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Comparison of HE 4, CA 125, ROMA score and ultrasound score in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses.

To compare the value of USG score, cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), human epididymis protein 4 (HE 4) and risk of malignancy algorithm (ROMA) in differential diagnosis ovarian masses.

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Hyaluronan molecular weight: effects on dissolution time of dissolving microneedles in the skin and on immunogenicity of antigen.

Biomaterials used as matrix for dissolving microneedles (dMNs) may affect the manufacturing process as well as the potency of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, e.g. the immunogenicity of incorporated vaccine antigens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the molecular weight of hyaluronan, a polymer widely used in the fabrication of dMNs, ranging in molecular weight from 4.8 kDa to 1.8 MDa, on the dissolution of microneedles in the skin in time as well as the antibody response in mice and T-cell activation in vitro. Hyaluronan molecular weight (HA-MWs) did not affect antibody responses (when lower than 150 kDa) nor CD4+ T-cell responses against model antigen ovalbumin. However, the HA-MWs had an effect on the fabrication of dMNs. The 1.8 MDa HA was not suitable for the fabrication of dMNs. Similarly, the 4.8 kDa HA generated dMN arrays less robust compared to the other HA-MWs requiring optimization of the drying conditions. Finally, higher HA-MWs led to longer application time of dMN arrays for a complete dissolution of microneedles into the skin. Specifically, we identified 20 kDa HA as the optimal HA-MW for the fabrication of dMNs as with this MW the dMNs are robust and dissolve fast in the skin without affecting immunogenicity.

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Structural predication and antigenic analysis of ROP16 protein utilizing immunoinformatics methods in order to identification of a vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii: An in silico approach.

Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a common parasitic disease, affecting almost one-third of the world's population. Currently, there are no effective treatments for inhibiting the formation of chronic tissue cysts in infected hosts. Thus, the production of appropriate vaccines against this pathogen is an important goal to avoid toxoplasmosis. considering the role of rhoptry antigens like ROP16 in virulence and satisfactory immunogenicity, they can be used as promising vaccine candidates against T. gondii. In the present study, an in silico approach was used to analyze various aspects of the ROP16 protein, including physicochemical characteristics, the potential epitopes of B and T-cells, the secondary and tertiary structure, the subcellular localization, the transmembrane domain, and other important features of this protein using several bioinformatics tools to design a proper vaccine against T. gondii. The results showed that ROP16 protein includes 93 potential post-translational modification sites. The secondary structure of the ROP16 protein comprises 34.23% alpha-helix, 54.46% random coil, and 11.32% extended strand. Moreover, several potential B- and T-cell epitopes were identified for ROP16. Based on the results of Ramachandran plot, 84.64% of the amino acid residues were located in the favored, 10.34% in allowed, and 5.02% in outlier regions. Furthermore, the results of the antigenicity and allergenicity assessment noted that this protein was immunogenic and non-allergenic. Our findings suggested that structural and functional predictions applied to ROP16 protein using in silico tools can reduce the failure risk of the laboratory studies. This research provided an important basis for further studies and also developed an effective vaccine against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis by various strategies. Further studies are needed on the development of vaccines in vivo using ROP16 alone or in combination with other antigens in the future.

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