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#36944419   2023/03/21 To Up

Cell death and barrier disruption by clinically used iodine concentrations.

Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) inactivates a broad range of pathogens. Despite its widespread use over decades, the safety of PVP-I remains controversial. Its extended use in the current SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic urges the need to clarify safety features of PVP-I on a cellular level. Our investigation in epithelial, mesothelial, endothelial, and innate immune cells revealed that the toxicity of PVP-I is caused by diatomic iodine (I), which is rapidly released from PVP-I to fuel organic halogenation with fast first-order kinetics. Eukaryotic toxicity manifests at below clinically used concentrations with a threshold of 0.1% PVP-I (wt/vol), equalling 1 mM of total available I Above this threshold, membrane disruption, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and abolition of oxidative phosphorylation induce a rapid form of cell death we propose to term iodoptosis. Furthermore, PVP-I attacks lipid rafts, leading to the failure of tight junctions and thereby compromising the barrier functions of surface-lining cells. Thus, the therapeutic window of PVP-I is considerably narrower than commonly believed. Our findings urge the reappraisal of PVP-I in clinical practice to avert unwarranted toxicity whilst safeguarding its benefits.
Anne Steins, Christina Carroll, Fui Jiun Choong, Amee J George, Jin-Shu He, Kate M Parsons, Shouya Feng, Si Ming Man, Cathelijne Kam, Lex M van Loon, Perlita Poh, Rita Ferreira, Graham J Mann, Russell L Gruen, Katherine M Hannan, Ross D Hannan, Klaus-Martin Schulte

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