical implants and destroy the ultrastructure of the bacterial cell wall. RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR indicated that flufenamic acid inhibited the expression of genes associated with peptidoglycan biosynthesis, beta-lactam resistance, quorum sensing, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, flufenamic acid efficiently ameliorated a local infection caused by MRSA in mice. In conclusion, flufenamic acid may be a potent therapeutic compound against MRSA infections and a promising candidate for antimicrobial coating of implants and surgical devices.
Shutao Zhang, Haozheng Tang, You Wang, Bin'en Nie, Hongtao Yang, Weien Yuan, Xinhua Qu, Bing Yue

2958 related Products with: Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of flufenamic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

200 1 mL200 2510 mg0.1 ml500 200 100 MG1 g 5 G 500 ml

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#32650041   2020/07/07 To Up

Liposomes: Advancements and innovation in the manufacturing process.

Liposomes are well recognised as effective drug delivery systems, with a range of products approved, including follow on generic products. Current manufacturing processes used to produce liposomes are generally complex multi-batch processes. Furthermore, liposome preparation processes adopted in the laboratory setting do not offer easy translation to large scale production, which may delay the development and adoption of new liposomal systems. To promote advancement and innovation in liposome manufacturing processes this review considers the range of manufacturing processes available for liposomes, from laboratory scale and scale up, through to large-scale manufacture and evaluates their advantages and limitations. The regulatory considerations associated with the manufacture of liposomes is also discussed. New innovations that support leaner scalable technologies for liposome fabrication are outlined including self-assembling liposome systems and microfluidic production. The critical process attributes that impact on the liposome product attributes are outlined to support potential wider adoption of these innovations.
Sanket Shah, Vivek Dhawan, René Holm, Mangal S Nagarsenker, Yvonne Perrie

1877 related Products with: Liposomes: Advancements and innovation in the manufacturing process.

11 Set1 mg

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#32650039   2020/07/07 To Up

Recombinant Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein 350 as a serological antigen.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein 350 (gp350) is the most abundant glycoprotein expressed on the EBV envelope, the major target for neutralizing antibodies and also essential for virion attachment to B lymphocytes. Several studies have addressed EBV gp350 as a vaccine candidate, but less commonly as a potential antigen for serological assays. The aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic tool to quantify EBV gp350-specific IgG in previously EBV-infected individuals. A construct encoding the extracellular domain of EBV gp350 (amino acid (aa) 1-860) was developed for expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Serum samples (n = 360) with known IgG serostatus against viral capsid antigen (VCA) and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) were divided into three groups based on the differences in their serostatus: VCA + EBNA1+ (n = 120), VCA + EBNA1- (n = 120) and VCA-EBNA1- (n = 120). The samples were analyzed by indirect ELISA using recombinant EBV gp350 aa 1-860 as antigen. A clear majority, 108 of the 120 VCA + EBNA1+ samples, had detectable EBV gp350-specific IgG. Of the 120 VCA + EBNA1- samples, 79 had detectable EBV gp350-specific IgG. Only 2 of the 120 VCA-EBNA1- samples had detectable EBV gp350-specific IgG. The results reported here show that use of the EBV gp350 aa 1-860 ELISA can serve as a sensitive method for EBV-specific IgG detection in serum samples.
Linn Persson Berg, Elisabeth Thomsson, Gentiana Hasi, Malin Bäckström, Tomas Bergström

2829 related Products with: Recombinant Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein 350 as a serological antigen.

100 µg100 µg100 100 µg1000100 µg500100100 µg100100 ug/vial1mg

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#32650038   2020/07/07 To Up

Replacing the decoy epitope of PCV2 capsid protein with epitopes of GP3 and/or GP5 of PRRSV enhances the immunogenicity of bivalent vaccines in mice.

