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#36944490 2023/03/21 To Up
Axonal ER Ca Release Selectively Enhances Activity-Independent Glutamate Release in a Huntington Disease Model.Action potential-independent (miniature) neurotransmission occurs at all chemical synapses, but remains poorly understood, particularly in pathological contexts. Axonal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca stores are thought to influence miniature neurotransmission, and aberrant ER Ca handling is implicated in progression of Huntington disease (HD). Here, we report elevated miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequencies in recordings from YAC128 mouse (HD-model) neurons (from cortical cultures and striatum-containing brain slices - both from male and female animals). Pharmacological experiments suggest this is mediated indirectly by enhanced tonic ER Ca release. Calcium imaging, using an axon-localized sensor, revealed slow action potential (AP)-independent ER Ca release waves in both YAC128 and wild-type cultures. These Ca waves occurred at similar frequencies in both genotypes, but spread less extensively and were of lower amplitude in YAC128 axons, consistent with axonal ER Ca store depletion. Surprisingly, basal cytosolic Ca levels were lower in YAC128 boutons and YAC128 mEPSCs were less sensitive to intracellular Ca chelation. Together, these data suggest elevated miniature glutamate release in YAC128 cultures is associated with axonal ER Ca depletion but not directly mediated by ER Ca release into the cytoplasm. In contrast to increased mEPSC frequencies, cultured YAC128 cortical neurons showed less frequent AP-dependent (spontaneous) Ca events in soma and axons, although evoked glutamate release detected by iGluSnFR in brain slices was similar between genotypes. Our results indicate axonal ER dysfunction selectively elevates miniature glutamate release from cortical terminals in HD. This, together with reduced spontaneous cortical neuron firing, may cause a shift from activity-dependent to -independent glutamate release in HD, with potential implications for fidelity and plasticity of cortical excitatory signaling.Miniature neurotransmitter release persists at all chemical neuronal synapses in the absence of action potential firing but remains poorly understood, particularly in disease states. We show enhanced miniature glutamate release from cortical neurons in the YAC128 mouse Huntington disease model. This effect is mediated by axonal ER Ca store depletion, but is not obviously due to elevated ER-to-cytosol Ca release. Conversely, YAC128 cortical pyramidal neurons fired fewer action potentials and evoked cortical glutamate release was similar between WT an YAC128 preparations, indicating axonal ER depletion selectively enhances miniature glutamate release in YAC128 mice. These results extend our understanding of action potential independent neurotransmission and highlight a potential involvement of elevated miniature glutamate release in Huntington disease pathology.
James P Mackay, Amy I Smith-Dijak, Ellen T Koch, Peng Zhang, Evan Fung, Wissam B Nassrallah, Caodu Buren, Mandi Schmidt, Michael R Hayden, Lynn A Raymond