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#33091874   2020/10/22 To Up

Perceived Neighborhood and Walking Among Older Brazilian Adults Living in Urban Areas: A National Study (ELSI-Brazil).

The study goal was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and walking in urban older adults in Brazil. A cross-sectional study including 4,027 older adults from the baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) was performed. Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood characteristics were questions about physical disorder, noise pollution, safety, violence, social cohesion, services, concerns with community mobility, and pleasantness. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Concern about taking the bus, subway, or train was inversely associated with walking for men. Violence (victim of theft, robbery, or had home broken into) and social cohesion (trust in neighbors) were positively and inversely associated with walking for women, respectively. A significant interaction term between social cohesion and number of chronic diseases was observed for women. These findings demonstrate the need for sex-specific interventions and policies to increase the walking levels among older Brazilian adults.
Bruno de Souza Moreira, Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade, Luciana de Souza Braga, Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Juliana Lustosa Torres, Maria Fernanda Furtado Lima-Costa, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

2565 related Products with: Perceived Neighborhood and Walking Among Older Brazilian Adults Living in Urban Areas: A National Study (ELSI-Brazil).

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#33091871   2020/10/22 To Up

Physical Activity Among Urban-Living Middle-Aged and Older Japanese During the Build-Up to the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games: A Population Study.

This research examines physical activity (PA) parameters among urban-living middle-aged and older Japanese during the Tokyo Olympic build-up period. Population sampling was employed, and an online survey was administered with 4,000 adults across Japan's five largest cities. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form constituted the main outcome variable, with auxiliary measures of Olympic interest and engagement, readiness for PA behavior change, perceived environmental barriers, and demographic information. Despite interest in the Olympics (>60% moderate-high interest), planned engagement with the event was low (>70% planned passive engagement). Higher levels of interest and planned engagement were both significantly correlated with greater self-reported PA participation (p < .001). Across the sample, the PA levels were in the low-moderate range (990 metabolic equivalent of task-min/week), with significant variations observed by the age-cohort and geographic area (p < .001). Age-cohort and geographic variations were also identified with regard to readiness for PA behavior change and perceived environmental barriers to activity (p < .001). Older age (65 years and above) and host city (Tokyo) residence emerged as correlates of higher levels of PA, greater readiness for behavior change, and fewer reported barriers to participation. These findings have implications for Olympic legacy management and successful transitions from middle age to later life in Japan.
Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro, Yasuo Shimizu

2312 related Products with: Physical Activity Among Urban-Living Middle-Aged and Older Japanese During the Build-Up to the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games: A Population Study.

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#33091735   2020/10/19 To Up

Drug-related deaths in a population-level cohort of people living with and without hepatitis C virus in British Columbia, Canada.

The majority of new HCV infections in Canada occur in people who inject drugs. Thus, while curative direct antiviral agents (DAAs) herald a promising new era in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, improving the lives and wellbeing of people living with HCV (PLHCV) must be considered in the context of reducing overdose-related harms and with a syndemic lens. We measure drug-related deaths (DRDs) among HCV-negative people and PLHCV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and the impact of potent contaminants like fentanyl on deaths.
Hasina Samji, Amanda Yu, Stanley Wong, James Wilton, Mawuena Binka, Maria Alvarez, Sofia Bartlett, Margo Pearce, Prince Adu, Dahn Jeong, Emilia Clementi, Zahid Butt, Jane Buxton, Mark Gilbert, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua

1687 related Products with: Drug-related deaths in a population-level cohort of people living with and without hepatitis C virus in British Columbia, Canada.

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#33091683   2020/10/07 To Up

Nematode responses to an Arctic sea-ice regime: morphometric characteristics and biomass size spectra.

Body size is one of the most important traits of organisms that affects their behavioral life histories, physiologies, and energy requirements. For sediment-dwelling organisms, such as free-living nematodes, body size is a direct adaptation for living in sediments with a particular particle size, but other environmental factors, e.g., water depth and food availability, directly or indirectly shape nematode morphology. Nevertheless, our knowledge of meiofaunal organisms sizes still lags far behind that of other aquatic fauna, particularly for high-latitude fauna. Therefore, to gain insight into the nematode community size structure, we investigated eight stations located in the seasonal sea-ice zone north of Svalbard (Yermak Plateau, Nansen Basin, and Northern Svalbard shelf) during Arctic spring. Sample locations covered a wide depth gradient, different sea-ice concentrations and subsequent bloom stages. Our study provides previously unavailable data on nematode morphometry for this Arctic region during ecologically important spring to summer transition times. We analyzed nematode biomass, body shape and morphometric attributes, along with respective feeding types and life stage information. Our results show that differences in nematode densities, biomass and allometric attributes most likely reflect differences in the flux of organic material to the seafloor and in the biogeochemical properties of the sediments. Nematode assemblages appeared to respond to spatial gradients in ice cover duration and therefore pelagic productivity from the northern Svalbard shelf to the Yermak Plateau as evidenced by decreasing density, biomass and body size. Considering the entire community, as well as different life stages, average individual body weight decreased northward. Biomass dominance in the lower weight classes and the significantly lower abundance of long and thick morphotype nematodes observed on the Yermak Plateau than in the two other regions were striking. This was in contrast with the assemblage observed on the shelf, where prevailing environmental conditions influenced the presence of other morphotypes - markedly longer and wider organisms. Ongoing changes in sea-ice cover and primary production in the Arctic may significantly affect nematode functioning, as they are expected to have pronounced impacts on nematode morphological characteristics. In this regard, the size-based approach becomes a useful tool for detecting changes in the community and has important implications for predicting the direction of change with regard to benthic productivity.
Katarzyna Grzelak, Marta Gluchowska, Monika Kędra, Magdalena Błażewicz

