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Classification from Triplet Comparison Data.

Learning from triplet comparison data has been extensively studied in the context of metric learning, where we want to learn a distance metric between two instances, and ordinal embedding, where we want to learn an embedding in a Euclidean space of the given instances that preserve the comparison order as much as possible. Unlike fully labeled data, triplet comparison data can be collected in a more accurate and human-friendly way. Although learning from triplet comparison data has been considered in many applications, an important fundamental question of whether we can learn a classifier only from triplet comparison data without all the labels has remained unanswered. In this letter, we give a positive answer to this important question by proposing an unbiased estimator for the classification risk under the empirical risk minimization framework. Since the proposed method is based on the empirical risk minimization framework, it inherently has the advantage that any surrogate loss function and any model, including neural networks, can be easily applied. Furthermore, we theoretically establish an estimation error bound for the proposed empirical risk minimizer. Finally, we provide experimental results to show that our method empirically works well and outperforms various baseline methods.

2100 related Products with: Classification from Triplet Comparison Data.

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Innovative imaging of insulinoma: the end of sampling? A review.

Receptors for the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1R) have been found overexpressed in selected types of human tumors and may, therefore, play an increasingly important role in endocrine gastrointestinal tumor management. In particular, virtually all benign insulinomas express GLP-1R in high density. Targeting GLP-1R with indium-111, technetium-99m or gallium-68 labeled exendin-4 offers a new approach that permits the successful localization of small benign insulinomas. It is likely that this new non-invasive technique has the potential to replace the invasive localization of insulinomas by selective arterial stimulation and venous sampling. In contrast to benign insulinomas, malignant insulin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors express GLP-1R in only one-third of the cases, while they more often express the somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Importantly, one of the two receptors appears to be always overexpressed. In special cases of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH), i.e. in the context of MEN-1 or adult nesidioblastosis GLP-1R imaging is useful whereas in postprandial hypoglycemia in the context of bariatric surgery, GLP-1R imaging is probably not helpful. This review focuses on the potential use of GLP-1R imaging in the differential diagnosis of EHH.

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In-cell Trityl-trityl Distance Measurements on Proteins.

Double-electron electron resonance (DEER) can be used for tracking the structural dynamics of proteins in their native environment, the cell. This method provides the distance distribution between two spin labels attached at specific, well-defined positions in a protein. For the method to be viable under in-cell conditions, the spin label and its attachment to the protein should exhibit high chemical stability in the cell. Here we present first, low-temperature, trityl-trityl DEER distance measurements on two model proteins, PpiB (prolyl cis-trans isomerase from E. coli) and GB1 (immunoglobulin G-binding protein) doubly labeled with the trityl spin label, CT02MA. Both proteins gave in-cell distance distributions similar to that observed in vitro, with maxima at 4.5-5 nm and the data were further compared with in-cell Gd(III)-Gd(III) DEER obtained for PpiB labeled with BrPSPy-DO3A-Gd(III) at the same positions. These highlight the challenges of designing trityl tags suitable for in-cell distance determination at room temperature on live cells.

1793 related Products with: In-cell Trityl-trityl Distance Measurements on Proteins.

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A general assay to study enzymatic activities of the ubiquitin system.

The ubiquitin (Ub) system regulates a wide range of cellular signaling pathways. Several hundred E1, E2 and E3 enzymes are together responsible for protein ubiquitination, thereby controlling cellular activities. Due to the numerous enzymes and processes involved, studies on ubiquitination activities have been challenging. We here report a novel FRET-based assay to study the in vitro kinetics of ubiquitination. FRET is established between binding of fluorophore-labeled Ub to eGFP-tagged ZnUBP, a domain that exclusively binds unconjugated Ub. We name this assay the Free Ub Sensor System (FUSS). Using Uba1, UbcH5 and CHIP as model E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, respectively, we demonstrate that ubiquitination results in decreasing FRET efficiency, from which reaction rates can be determined. Further treatment with USP21, a deubiquitinase, leads to increased FRET efficiency, confirming the reversibility of the assay. We subsequently use this assay to show that increasing the concentration of CHIP or UbcH5 but not Uba1 enhances ubiquitination rates, and develop a novel machine learning approach to model ubiquitination. The overall ubiquitination activity is also increased upon incubation with tau, a substrate of CHIP. Our data together demonstrate the versatile applications of a novel ubiquitination assay that does not require labeling of E1, E2, E3 or substrates, and is thus likely compatible with any E1-E2-E3 combinations.

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The cotton test redistributes nasal airflow in patients with empty nose syndrome.

