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#32452692   2020/05/26 To Up

Utilization Trends in Abdominal Imaging, 2004-2016.

The purpose of this study was to analyze recent trends in abdominal imaging utilization in the Medicare population. Medicare Part B databases for 2004-2016 were reviewed, and all Current Procedural Terminology codes pertaining to noninvasive imaging of the abdomen and pelvis were identified. Codes were grouped into six categories: CT and CT angiography (CTA), MRI and MR angiography (MRA), ultrasound, radionuclide imaging, radiography, and gastrointestinal fluoroscopy. Annual utilization rates per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries were calculated. Medicare physician specialty codes were used to identify studies performed by radiologists versus nonradiologist physicians. Reimbursements were determined. Total abdominal imaging utilization decreased from 558.0 examinations per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries in 2004 to 441.9 in 2016 (-20.8%). CT and CTA examinations increased by 22.5% from 2004 to 2010, followed by a sharp drop in 2011 caused by code bundling. From 2011 to 2016, CT and CTA use increased by only 7.2%. Radiography utilization decreased from 129.6 examinations per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries in 2004 to 91.5 in 2016 (-29.4%). Radionuclide studies decreased from 14.0 to 9.5 (-32.1%), and gastrointestinal fluoroscopy decreased from 37.8 examinations to 22.5 (-40.5%). Utilization of ultrasound increased slightly (1.5%), whereas MR and MRA utilization sharply increased on a percentage basis (81.2%). Reimbursements peaked in 2009 at $1.704 billion, dropped substantially in 2011 because of code bundling, and remained relatively stable thereafter. The radiologists' market share of abdominal imaging was approximately 87% in both 2004 and 2016. Abdominal imaging utilization rates have declined in recent years, in part due to code bundling, but also largely because of a decrease in the use of abdominal radiography, gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, and nuclear imaging. Reimbursements have also declined. This study also showed that most of the abdominal imaging was performed by radiologists.
Michael R Kramer, David C Levin, Vijay M Rao

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#32451441   2020/05/25 To Up

Dynamin regulates the dynamics and mechanical strength of the actin cytoskeleton as a multifilament actin-bundling protein.

The dynamin GTPase is known to bundle actin filaments, but the underlying molecular mechanism and physiological relevance remain unclear. Our genetic analyses revealed a function of dynamin in propelling invasive membrane protrusions during myoblast fusion in vivo. Using biochemistry, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography, we show that dynamin bundles actin while forming a helical structure. At its full capacity, each dynamin helix captures 12-16 actin filaments on the outer rim of the helix. GTP hydrolysis by dynamin triggers disassembly of fully assembled dynamin helices, releasing free dynamin dimers/tetramers and facilitating Arp2/3-mediated branched actin polymerization. The assembly/disassembly cycles of dynamin promote continuous actin bundling to generate mechanically stiff actin super-bundles. Super-resolution and immunogold platinum replica electron microscopy revealed dynamin along actin bundles at the fusogenic synapse. These findings implicate dynamin as a unique multifilament actin-bundling protein that regulates the dynamics and mechanical strength of the actin cytoskeletal network.
Ruihui Zhang, Donghoon M Lee, John R Jimah, Nathalie Gerassimov, Changsong Yang, Sangjoon Kim, Delgermaa Luvsanjav, Jonathan Winkelman, Marcel Mettlen, Michael E Abrams, Raghav Kalia, Peter Keene, Pratima Pandey, Benjamin Ravaux, Ji Hoon Kim, Jonathon A Ditlev, Guofeng Zhang, Michael K Rosen, Adam Frost, Neal M Alto, Margaret Gardel, Sandra L Schmid, Tatyana M Svitkina, Jenny E Hinshaw, Elizabeth H Chen

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#32439952   2020/05/21 To Up

Geometrical Constraints on the Tangling of Bacterial Flagellar Filaments.

Many species of bacteria swim through viscous environments by rotating multiple helical flagella. The filaments gather behind the cell body and form a close helical bundle, which propels the cell forward during a "run". The filaments inside the bundle cannot be continuously actuated, nor can they easily unbundle, if they are tangled around one another. The fact that bacteria can passively form coherent bundles, i.e. bundles which do not contain tangled pairs of filaments, may appear surprising given that flagella are actuated by uncoordinated motors. In this article, we establish the theoretical conditions under which a pair of rigid helical filaments can form a tangled bundle, and we compare these constraints with experimental data collected from the literature. Our results suggest that bacterial flagella are too straight and too far apart to form tangled bundles based on their intrinsic, undeformed geometry alone. This makes the formation of coherent bundles more robust against the passive nature of the bundling process, where the position of individual filaments cannot be controlled.
Maria Tătulea-Codrean, Eric Lauga

1672 related Products with: Geometrical Constraints on the Tangling of Bacterial Flagellar Filaments.

