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Enhanced removal of veterinary antibiotic from wastewater by photoelectroactive biofilm of purple anoxygenic phototroph through photosynthetic electron uptake.Purple anoxygenic phototrophs have been recently attracted substantial attention for their growing potential in wastewater treatment and their diverse metabolic patterns can be regulated for process control and optimization. In this study, the photoheterotrophic metabolism of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris) was modified by photosynthetic electron uptake using a poised electrode which was explored to enhance removal of veterinary antibiotic from aqueous medium. The results showed that R. palustris grown as biofilm on electrode surface had excellent photoelectroactive activity and the photosynthetic electron uptake from the photoelectroactive biofilm significantly enhanced antibiotic florfenicol (FLO) degradation. The specific degradation rate of FLO at the set electrode potential of 0 V was 2.59-fold higher than that without applied potential. Enhanced co-metabolic reductive dehalogenation by use of the photosynthetic electrons extracted from co-substrate was mainly responsible for FLO degradation which eliminated the antibacterial activity of FLO. The electrode potential controlled the processes of photosynthetic electron uptake and its resultant FLO degradation. The fastest degradation of FLO was achieved at 0 V because the electrode poised at this potential stroke a proper balance between the enhancing photosynthetic electron uptake by serving as electron acceptor and minimizing competition with FLO for the photosynthetic electron from co-substrate. The activity of photoelectroactive biofilm was not negatively affected by FLO at environmental relevant concentration, suggesting its great potential for removal of antibiotic contaminants in wastewater. R. palustris could serve as a reservoir for floR resistance gene but its abundance can be diminished by choosing appropriate electrode potential.
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Enhancing Hematopoiesis from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells through MLL1-Induced Activation of a Rac/Rho/Integrin Signaling Axis.The Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL1, KMT2A) gene is critical for development and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), however, whether this protein is limiting for HSC development is unknown due to lack of physiologic model systems. Here, we develop an MLL1-inducible embryonic stem cell (ESC) system and show that induction of wild-type MLL1 during ESC differentiation selectively increases hematopoietic potential from a transitional c-Kit/Cd41 population in the embryoid body and also at sites of hematopoiesis in embryos. Single-cell sequencing analysis illustrates inherent heterogeneity of the c-Kit/Cd41 population and demonstrates that MLL1 induction shifts its composition toward multilineage hematopoietic identities. Surprisingly, this does not occur through increasing Hox or other canonical MLL1 targets but through an enhanced Rac/Rho/integrin signaling state, which increases responsiveness to Vla4 ligands and enhances hematopoietic commitment. Together, our data implicate a Rac/Rho/integrin signaling axis in the endothelial to hematopoietic transition and demonstrate that MLL1 actives this axis.
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This Is Our Cells Under Pressure: Decreased DNA Damage Repair in Response to Targeted Therapies Facilitates the Emergence of Drug-Resistant Clones.In a recent issue of Science, Russo et al. observe that colorectal cancer cells, when exposed to the pressure of EGFR- and BRAF-targeted therapies, transiently alter their transcriptional profiles to foster mutagenesis, thereby enhancing the stochastic development of acquired resistance mutations.
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Keeping T-he Killers at Bay via FcγRIIb.Understanding how cytotoxic T cells are regulated is key for enhancing or suppressing their activity in tumor or transplantation settings. A study by Morris et al. (2020) in this issue of Immunity shows that crosslinking of inhibitory Fc receptor FcγRIIb by the suppressive cytokine Fgl2 limits cytotoxic CD8 T cell responses by inducing T cell apoptosis.
Total RNA Human Adult Nor Optional head attachment Atorvastatin N-(3,5-Dihyd Hexarelin Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly Hemoglobin antibody, Mono Hepatitis B Core Antigen 10-trans-Atorvastatin ter Recombinant Viral antige Standard grade heat shock Human Hemopexin Hepatocellular carcinoma
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Siponimod Chips Away at Progressive MS.Progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) causes slow accumulation of neurologic disability and has been refractory to treatment with the immunomodulatory medications that effectively control relapsing MS. Siponimod modestly slowed the rate of disability progression among PMS patients who had inflammatory disease activity, evidenced by new or gadolinium-enhancing MRI lesions. To view this Bench to Bedside, open or download the PDF.
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Enhancing Peroxidase Activity of Cytochrome c by Modulating Interfacial Interaction Forces with Graphene Oxide.Graphene oxide (GO) has drawn worldwide attention in various biomedical fields due to its unique properties, and great progress has been made in the past years. Probing the interaction between GO and proteins, understanding and evaluating potential impact of GO on protein structure and function, is of significant importance for design and optimization of functional interfaces and revealing the bio-effect of GO materials. Cytochromec c (cyt c), one of the key components of respiratory chain, has played important roles in energy generation / consumption and many cellular process including growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, by combination of solution chemistry and spectroscopy, we systematically studied the interfacial interaction between GO and cyt c. Results suggest that GO could slightly perturb active site of cyt c, enhancing its peroxidase activity. Structure of active site is obviously changed with elapsed time, which in turn reduces peroxidase activity. Further study suggests that adsorption of cyt c on GO and resulted structure change is a complex process resulting from the cooperation of various interaction forces. Hydrophobic interaction and - stacking, as well as electrostatic attraction, only slightly perturb micro-environment of the active site of cyt c while hydrogen-bonding interaction is the main driving force for the structural change of active site. Furthermore, long-range electrostatic attraction between GO and cyt c may facilitate the short-range hydrogen-bonding interaction, which intensify the hydrogen-bonding induced structural change. In addition, cyt c is partially reduced by GO in alkaline environment. Based on the understanding of interfacial interaction mechanism between GO and cyt c, stable nano-composite with enhanced peroxidase activity is successfully constructed by modulating the interfacial interaction forces. This work not only deepens the understanding of interaction between GO and functional protein, but also is of great importance for designing and applying of GO-based biomaterials.
