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#35961773 2022/08/12 To Up
Deep sequencing of short capped RNAs reveals novel families of noncoding RNAs.In eukaryotes, capped RNAs include long transcripts such as messenger RNAs and long noncoding RNAs, as well as shorter transcripts such as spliceosomal RNAs, small nucleolar RNAs, and enhancer RNAs. Long capped transcripts can be profiled using Cap Analysis Gene Expression (CAGE) sequencing and other methods. Here, we describe a sequencing library preparation protocol for short capped RNAs, apply it to a differentiation time course of the human cell line THP-1, and systematically compare the landscape of short capped RNAs to that of long capped RNAs. Transcription initiation peaks associated with genes in the sense direction had a strong preference to produce either long or short capped RNAs, with 1 out of 6 peaks detected in the short capped RNA libraries only. Gene-associated short capped RNAs had highly specific 3' ends, typically overlapping splice sites. Enhancers also preferentially generated either short or long capped RNAs, with 10% of enhancers observed in the short capped RNA libraries only. Both enhancers producing short or long capped RNAs showed enrichment for GWAS-associated disease SNPs. We conclude that deep sequencing of short capped RNAs reveals new families of noncoding RNAs and elucidates the diversity of transcripts generated at known and novel promoters and enhancers.
Michiel Jan Laurens De Hoon, Alessandro Bonetti, Charles Plessy, Yoshinari Ando, Chung-Chau Hon, Yuri Ishizu, Masayoshi Itoh, Sachi Katoh, Dongyan Lin, Sho Maekawa, Mitsuyoshi Murata, Hiromi Nishiyori, Jay W Shin, Jens Stolte, Ana Maria Suzuki, Michihira Tagami, Hazuki Takahashi, Supat Thongjuea, Alistair Rr Forrest, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Juha Kere, Piero Carninci
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#35961738 // To Up
Pathology for Thoracic Conditions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.Pulmonary disease in low- and middle-income countries is highly diverse and dependent on the population, background epidemiology, environmental exposures, and smoking status. Credible evaluation of lung diseases requires skilled clinicians, imaging infrastructure, microbiology, and pathologic diagnostics, including imaging-guided cytology and biopsy. When these tools are available, improvement in patient outcomes is feasible. Pathologic diagnostics of lung lesions, including histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular testing, are critical to properly stratify patient risk and determine exact therapies for each patient. A critical focus on research and directed interventions in lung cancer treatment specifically is needed to downstage this disease and improve patient outcome.
Robert Lukande, Lynnette Tumwine Kyokunda, Alemayehu Ginbo Bedada, Dan Milner