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#32423210   2020/05/18 To Up

Fabrication of Non-Covalently Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes with High Stability and Water-Redispersibility.

Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have attracted significant interest because of the remarkably difference in their physical properties compared with carbon nanotubes, as well as a far-reaching potential application including electrical insulators, thermally conducting, catalytic and piezoelectric materials, and neutron absorbers. Despite their unique physical properties, the bundling and insolubility of BNNTs in water because of its substantial van der Waals attraction and hydrophobicity, respectively, give rise to many limitations in practical applications. Here, we present a new way to produce a greatly stable BNNT dispersion by the non-covalent functionalization of BNNT surface in water. The non-covalently functionalized BNNTs (p-BNNTs) have been found to be highly stable in water for a long time (> 1 year) and easily water-redispersible by mild vortex mixing for a few minutes even after freeze-drying at - 45 C. The p-BNNTs were cylindrically encapsulated with polymerizable surfactants (BNNT diameter = ca. 3 nm and surfactant thickness = 0.8 nm).
Shin-Hyun Kang, Sang-Woo Jeon, Se Youn Moon, Young-Jin Yoon, Tae-Hwan Kim

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#32390612   2020/05/04 To Up

A computational model of bidirectional axonal growth in micro-tissue engineered neuronal networks (micro-TENNs).

Micro-Tissue Engineered Neural Networks (Micro-TENNs) are living three-dimensional constructs designed to replicate the neuroanatomy of white matter pathways in the brain and are being developed as implantable micro-tissue for axon tract reconstruction, or as anatomically-relevant in vitro experimental platforms. Micro-TENNs are composed of discrete neuronal aggregates connected by bundles of long-projecting axonal tracts within miniature tubular hydrogels. In order to help design and optimize micro-TENN performance, we have created a new computational model including geometric and functional properties. The model is built upon the three-dimensional diffusion equation and incorporates large-scale uni- and bi-directional growth that simulates realistic neuron morphologies. The model captures unique features of 3D axonal tract development that are not apparent in planar outgrowth and may be insightful for how white matter pathways form during brain development. The processes of axonal outgrowth, branching, turning and aggregation/bundling from each neuron are described through functions built on concentration equations and growth time distributed across the growth segments. Once developed we conducted multiple parametric studies to explore the applicability of the method and conducted preliminary validation via comparisons to experimentally grown micro-TENNs for a range of growth conditions. Using this framework, the model can be applied to study micro-TENN growth processes and functional characteristics using spiking network or compartmental network modeling. This model may be applied to improve our understanding of axonal tract development and functionality, as well as to optimize the fabrication of implantable tissue engineered brain pathways for nervous system reconstruction and/or modulation.
Toma Marinov, Haven A López Sánchez, Liang Yuchi, Dayo O Adewole, D Kacy Cullen, Reuben H Kraft

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#32373510   2020/04/21 To Up

Fascin Activates β-Catenin Signaling and Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cell Function Mainly Through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK): Relation With Disease Progression.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a rare population of tumor cells with high self-renewability potential, have gained increasing attention due to their contribution to chemoresistance and metastasis. We have previously demonstrated a critical role for the actin-bundling protein (fascin) in mediating breast cancer chemoresistance through activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The latter is known to trigger the β-catenin signaling pathway. Whether fascin activation of FAK would ultimately trigger β-catenin signaling pathway has not been elucidated. Here, we assessed the effect of fascin manipulation in breast cancer cells on triggering β-catenin downstream targets and its dependence on FAK. Gain and loss of fascin expression showed its direct effect on the constitutive expression of β-catenin downstream targets and enhancement of self-renewability. In addition, fascin was essential for glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor-mediated inducible expression and function of the β-catenin downstream targets. Importantly, fascin-mediated constitutive and inducible expression of β-catenin downstream targets, as well as its subsequent effect on CSC function, was at least partially FAK dependent. To assess the clinical relevance of the findings, we evaluated the consequence of fascin, FAK, and β-catenin downstream target coexpression on the outcome of breast cancer patient survival. Patients with coexpression of fascin and FAK or high β-catenin downstream targets showed the worst survival outcome, whereas in fascin, patient coexpression of FAK or high β-catenin targets had less significant effect on the survival. Altogether, our data demonstrated the critical role of fascin-mediated β-catenin activation and its dependence on intact FAK signaling to promote breast CSC function. These findings suggest that targeting of fascin-FAK-β-catenin axis may provide a novel therapeutic approach for eradication of breast cancer from the root.
Rayanah Barnawi, Samiyah Al-Khaldi, Tala Bakheet, Mohannad Fallatah, Ayodele Alaiya, Hazem Ghebeh, Monther Al-Alwan

