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The association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and children's sleep-wake patterns: a prospective cohort study.

To explore the association between vitamin D in cord blood or in venous blood and children's sleep-wake patterns at two years of age.

2954 related Products with: The association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and children's sleep-wake patterns: a prospective cohort study.

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Lactational exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and its association with infant developmental measurements.

This study was designed to assess the effect of lactational polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure on early physical development of both healthy and fetal growth restriction (FGR) infants. Z scores of head circumference-for-age (ZHC), length-for-age (ZLEN), weight-for-age (ZWEI) and weight-for-length (ZWFL) were calculated according to the WHO Child Growth Standards. FGR infants had a higher PBDE exposure level and faster growth speed from 42 days to 6 months compared with healthy infants. Exposure of lower brominated BDEs (BDE28∼154) and the sum of 18 BDE congeners (BDE28∼209) negatively associated with ZHC [mean difference estimate (95 % CI): -0.71 (-1.22, -0.22) and -0.81 (-1.31, -0.33)] in FGR boys. Both BDE153 and BDE196 exposure had a significant correlation with ZLEN of boys in FGR group [mean difference estimate (95 % CI): -0.28 (-0.48, -0.07) and -0.52 (-0.91, -0.14)]. Each 10 ng/g lipid increase in the concentrations of BDE154 were respectively associated with 0.16 increase in ZWEI among boys in healthy group. No significant association was found in girls. Lactational PBDE exposure had effects on the early growth of both FGR and healthy infants. The encouragement of breastfeeding should therefore be considered in conjunction with PBDE contamination levels.

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Resveratrol treatment during maturation enhances developmental competence of oocytes after prolonged ovary storage at 4 °C in the domestic cat model.

Resveratrol (Resv; 3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a phytoalexin with antioxidant activity that modulates redox homeostasis in oocytes and improves in vitro embryo production. Cold storage of cat ovaries for a period longer than 24 h alters oxidative status of oocytes after in vitro maturation and reduces their developmental competence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol supplementation to the maturation medium on embryo development of oocytes after storage of domestic cat ovaries at 4 °C for 24 h or 48 h. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from ovaries of domestic queens and cultured in maturation medium supplemented with (+) or without (-) 5 μM resveratrol for 24 h. COCs collected from fresh ovaries were matured in vitro (IVM) in standard conditions as control. After IVM, oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and presumptive zygotes cultured for 7 days. Oocyte nuclear maturation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst cell number were determined. There were no differences in the maturation rates of oocytes between the control and stored groups, irrespective of resveratrol supplementation. Resveratrol treatment during IVM significantly increased the level of GSH and reduced the level of ROS of oocytes recovered from ovaries stored for 48 h as compared to the non-treated group (48 h-). The rate of blastocyst formation from oocytes recovered from ovaries after 48 h storage that underwent IVM with resveratrol was higher (P < 0.05) than that of oocytes matured without resveratrol and similar to that of control oocytes. Resveratrol treatment increased (P < 0.05) cell number in blastocysts from 24 h + and 48 h + groups as compared to their respective counterparts. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that resveratrol supplementation during IVM can reverse the adverse effect of oxidative stress on oocytes, and enhances embryo development after ovary storage at 4 °C for 48 h. These results may provide a basis for improving culture conditions and extend the possibility of storage of cat ovaries for more than 24 h thus ensuring successful in vitro embryo production.

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The effect of developmental and environmental factors on secondary metabolites in medicinal plants.

Secondary metabolites (SMs) of medicinal plants are the material basis of their clinically curative effects. They are also important indicators for evaluating the quality of medicinal materials. However, the synthesis and accumulation of SMs are very complex, which are affected by many factors including internal developmental genetic circuits (regulated gene, enzyme) and by external environment factors (light, temperature, water, salinity, etc.). Currently, lots of literatures focused on the effect of environmental factors on the synthesis and accumulation of SMs of medicinal plants, the effect of the developmental growth and genetic factors on the synthesis and accumulation of SMs still lack systematic classification and summary. Here, we have given the review base on our previous works on the morphological development of medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites, and systematically outlined the literature reports how different environmental factors affected the synthesis and accumulation of SMs. The results of our reviews can know how developmental and environmental factors qualitatively and quantitatively influence SMs of medicinal plants and how these can be integrated as tools to quality control, as well as on the improvement of clinical curative effects by altering their genomes, and/or growth conditions.

