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Relaxation and vibrational properties in metal alloys and other disordered systems.

The relaxation dynamics and the vibrational spectra of amorphous solids, such as metal alloys, have been intensely investigated as well separated topics in the past. The aim of this review is to summarize recent results in both these areas in an attempt to establish, or unveil, deeper connections between the two phenomena of relaxation and vibration. Theoretical progress in the area of slow relaxation dynamics of liquid and glassy systems and in the area of vibrational spectra of glasses and liquids is reviewed. After laying down a generic modelling framework to connect vibration and relaxation, the physics of metal alloys is considered where the emergence of power-law exponents has been identified both in the vibrational density of states (VDOS) as well as in density correlations. Also, theoretical frameworks which connect the VDOS to the relaxation behaviour and mechanical viscoelastic response in metallic glasses are reviewed. The same generic interpretative framework is then applied to the case of molecular glass formers where the emergence of stretched-exponential relaxation in dielectric relaxation can be put in quantitative relation with the VDOS by means of memory-function approaches. Further connections between relaxation and vibration are provided by the study of phonon linewidths in liquids and glasses, where a natural starting point is given by hydrodynamic theories. Finally, an agenda of outstanding issues including the appearance of compressed exponential relaxation in the intermediate scattering function of experimental and simulated systems (metal alloys, colloidal gels, jammed packings) is presented in light of available (or yet to be developed) mathematical models, and compared to non-exponential behaviour measured with macroscopic means such as mechanical spectroscopy/rheology.

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Cochlear dysfunction is associated with styrene exposure in humans.

Occupational exposure to styrene has been shown to be associated with an increased probability of developing hearing loss. However, the sites of lesions in the auditory system in humans remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of styrene exposure on the cochlea of human subjects.

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Influence of annealing in the close vicinity of on the reorganization within dimers and its impact on the crystallization kinetics of Gemfibrozil.

In this paper, Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) has been applied to study molecular dynamics and crystallization kinetics of antihyperlipidemic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) - gemfibrozil (GEM), as well as its deuterated (dGEM) and methylated (metGEM) derivatives, characterized with different type and strength of intermolecular interactions. Moreover, calorimetric and infrared measurements have been carried out to characterize the thermal properties of examined samples as well as to probe a change in the H-bonding pattern in GEM, respectively. We found that dielectric spectra of all examined compounds, collected below the glass transition temperature (T), reveal the presence of two secondary relaxations (β, γ). According to the Coupling Model (CM) predictions, it was assumed that the slower process (β) is of JG-type, whereas the faster one (γ) has an intramolecular origin. Interestingly, the extensive crystallization kinetics measurements performed after applying two paths, i.e., standard procedure (cooling and subsequently heating up to the appropriate temperature, T), as well as annealing at two temperatures in the vicinity of T and further heating up to T, showed that the annealing increases the crystallization rate in the case of native API, while the thermal history of the sample has no significant impact on the pace of this process in the two derivatives of GEM. The analysis of dielectric strength (Δε) of α-process during annealing, together with the results of FTIR measurements suggested that the reorganization within dimeric structures formed between GEM molecules is responsible for the observed behavior. Importantly, our results differ from those obtained by Tominaka et al. [Mol. Pharm. 2017, 14, 264-273], who demonstrated that the sub-T annealing of ritonavir (RTV), which is able to form extensive supramolecular hydrogen bonds, protects this active substance against crystallization. Therefore, based on these contradictory reports, one can hypothesize that materials forming H-bonded structures, characterized by varying architecture, may behave differently after annealing in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature.

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Threshold Tunable Spike Rate Dependent Plasticity Originated from Interfacial Proton Gating for Pattern Learning and Memory.

Recently, neuromorphic devices are getting increasing interests in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). Realization of fundamental synaptic plasticities on hard-ware devices would endow new intensions for neuromorphic devices. Spike-rate dependent plasticity (SRDP) is one of the most important synaptic learning mechanisms in brain cognitive behaviors. Thus, it is interesting to mimic the SRDP behaviors on solid-state neuromorphic devices. In the present work, nanogranular phosphorous silicate glass (PSG) based proton conductive electrolyte gated oxide neuromorphic transistors have been proposed. The oxide neuromorphic transistors have good transistor performances and frequency dependent synaptic plasticity behavior. Moreover, the neuromorphic transistor exhibits SRDP activities. Interestingly, by introducing priming synaptic stimuli, the modulation of threshold frequency value distinguishing synaptic potentiation from synaptic depression is realized for the first time on electrolyte gated neuromorphic transistor. Such mechanism can be well understood with interfacial proton gating effects of the nanogranular PSG based electrolyte. Furthermore, effects of SRDP learning rules on pattern learning and memory behaviors have been conceptually demonstrated. The proposed neuromorphic transistors have potential applications in neuromorphic engineering.

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The Utility of Cell Blocks for International Cytopathology Teleconsultation by Whole Slide Imaging.

Telecytology for second opinion consultation has largely been limited by technical issues, such as the inability to focus well on cellular material. Nevertheless, international telecytology consultation was undertaken at our institution with partners in China and Italy. To overcome issues with scanning cytology slides, we adopted a cell block (CB) preference for teleconsultation.

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Implementation of a Diagnostic-Concentration Bioassay for Detection of Susceptibility to Pyrethroids in Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, remains the most economically damaging arthropod pest of soybean in the midwestern United States and southern Canada. Foliar applications of a limited number of insecticide modes of action have been the primary management tactic, and pyrethroid resistance was documented recently with full concentration-response leaf-dip and glass-vial bioassays. Full concentration-response bioassays can be cumbersome, and a more efficient assessment tool was needed. In this study, we implemented a diagnostic-concentration glass-vial bioassay using bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin. Bioassays were conducted with field-collected soybean aphid populations to assess the geographic extent and severity of resistance to pyrethroids. In 2017, 10 of 18 and 11 of 21 field populations tested with bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin, respectively, had mean proportion mortalities less than the susceptible laboratory population. In 2018, 17 of 23 and 13 of 23 field populations tested with bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin, respectively, had mean proportion mortalities less than the susceptible laboratory population. Populations collected after reported field failures of a pyrethroid insecticide generally had mean proportion mortalities less than the susceptible laboratory population. In both years, there was a strong correlation between chemistries, which suggests cross-resistance between these insecticides. The diagnostic-concentration glass-vial bioassays reported here will provide the foundation for an insecticide resistance monitoring program with the ability to determine practical levels and geographic extent of insecticide resistance.

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PROPERTIES OF THIN COATINGS DEPOSITED BY PVD ON SAFETY HELMETS.

The article presents a research on new solution for industrial helmets improving mechanical, and physical properties (temperature resistance and reflection of infrared radiation). The application of known technology in a new PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) area has been described in order to increase their level of safety and comfort of use. In this work we have studied the effect of selected magnetron sputtering coating method onto polymer substrates, such as ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer), PC (polycarbonate), PE (polyethylene), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PA (polyamide), glass and silicon. The coatings made of Cu, Al, TiN, TiAl were used. This work aims at identifying the best substrates of coatings deposition improving quality of protective helmets. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be stated that the TiN coating provides the best protection from infrared radiation and scratch resistance.

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