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Association between antimicrobial drug class for treatment and retreatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and frequency of resistant BRD pathogen isolation from veterinary diagnostic laboratory samples.

Although 90% of BRD relapses are reported to receive retreatment with a different class of antimicrobial, studies examining the impact of antimicrobial selection (i.e. bactericidal or bacteriostatic) on retreatment outcomes and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are deficient in the published literature. This survey was conducted to determine the association between antimicrobial class selection for treatment and retreatment of BRD relapses on antimicrobial susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Pathogens were isolated from samples submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from January 2013 to December 2015. A total of 781 isolates with corresponding animal case histories, including treatment protocols, were included in the analysis. Original susceptibility testing of these isolates for ceftiofur, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin was performed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian approach to evaluate whether retreatment with antimicrobials of different mechanistic classes (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) increased the probability of resistant BRD pathogen isolation in calves. The posterior distribution we calculated suggests that an increased number of treatments is associated with a greater probability of isolates resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Furthermore, the frequency of resistant BRD bacterial isolates was greater with retreatment using antimicrobials of different mechanistic classes than retreatment with the same class. Specifically, treatment protocols using a bacteriostatic drug first followed by retreatment with a bactericidal drug were associated with a higher frequency of resistant BRD pathogen isolation. In particular, first treatment with tulathromycin (bacteriostatic) followed by ceftiofur (bactericidal) was associated with the highest probability of resistant M. haemolytica among all antimicrobial combinations. These observations suggest that consideration should be given to antimicrobial pharmacodynamics when selecting drugs for retreatment of BRD. However, prospective studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance to antimicrobial stewardship programs in livestock production systems.

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Bovine Androstenedione,AS Anti-BRSV(Bovine Respirat Androgen Receptor Antibod Anti Androgen Receptor pr Androst-16-en-3-ol C19H30 Androsta-3,5,16-trien-17- CAR,Car,Constitutive andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 Androstenedione 19  FitAmp General Tissue S Androgen Receptor (Ab 650  FitAmp Gel DNA Isolatio

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Collective behaviors of Drosophila-derived retinal progenitors in controlled microenvironments.

Collective behaviors of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are critical to the development of neural networks needed for vision. Signaling cues and pathways governing retinal cell fate, migration, and functional organization are remarkably conserved across species, and have been well-studied using Drosophila melanogaster. However, the collective migration of heterogeneous groups of RPCs in response to dynamic signaling fields of development remains incompletely understood. This is in large part because the genetic advances of seminal invertebrate models have been poorly complemented by in vitro cell study of its visual development. Tunable microfluidic assays able to replicate the miniature cellular microenvironments of the developing visual system provide newfound opportunities to probe and expand our knowledge of collective chemotactic responses essential to visual development. Our project used a controlled, microfluidic assay to produce dynamic signaling fields of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) that stimulated the chemotactic migration of primary RPCs extracted from Drosophila. Results illustrated collective RPC chemotaxis dependent on average size of clustered cells, in contrast to the non-directional movement of individually-motile RPCs. Quantitative study of these diverse collective responses will advance our understanding of retina developmental processes, and aid study/treatment of inherited eye disease. Lastly, our unique coupling of defined invertebrate models with tunable microfluidic assays provides advantages for future quantitative and mechanistic study of varied RPC migratory responses.

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Association between breath methane concentration and visceral fat area: A population-based cross-sectional study.

High visceral fat area (VFA) is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality, compared with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Recent reports demonstrate that obesity is related to breath gas, which is produced by the intestinal microflora. However, these studies define obesity using BMI, not VFA. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship between breath gases (methane and hydrogen) and both VFA and BMI. A total of 1033 participants (62% women; age [mean ± standard deviation] 54.4 ± 14.9 years) in the 2015 Iwaki Health Promotion Project in Japan were enrolled in the study. Breath samples were collected using a breath bag and analyzed by gas chromatography. VFA was measured using a visceral fat meter. The proportion of methanogenic bacteria to total intestinal microbiota was measured by polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Our analysis revealed a significant association between high VFA and low breath methane, even after adjusting for confounding factors (B=-0.024 and P=0.004). To identify the association between breath methane and VFA in participants with methane-producing bacteria in their intestinal microflora, participants were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of methanogenic bacteria in their stool. The Methanogen+ group was further divided into two subgroups with breath methane higher (Methane-UP) or lower (Methane-LO) than the median breath methane concentration. VFA was significantly higher in the Methane-UP group than in the Methane-LO group. In participants with methanogenic bacteria, breath methane concentration might be an independent biomarker of visceral fat accumulation.