1627 related Products with: Fascin Activates β-Catenin Signaling and Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cell Function Mainly Through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK): Relation With Disease Progression.



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#32365880   2020/04/30 To Up

Sustentacular Cell Enwrapment of Olfactory Receptor Neuronal Dendrites: An Update.

The pseudostratified olfactory epithelium (OE) may histologically appear relatively simple, but the cytological relations among its cell types, especially those between olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and olfactory sustentacular cells (OSCs), prove more complex and variable than previously believed. Adding to the complexity is the short lifespan, persistent neurogenesis, and continuous rewiring of the ORNs. Contrary to the common belief that ORN dendrites are mostly positioned between OSCs, recent findings indicate a sustentacular cell enwrapped configuration for a majority of mature ORN dendrites at the superficial layer of the OE. After vertically sprouting out from the borderlines between OSCs, most of the immature ORN dendrites undergo a process of sideways migration and terminal maturation to become completely invaginated into and enwrapped by OSCs. Trailing the course of the dendritic sideways migration is the mesodendrite (mesentery of the enwrapped dendrite) made of closely apposed, cell junction connected plasma membrane layers of neighboring folds of the host sustentacular cell. Only a minority of the mature ORN dendrites at the OE apical surface are found at the borderlines between OSCs (unwrapped). Below I give a brief update on the cytoarchitectonic relations between the ORNs and OSCs of the OE. Emphasis is placed on the enwrapment of ORN dendrites by OSCs, on the sideways migration of immature ORN dendrites after emerging from the OE surface, and on the terminal maturation of the ORNs. Functional implications of ORN dendrite enwrapment and a comparison with myelination or Remak's bundling of axons or axodendrites in the central and peripheral nervous system are also discussed.
Fengyi Liang

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#32365468   2020/04/29 To Up

The In Vitro Non-Tetramerizing ZapA Mutant Is Unable to Recruit ZapB to the Division Plane In Vivo in .

Bacterial cell division is guided by filamenting temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) treadmilling at midcell. FtsZ itself is regulated by FtsZ-associated proteins (Zaps) that couple it to different cellular processes. Z-associated protein A (ZapA) is known to enhance FtsZ bundling but also forms a synchronizing link with chromosome segregation through Z-associated protein B (ZapB) and bound MatP. ZapA likely exists as dimers and tetramers in the cell. Using a ZapA mutant that is only able to form dimers in vitro (ZapA), this paper investigates the effects of ZapA multimerization state on its interaction partners and cell division. By employing fluorescence microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer in vivo it was shown that ZapA is unable to complement a deletion strain and localizes diffusely through the cell but still interacts with FtsZ that is not part of the cell division machinery. The diffusely-localized ZapA is unable to recruit ZapB, which in its presence localizes unipolarly. Interestingly, the localization profiles of the chromosome and unipolar ZapB anticorrelate. The work presented here confirms previously reported in vitro effects of ZapA multimerization in vivo and places it in a broader context by revealing the strong implications for ZapB and chromosome localization and linkage.
Nils Y Meiresonne, Tanneke den Blaauwen

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#32352613   2020/04/30 To Up

Fascin regulates protrusions and delamination to mediate invasive, collective cell migration in vivo.

The actin bundling protein Fascin is essential for developmental cell migrations and promotes cancer metastasis. In addition to bundling actin, Fascin has several actin-independent roles; how these other functions contribute to cell migration remains unclear. Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis provides an excellent model to study Fascin's various roles during invasive, collective cell migration.
Maureen C Lamb, Kelsey K Anliker, Tina L Tootle

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