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and reproductive failure and causes economic losses in the domestic swine industry. The decoy epitope (169-180 amino acid (aa)) of the PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein is an immunodominant epitope and diverts the immune response away from protective epitopes. The mixed infection of PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most common co-infections in the pig industry and shows more severe clinical symptoms. Linear B-cell antigenic epitopes of PRRSV GP3 epitope Ⅰ (61-72aa) and PRRSV GP5 epitope Ⅳ (187-200aa) efficiently elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV. The recombinant baculovirus expressing the Cap protein (Bac-Cap) was modified by replacing the decoy epitope of the Cap protein with either the PRRSV GP3 epitope Ⅰ, the PRRSV GP5 epitope Ⅳ, or the PRRSV GP3 epitope Ⅰ- GP5 epitope Ⅳ to produce the recombinant baculoviruses Bac-Cap-GP3, Bac-Cap-GP5 and Bac-Cap-GP35. The four recombinant baculoviruses were successfully established and characterized as demonstrated with western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Immunogenicities of the four recombinant baculoviruses in mice were tested in sera harvested at 21 and 42 days post-primary immunization. The titers of antibodies in the sera were determined by a PCV2-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a serum neutralization assay. The serum IFN-γ levels were measured by indirect ELISA. The results showed that Bac-Cap-GP3, Bac-Cap-GP5, and Bac-Cap-GP35 elicited higher GP3/GP5 and Cap antibody titers than the Bac-Cap. Virus neutralization test also confirmed that the serum from the Bac-Cap-GP3 immunized mice had high levels of the both PCV2 and PRRSV neutralization antibodies. These findings collectively demonstrated that substituting the decoy epitope of the PCV2 capsid substituted with PRRSV epitopes could be developed into an effective vaccine against PCV2.
Bo-Kyoung Jung, Hye-Ran Kim, Huyn Jang, Kyung-Soo Chang

2873 related Products with: Replacing the decoy epitope of PCV2 capsid protein with epitopes of GP3 and/or GP5 of PRRSV enhances the immunogenicity of bivalent vaccines in mice.

5 G1

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#32650029   2020/07/07 To Up

Reciprocal communication between astrocytes and endothelial cells is required for astrocytic glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression.

Astrocytes have diverse functions that are supported by their anatomic localization between neurons and blood vessels. One of these functions is the clearance of extracellular glutamate. Astrocytes clear glutamate using two Na-dependent glutamate transporters, GLT-1 (also called EAAT2) and GLAST (also called EAAT1). GLT-1 expression increases during synaptogenesis and is a marker of astrocyte maturation. Over 20 years ago, several groups demonstrated that astrocytes in culture express little or no GLT-1 and that neurons induce expression. We recently demonstrated that co-culturing endothelia with mouse astrocytes also induced expression of GLT-1 and GLAST. These increases were blocked by an inhibitor of γ-secretase. This and other observations are consistent with the hypothesis that Notch signaling is required, but the ligands involved were not identified. In the present study, we used rat astrocyte cultures to further define the mechanisms by which endothelia induce expression of GLT-1 and GLAST. We found that co-cultures of astrocytes and endothelia express higher levels of GLT-1 and GLAST protein and mRNA. That endothelia activate Hes5, a transcription factor target of Notch, in astrocytes. Using recombinant Notch ligands, anti-Notch ligand neutralizing antibodies, and shRNAs, we provide evidence that both Dll1 and Dll4 contribute to endothelia-dependent regulation of GLT-1. We also provide evidence that astrocytes secrete a factor(s) that induces expression of Dll4 in endothelia and that this effect is required for Notch-dependent induction of GLT-1. Together these studies indicate that reciprocal communication between astrocytes and endothelia is required for appropriate astrocyte maturation and that endothelia likely deploy additional non-Notch signals to induce GLT-1.
Zila Martinez-Lozada, Michael B Robinson

2663 related Products with: Reciprocal communication between astrocytes and endothelial cells is required for astrocytic glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression.

100ug Lyophilized1 g100ug Lyophilized1 mg100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized

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