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Nicotine instigates podocyte injury via NLRP3 inflammasomes activation.

Recent studies have shown that nicotine induces podocyte damage. However, it remains unknown how nicotine induces podocyte injury. The present study tested whether nicotine induces NLRP3 inflammasomes activation and thereby contributes to podocyte injury.

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Characteristics and management of pain in patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome: analysis of a global patient-reported registry.

Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is characterized by congenital fusion of the cervical vertebrae. Due to its rarity, minimal research has been done to assess the quality and management of pain associated with this disorder. Using a large global database, the authors report a detailed analysis of the type, location, and treatment of pain in patients with KFS.

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Should ondansetron use be a reason to admit children with isolated, nondisplaced, linear skull fractures?

Isolated, nondisplaced skull fractures (ISFs) are a common result of pediatric head trauma. They rarely require surgical intervention; however, many patients with these injuries are still admitted to the hospital for observation. This retrospective study investigates predictors of vomiting and ondansetron use following pediatric ISFs and the role that these factors play in the need for admission and emergency department (ED) revisits.

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Survival and failure trends of cerebrospinal fluid shunts with distal slit valves: comparative study and literature review.

The malfunction rates of and trends in various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt designs have been widely studied, but one area that has received little attention is the comparison of the peritoneal distal slit valve (DSV) shunt to other conventional valve (CV) type shunts. The literature that does exist comes from older case series that provide only indirect comparisons, and the conclusions are mixed. Here, the authors provide a direct comparison of the overall survival and failure trends of DSV shunts to those of other valve type shunts.

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Androgen Receptor Antibod Androgen Receptor Antibod 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,1 Epiandrosterone (3 beta H Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Androstane-3a,17b-diol Gl 4 Androstene 3,17 dione C Androgen Receptor (Ab-650 Androgen Receptor , Mouse (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α)-Androst-2-en-17-one

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Allocation of Attention to Visual and Nonvisual Perceptual Channels by Marksmen During Aiming: Skill-Level Differences.

This study examined attention allocation in 30 marksmen categorized into 3 skill levels ranging from expert to novice. Each shooter performed 336 shooting trials. Half of the trials were performed under an occluded-vision condition and the rest under regular, unoccluded conditions. Immediately after completion of a random subset of shots (96 trials), shooters estimated the actual location of each shot, and on a random subset of trials (48 trials), shooters gave retrospective verbal reports. A mixed 3 × 2 factorial analysis of variance revealed that the expert marksmen performed and estimated their shots more accurately than the intermediate and novice marksmen, the intermediates performed like the experts under the full-vision condition and like novices under the occluded-vision condition, and the experts reported attending more to nonvisual information while they estimated their shots than did the novices. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms mediating expertise.

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Stygamoeba cauta n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Discosea) - a new brackish-water species from Nivå Bay (Baltic Sea, The Sound).

Several evolutionary lineages of Amoebozoa are characterized by unusual morphological and ultrastructural features that impede resolving of their position in the phylogenetic tree. Among them is the genus Stygamoeba, not yet reliably placed on the phylogenetic tree even by a phylogenomic analysis. Only two species of Stygamoeba are known at present, and molecular data exists on one species only. Here, we present a description of the mesohaline species Stygamoeba cauta n. sp. isolated from the bottom sediments of Nivå Bay (Baltic Sea, The Sound). This stick-like, flattened amoeba morphologically resembles the previously described species Stygamoeba regulataSmirnov, 1996. However, the molecular analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene sequences and differences in cell behavior and pattern of locomotion provide strong support for establishing a new species.

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Treatment and outcomes in patients with central nervous system metastases from breast cancer in the real-life ESME MBC cohort.

The aims of the present study were to describe treatment patterns and survival outcomes in patients with central nervous system metastases (CNSM) selected among metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients included in a retrospective study from the Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics (ESME) MBC cohort.

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