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Enhancing the usability of pea protein isolate in food applications through modifying its structural and sensory properties deamidation by glutaminase.This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improving the properties of pea protein isolate (PPI) related to food applications deamidation with glutaminase. SDS-PAGE and FT-IR profiling revealed that the current glutaminase treatment did not change the basic protein subunit composition. But it allowed a certain extent of protein unfolding and conformational re-organization to generate more flexible and extended proteins with reduced average particle size and more hydrophobic groups exposed. The underlying mechanisms might include the reduction of -sheets and anti-parallel -sheets and the increase of -turn structure. Moreover, the treatment time was of importance. A 12-h treatment was generally better than a 24-h treatment, and PPI treated with glutaminase at 50 °C for 12 h to a degree of deamidation of 56.1% exhibited significantly improved solubility, homogeneity, dispersibility, suspendability with reduced beany flavour, grittiness and lumpiness (compared to the untreated PPI). Thus, the glutaminase treatment offers a promising approach for enhancing the usability and applicability of pea proteins.
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Role of van der Waals interaction in enhancing the photon absorption capability of the MoS/2D heterostructure.van der Waals (vdW) interaction-based heterostructures are known for enhanced photon absorption. However, the origin of these phenomena is not yet completely understood. In this work, using first-principles calculations, we provide a comprehensive study to show the effect of vdW interactions on the optical and electrical characteristics of the device and its origin. Herein, MoS2/2D (where 2D varies as graphene, black and blue phosphorene, and InSe) vdW heterojunctions are considered as model structures. The change in the band gap of the heterostructures is because of hybridisation and the non-linearity of the exchange-correlation functional. Hybridisation is correlated with strain and the difference in interstitial potential between layers of the heterostructure and the vacuum level. Significantly, the estimated values of energy conversion efficiency are high in the case of MoS2/InSe and MoS2/BlackP vdW heterostructures as compared to MoS2/GR and MoS2/BlueP, suggesting their potential application in efficient and atomically thick excitonic solar cell devices.
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Synergistically Chemical and Thermal Coupling between Graphene Oxide and Graphene Fluoride for Enhancing Aluminum Combustion.Metal combustion reaction is highly exothermic and is used in energetic applications, such as propulsion, pyrotechnics, powering micro- and nano-devices, and nanomaterials synthesis. Aluminum (Al) is attracting great interest in those applications because of its high energy density, earth abundance and low toxicity. Nevertheless, Al combustion is hard to initiate, and progresses slowly and incompletely. On the other side, ultrathin carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and graphene fluoride (GF), can also undergo exothermic reactions. Herein, we demonstrate that the mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene fluoride (GF) significantly improves the performance of Al combustion as interactions between GO and GF provide heat and radicals to accelerate Al oxidation. Our experiments and reactive molecular dynamics simulation reveal that GO and GF have strong chemical and thermal couplings through radical reactions and heat released from their oxidation reactions. GO facilitates the dissociation of GF and GF accelerates the disproportionation and oxidation of GO. When the mixture of GO and GF is added to micron-sized Al particles, their synergistic couplings generate reactive oxidative species, such as CFx and CFxOy, and heat, which greatly accelerates Al combustion. This work demonstrates a new area of using synergistic couplings between ultrathin carbon nanomaterials to accelerate metal combustion and potentially oxidation reactions of other materials.
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Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors suppress SAMHD1 ara-CTPase activity enhancing cytarabine efficacy.The deoxycytidine analogue cytarabine (ara-C) remains the backbone treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) as well as other haematological and lymphoid malignancies, but must be combined with other chemotherapeutics to achieve cure. Yet, the underlying mechanism dictating synergistic efficacy of combination chemotherapy remains largely unknown. The dNTPase SAMHD1, which regulates dNTP homoeostasis antagonistically to ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), limits ara-C efficacy by hydrolysing the active triphosphate metabolite ara-CTP. Here, we report that clinically used inhibitors of RNR, such as gemcitabine and hydroxyurea, overcome the SAMHD1-mediated barrier to ara-C efficacy in primary blasts and mouse models of AML, displaying SAMHD1-dependent synergy with ara-C. We present evidence that this is mediated by dNTP pool imbalances leading to allosteric reduction of SAMHD1 ara-CTPase activity. Thus, SAMHD1 constitutes a novel biomarker for combination therapies of ara-C and RNR inhibitors with immediate consequences for clinical practice to improve treatment of AML.
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