Empty nose syndrome (ENS) remains a controversial disease primarily associated with inferior turbinate tissue loss. Cotton placement into the inferior meatus often alleviates ENS symptoms within minutes, but the physiologic explanation for this phenomenon is unknown. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was employed to evaluate the mechanisms of altered nasal airflow conferred by cotton testing.

2272 related Products with: The cotton test redistributes nasal airflow in patients with empty nose syndrome.

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Quantitative Proteomics and Weighted Correlation Network Analysis of Tear Samples in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Complicated with Dry Eye.

Diabetics are more likely to experience dry eye (DE). We used TMT-based proteomics and WGCNA to identify the differentially expressed proteins in tear proteome of type 2 diabetes with DE. Our aim was to provide a molecular basis for exploring possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetic DE.

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Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Mouse) Quan Inflammation (Rat) Quanti Inflammation (Human) Quan Ig Isotype (Human) Quanti Inflammation (Human) Quan MLN-2480 Mechanisms: Raf Cytokine (Human) Quantita ALDH1A1 (Internal) Antibo Plate Spinner Centrifuge, ING1B sense  EpiQuik Superoxide Dism

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Linear Polyubiquitin Chain Modification of TDP-43-Positive Neuronal Cytoplasmic Inclusions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) are pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and are known to be ubiquitinated. Eight linkage types of polyubiquitin chains have been reported, each type of chain exerting different intracellular actions. The linkage type of polyubiquitin chain involved in the formation of NCIs in sporadic ALS (sALS), however, has not yet been elucidated. We performed immunohistochemical study of the spinal cords of 12 patients with sALS and on those of 6 control subjects. Virtually all ubiquitinated NCIs were immunolabeled with lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chain (K48-Ub). Although the majority of NCIs were triple-immunoreactive for K48-Ub, linear polyubiquitin chain (L-Ub), and lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chain (K63-Ub), thin parts of K48-Ub-immunopositive NCIs were not labeled for K63-Ub or L-Ub. We also detected HOIP and SHARPIN, components of linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex, colocalizing with L-Ub on NCIs. Moreover, the immunosignal of optineurin, an autophagy receptor working with L-Ub, and that of activated NF-κB p65, were observed to be colocalizing with L-Ub on certain parts of NCIs. The L-Ub modification of TDP-43-positive NCIs may function as an inducer of autophagic clearance of NCIs, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in sALS.

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Intra-arterial transplantation of neural stem cells improve functional recovery after transient ischemic stroke in adult rats.

The neural stem cell transplantation has been proposed as alternative therapy to promote functional recovery after various neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-arterial transplantation of adult neural stem cells on improving local brain ischemia injuries.

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[The Establishment of a Three-color Flow Cytometry Approach for the Scoring of Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Rat Bone Marrow].

To develop and verify a flow cytometric measurement of reticulocytes (RETs) micronucleus in rat bone marrow.

1975 related Products with: [The Establishment of a Three-color Flow Cytometry Approach for the Scoring of Micronucleated Reticulocytes in Rat Bone Marrow].

FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Bone marrow tumor and nor FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Cell Meter™ Intracellul FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Multiple organ tumor tiss Bone marrow tumor and adj FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Thermal Shaker with cooli Rabbit Anti-TNIP2 ABIN2 T

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Cortical 3-hinges could serve as hubs in cortico-cortical connective network.

Mapping the relation between cortical convolution and structural/functional brain architectures could provide deep insights into the mechanisms of brain development, evolution and diseases. In our previous studies, we found a unique gyral folding pattern, termed a 3-hinge, which was defined as the conjunction of three gyral crests. The uniqueness of the 3-hinge was evidenced by its thicker cortex and stronger fiber connections than other gyral regions. However, the role that 3-hinges play in cortico-cortical connective architecture remains unclear. To this end, we conducted MRI studies by constructing structural cortico-cortical connective networks based on a fine-granular cortical parcellation, the parcels of which were automatically labeled as 3-hinge, 2-hinge (ordinary gyrus) or sulcus. On human brains, 3-hinges possess significantly higher degrees, strengths and betweennesses than 2-hinges, suggesting that 3-hinges could serve more like hubs in the cortico-cortical connective network. This hypothesis gains supports from human functional network analyses, in which 3-hinges are involved in more global functional networks than ordinary gyri. In addition, 3-hinges could serve as 'connector' hubs rather than 'provincial' hubs and they account for a dominant proportion of nodes in the high-level 'backbone' of the network. These structural results are reproduced on chimpanzee and macaque brains, while the roles of 3-hinges as hubs become more pronounced in higher order primates. Our new findings could provide a new window to the relation between cortical convolution, anatomical connection and brain function.

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