2388 related Products with: Nematode responses to an Arctic sea-ice regime: morphometric characteristics and biomass size spectra.

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#33091639   2020/10/19 To Up

Musculoskeletal morbidity following spinal cord injury: A longitudinal cohort study of privately-insured beneficiaries.

People living with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) experience motor, sensory and autonomic impairments that cause musculoskeletal disorders following the injury and that progress throughout lifetime. The range and severity of issues are largely dependent on level and completeness of the injury and preserved function.
Gianna Rodriguez, Maryam Berri, Paul Lin, Neil Kamdar, Elham Mahmoudi, Mark D Peterson

1759 related Products with: Musculoskeletal morbidity following spinal cord injury: A longitudinal cohort study of privately-insured beneficiaries.

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#33091505   2020/10/19 To Up

Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases and amino acid signaling.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved housekeeping enzymes used for protein synthesis that have pivotal roles in the ligation of tRNA with their cognate amino acids. Recent advances in the structural and functional studies of ARSs have revealed many previously unknown biological functions beyond the classical catalytic roles. Sensing the sufficiency of intracellular nutrients such as amino acids, ATP, and fatty acids is a crucial aspect for every living organism, and it is closely connected to the regulation of diverse cellular physiologies. Notably, among ARSs, leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (LARS1) has been identified to perform specifically as a leucine sensor upstream of the amino acid-sensing pathway and thus participates in the coordinated control of protein synthesis and autophagy for cell growth. In addition to LARS1, other types of ARSs are also likely involved in the sensing and signaling of their cognate amino acids inside cells. Collectively, this review focuses on the mechanisms of ARSs interacting within amino acid signaling and proposes the possible role of ARSs as general intracellular amino acid sensors.
Ya Chun Yu, Jung Min Han, Sunghoon Kim

2313 related Products with: Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases and amino acid signaling.

500 mg 500 G100ug100 μg500 mg1 mg1 mg 25 G 100 G1 g2.5 mg

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#33091479   2020/10/19 To Up

Young adults' transition to a plant-based diet as a psychosomatic process: A psychoanalytically informed perspective.

This study examined transition to a plant-based diet by young adults and the challenges and conflicts this brings. Interviews were conducted with nine young adults in Sweden and the answers were analysed guided by a psychological method from descriptive phenomenology. The results indicate that the transition to a plant-based diet is a process comprising five dimensions: 1) Exploring new ways of living based on health anxieties, 2) regulating conflicting emotions through differentiation, 3) transforming traditional models into new alternatives, 4) confirming new skills and abilities and 5) integrating experiences and emotions into a whole. These five dimensions reflect how transition to a plant-based diet is experienced physically and emotionally. The results also indicate that plant-based meals and ingredients used in the new diet are loaded with symbols and conflicting emotions. Psychoanalytically informed theory, especially object relation theory, was used in discussing what can happen to the mind during the transition. In a wider perspective, this study provides insights into how a dietary transition can bring stability to the life of young adults and help them endure and master their situation. More research is needed to assess the role of mental health in transitioning to a plant-based diet and to draw more general conclusions, an area where psychodynamic theory can provide insights.
Elisabeth von Essen

2912 related Products with: Young adults' transition to a plant-based diet as a psychosomatic process: A psychoanalytically informed perspective.

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#33091377   2020/10/19 To Up

Characterization of bacterial gene repression by designed transcription activator-like effector dimer (TALED) proteins.

Gene regulation by control of transcription initiation is a fundamental property of living cells. Much of our understanding of gene repression originated from studies of the E. coli lac operon switch, where DNA looping plays an essential role. To validate and generalize principles from lac for practical applications, we previously described artificial DNA looping driven by designed Transcription Activator-Like Effector Dimer (TALED) proteins. Because TALE monomers bind the idealized symmetrical lac operator sequence in two orientations, our prior studies detected repression due to multiple DNA loops. We now quantitatively characterize gene repression in living E. coli by a collection of individual TALED loops with systematic loop length variation. Fitting of a thermodynamic model allows unequivocal demonstration of looping and comparison of the engineered TALED repression system with the natural lac repressor system.
Nicole A Becker, Justin P Peters, Tanya L Schwab, William J Phillips, Jordan P Wallace, Karl J Clark, L James Maher

2442 related Products with: Characterization of bacterial gene repression by designed transcription activator-like effector dimer (TALED) proteins.

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