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Developing Wide Bandgap Polymers with Single Benzodithiophene-Based Unit for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

In this work, a series of single benzodithiophene-based wide bandgap polymer donors, namely PBDTT, PBDTS, PBDTF and PBDTCl, were developed for efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) by just varying the heteroatoms into the conjugated side chains. The effects of sulfuration, fluorination and chlorination were also investigated systematically on the overall properties of these BDT-based polymers. The HOMO levels could be lowered gradually by introducing sulfur, fluorine and chlorine atoms into the side chains, which contributed to the stepwise increased Voc (from 0.78 V to 0.84 V) in the related PSCs using Y6 as the electron acceptor. On the other hand, above side chain engineering strategy could promote the polymer chain interactions and fine-tune the phase separation of active blends, leading to the enhanced absorption, ordered molecular packing and crystallinity. Among them, the chlorinated PBDTCl exhibited not only high level absorption and crystallinity, but also the most balanced hole/electron charge transport and the most optimized morphology, giving rise to the best PCE of 13.46% with a Voc of 0.84 V, a Jsc of 23.16 mA cm-2 and an FF of 69.2 %. The chlorination strategy afforded PBDTCl synthetic simplicity but high efficiency, showing its promising photovoltaic applications for realizing low-cost practical PSCs in near future.

1477 related Products with: Developing Wide Bandgap Polymers with Single Benzodithiophene-Based Unit for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

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Single-Junction Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Approaching 18% Efficiency.

Optimizing the molecular structures of organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials is one of the most effective methods to boost power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). For an excellent molecular system with a certain conjugated skeleton, fine tuning the alky chains is of considerable significance to fully explore its photovoltaic potential. In this work, the optimization of alkyl chains is performed on a chlorinated nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) named BTP-4Cl-BO (a Y6 derivative) and very impressive photovoltaic parameters in OPV cells are obtained. To get more ordered intermolecular packing, the n-undecyl is shortened at the edge of BTP-eC11 to n-nonyl and n-heptyl. As a result, the NFAs of BTP-eC9 and BTP-eC7 are synthesized. The BTP-eC7 shows relatively poor solubility and thus limits its application in device fabrication. Fortunately, the BTP-eC9 possesses good solubility and, at the same time, enhanced electron transport property than BTP-eC11. Significantly, due to the simultaneously enhanced short-circuit current density and fill factor, the BTP-eC9-based single-junction OPV cells record a maximum PCE of 17.8% and get a certified value of 17.3%. These results demonstrate that minimizing the alkyl chains to get suitable solubility and enhanced intermolecular packing has a great potential in further improving its photovoltaic performance.

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Redox-responsive amphiphilic camptothecin prodrug nanoparticles for targeted liver tumor therapy.

Tumor cell-targeting drug delivery systems are of great importance to anti-tumor therapy in clinics. Owing to the overexpression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) on the membrane of hepatoma carcinoma cells, the conjugation of lactose on the surface of drug delivery systems has already shown significant advantages for targeting tumor cells. In this study, a disulfide bond-conjugated prodrug targeting delivery system consisting of camptothecin (CPT) and lactose (LA) was synthesized, which was denoted as CPT-S-S-LA. Camptothecin and lactose act as the chemotherapy drug and targeting ligand in the drug delivery system, respectively. Since CPT-S-S-LA is an amphiphilic compound, it can self-assemble into nanoparticles with a diameter of around 110 nm. The CPT-S-S-LA nanoparticles displayed controllable drug release behavior in the physiological environment. Unlike the free CPT, the CPT-S-S-LA nanoparticles firstly assembled at the tumor sites via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and then were phagocytized by the tumor cells with ASGP receptor-mediated endocytosis. Finally, the antitumor agent CPT was released for killing tumor cells, which have a high glutathione (GSH) concentration environment. The nanoparticles displayed favorable ability to target hepatoma carcinoma cells rather than the normal HUVEC cells in vitro. Both the in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the CPT-S-S-LA nanoparticles display enhanced antitumor ability and reduced side effects. Thus, active targeting prodrug delivery systems should be a promising strategy for liver tumor therapy.