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Attachment in OCD: A meta-analysis.

It has been proposed to extend the cognitive-behavioural model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with attachment theory to shed light on the affective and developmental factors underlying the disease. With a growing number of empirical studies on the subject, this meta-analysis aims to quantify a possible relationship between attachment insecurity and OCD.

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A model's natural group membership affects over-imitation in 6-year-olds.

The phenomenon of "over-imitation"-the copying of causally irrelevant actions-has influenced research of the past decade. Yet, the mechanisms underlying and factors affecting over-imitation are still under debate. This study aimed to contribute to this debate by investigating the role of the model's natural group membership in children's tendency to imitate irrelevant actions using a two-phase design. In Phase 1, 6-year-olds (N = 64) observed either an in-group model or an out-group model presenting a sequence of irrelevant actions, with only the last action bringing about the goal (target action) and retrieving a token. In Phase 2, the alternative model-the one that children had not seen in Phase 1-retrieved the token by performing the target action only. After the presentation in each phase, children were given the chance to retrieve the token themselves. Results indicated that children imitated the irrelevant actions to comparable levels from both models in Phase 1. In Phase 2, in contrast, over-imitation declined in children who observed the in-group model being successful with the target action only but not in children who observed the out-group model do so. Thus, children adapted their imitative behavior after observing the model of their own cultural group demonstrating a more efficient strategy. These findings speak for an integration of both social and instrumental accounts to explain the phenomenon of over-imitation.

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Toward Guidelines for Research on Human Embryo Models Formed from Stem Cells.

Over the past few years, a number of research groups have reported striking progress on the generation of in vitro models from mouse and human stem cells that replicate aspects of early embryonic development. Not only do these models reproduce some key cell fate decisions but, especially in the mouse system, they also mimic the spatiotemporal arrangements of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues that are required for developmental patterning and implantation in the uterus. If such models could be developed for the early human embryo, they would have great potential benefits for understanding early human development, for biomedical science, and for reducing the use of animals and human embryos in research. However, guidelines for the ethical conduct of this line of work are at present not well defined. In this Forum article, we discuss some key aspects of this emerging area of research and provide some recommendations for its ethical oversight.

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Enhancing Hematopoiesis from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells through MLL1-Induced Activation of a Rac/Rho/Integrin Signaling Axis.

The Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL1, KMT2A) gene is critical for development and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), however, whether this protein is limiting for HSC development is unknown due to lack of physiologic model systems. Here, we develop an MLL1-inducible embryonic stem cell (ESC) system and show that induction of wild-type MLL1 during ESC differentiation selectively increases hematopoietic potential from a transitional c-Kit/Cd41 population in the embryoid body and also at sites of hematopoiesis in embryos. Single-cell sequencing analysis illustrates inherent heterogeneity of the c-Kit/Cd41 population and demonstrates that MLL1 induction shifts its composition toward multilineage hematopoietic identities. Surprisingly, this does not occur through increasing Hox or other canonical MLL1 targets but through an enhanced Rac/Rho/integrin signaling state, which increases responsiveness to Vla4 ligands and enhances hematopoietic commitment. Together, our data implicate a Rac/Rho/integrin signaling axis in the endothelial to hematopoietic transition and demonstrate that MLL1 actives this axis.

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Proactive interference in working memory is related to adult age and cognitive factors: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from the Betula study.

In working memory (WM), successful maintenance of information is affected by interference. Older adults may be especially susceptible to the effects of interference, which may cause age-related cognitive impairments. A relative score of IC was derived from cross-sectional (n = 869) and longitudinal (n = 443) data to investigate (1) if IC is reduced in normal aging, (2) if individual differences in IC related to individual performance in other cognitive domains, and (3) if 5-year change in IC is related to change in general cognition. Older age was associated with reduced IC, but no decline in IC occurred over 5 years. Also, the ability to control interference in WM was related to performance in episodic memory, verbal fluency, and block design. We also found that IC mediates the relationship between age and cognition, suggesting that age-related cognitive decline is linked to IC. Finally, we demonstrate that change in IC was related to decline in episodic memory.

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