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Gold nanoparticle-conjugated nanomedicine: design, construction, and structure-efficacy relationship studies.

In comparison with conventional therapies, nanomedicine shows prominent clinical performance, with better therapeutic efficacy and less off-target toxicity. As an important component of nanomedicine, gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based nanodrugs have attracted considerable interest because of their excellent performance given by the unique structure. Although no pharmaceutical formulations of GNP-associated nanodrugs have been officially marketed yet, a substantial amount of research on this aspect is being carried out, producing numerous GNP-based drug delivery systems with potential clinical applications. In this review, we present an overview of our progress on GNP-based nanodrugs combined with other achievements in biomedical applications, including drug-conjugated GNPs prepared for disease treatments and specific tumour targeting, structure-efficacy relationship (SER) studies on GNP-conjugated nanodrugs, and therapeutic hybrid nanosystems composed of GNPs. In addition, we also put forward some proposals to guide future work in developing GNP-based nanomedicine. We hope that this review will offer some useful experience for our peers and GNP-based nanodrugs will be utilized in the clinic with further persistent efforts.

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Measurement of Solvation Ability of Solvents by Porphyrin-Based Solvation/Desolvation Indicators.

A new solvent scale, solvation ability (SA), was developed to arrange solvents in the order of their SA for large π-conjugated compounds. The SA of a solvent was determined in a binary solvent system of an assessed solvent and a standard "good" solvent (GS) or "poor" solvent (PS), chloroform or methylcyclohexane, respectively, in the presence of two types of solvation/desolvation indicators, and . The latter comprises bis(imidazolylporphyrinatozinc) linked via a 1,3-butadiynylene moiety having linear alkyl and hydrophilic side chains, respectively. GSs and PSs give extended (E-) and stacked (S-) supramolecular polymers of the indicators, respectively. SA values are defined as vol % of the standard solvent added to an assessed solvent to give the balance point where comparable amounts of E- and S-polymers of the indicators coexist. GSs and PSs have positive and negative signs, respectively. In this study, the SA of 25 solvents was determined. The SA values with indicator were as follows: ethyl acetate (-81), hexane (-66), toluene (-50), cyclohexane (-47), CCl (-25), chloroform (50), and nitrobenzene (79).

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Effective Multi-lineage Engraftment in a Mouse Model of Fanconi Anemia Using Non-genotoxic Antibody-Based Conditioning.

Conditioning chemotherapy is used to deplete hematopoietic stem cells in the recipient's marrow, facilitating donor cell engraftment. Although effective, a major issue with chemotherapy is the systemic genotoxicity that increases the risk for secondary malignancies. Antibody conjugates targeting hematopoietic cells are an emerging non-genotoxic method of opening the marrow niche and promoting engraftment of transplanted cells while maintaining intact marrow cellularity. Specifically, this platform would be useful in diseases associated with DNA damage or cancer predisposition, such as dyskeratosis congenita, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome, and Fanconi anemia (FA). Our approach utilizes antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) as an alternative conditioning regimen in an FA mouse model of autologous transplantation. Antibodies targeting either CD45 or CD117 were conjugated to saporin (SAP), a ribosomal toxin. knockout mice were conditioned with either CD45-SAP or CD117-SAP prior to receiving whole marrow from a heterozygous healthy donor. Bone marrow and peripheral blood analysis revealed equivalent levels of donor engraftment, with minimal toxicity in ADC-treated groups as compared with cyclophosphamide-treated controls. Our findings suggest ADCs may be an effective conditioning strategy in stem cell transplantation not only for diseases where traditional chemotherapy is not tolerated, but also more broadly for the field of blood and marrow transplantation.

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