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The robotic thymectomy via the subxiphoid approach: technique and early outcomes.

Robotic thymectomy via the subxiphoid approach (RTX) is a recently introduced surgical approach. This study aimed to report on the surgical technique and early outcomes of RTX in our institute.

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Emerging entities in NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms.

Structural alterations of NUTM1 were originally thought to be restricted to poorly differentiated carcinomas with variable squamous differentiation originating in the midline organs of children and adolescents. Termed NUT carcinomas (NCs), they were defined by a t(15;19) chromosomal rearrangement that was found to result in a BRD4-NUTM1 gene fusion. However, the use of DNA and RNA-based next generation sequencing has recently revealed a multitude of new NUTM1 fusion partners in a diverse array of neoplasms including sarcoma-like tumors, poromas, and acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) that we propose to call NUTM1-re-arranged neoplasms (NRNs). Intriguingly, the nosology of NRNs often correlates with the functional classification of the fusion partner, suggesting different oncogenic mechanisms within each NRN division. Indeed, whereas NCs are characterised by their aggressiveness and intransigence to standard therapeutic measures, the more positive clinical outcomes seen in some sarcoma and ALL NRNs may reflect these mechanistic differences. Here we provide a broad overview of the molecular, nosological, and clinical features in these newly discovered neoplastic entities. We describe how aberrant expression of NUTM1 due to fusion with an N-terminal DNA/chromatin binding protein can generate a potentially powerful chromatin modifier that can give rise to oncogenic transformation in numerous cellular contexts. We also conclude that classification, clinical behaviour and therapeutic options may be best defined by the NUTM1 fusion partner rather than by tumor morphology or immunohistochemical profile. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Half of the (big) picture is missing!


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Patient organ and effective dose estimation in CT: comparison of four software applications.

Radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) has become a topic of high interest due to the increasing numbers of CT examinations performed worldwide. Hence, dose tracking and organ dose calculation software are increasingly used. We evaluated the organ dose variability associated with the use of different software applications or calculation methods.

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A simulation tool for mechanical circulatory support device interaction with diseased states.

We have created a simulation model to investigate the interactions between a variety of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices and the circulatory system with various simulated patient conditions and disease states. The present simulation accommodates a family of continuous-flow MCS devices under various stages of consideration or development at our institution. This article describes the mathematical core of the in silico simulation system and shows examples of simulation output imitating various disease states and of selected in vitro and clinical data from the literature.

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Distribution of cell layers in floral organs of chrysanthemum analyzed with periclinal chimeras carrying a transgene encoding fluorescent protein.

A fluorescent protein visualized distributions of cell layers in floral organs of chrysanthemum using transgenic periclinal chimeras carrying a gene encoding a fluorescent compound. Plant meristems have three cell layers: the outermost layer (L1), the second layer (L2), and the inner layer (L3). The layers are maintained during development but there is limited knowledge of the details of cell layer patterns within floral organs. In this study, we visualized the distributions of cell layers in floral organs of chrysanthemum using periclinal chimeras carrying a gene encoding a fluorescent compound in the L1 or the L2/L3 layers. The L1 layer contributed most of the epidermal cells of organs including the receptacle, petal, anther, filament, style, stigma, and ovule. The transmitting tissue in the pistil and most of the internal area of the ovule were also derived from the L1. In crossing experiments, no progeny of the L1-chimeric plants showed fluorescence, indicating that the germ cells of chrysanthemum are not derived from the L1 layer. Since anthocyanin pigment is present only in the L1-derived epidermal cells of petals, L1-specific gene integration could be used to alter flower color in commercial cultivars, with a reduced risk of transgene flow from the transgenic chrysanthemums to wild relatives.

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[Acceptance of and factors influencing attitudes towards post-mortem organ donation in Germany : Analysis of representative cross-sectional studies between 2010 and 2016].

The German post-mortem organ donation rate has been low, since transplantation scandals attracted media attention in 2012. Therefore, the objective of this article is to address the willingness to document attitudes (e.g., organ donor card) towards organ donation, factors influencing the willingness to document the individual will and knowledge of organ donation among the German public. Data of surveys on attitudes towards organ and tissue donation in Germany conducted between 2010 and 2016 by the Federal Centre for Health Education (Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung) were analysed. Using binary logistic regression, factors influencing the method for documenting the individual will were identified. In the 2016 survey, 35.7% of all respondents had documented their will in the form of an organ donor card or an advance health care directive. Female gender, younger age, higher level of education, discussion of organ donation with next-of-kin/friends, grasping the concept of death and knowledge of organ donation increase the likelihood of possessing an organ donor card. Being male increases the likelihood of documenting the individual will using an electronic health insurance card. Older respondents or respondents with lower level of education lack knowledge about organ donation. Persons with extensive knowledge are more likely to possess an organ donor card and to consent to donate organs of next-of-kin. Further measures to increase knowledge of organ donation among the general public should be discussed. The influence of gender on the willingness to use different methods to document attitudes needs to be evaluated.

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[IgG4-Related Orbitopathy as an Important Differential Diagnosis of Advanced Silent Sinus Syndrome. German version].

Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease is classified as an immune-mediated disease. The etiology of this condition has not been explained to date. Manifestations of the disease are diverse, and simultaneous involvement of multiple organs is not unusual.

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Aluminum and aluminum oxide nanomaterials uptake after oral exposure - a comparative study.

The knowledge about a potential in vivo uptake and subsequent toxicological effects of aluminum (Al), especially in the nanoparticulate form, is still limited. This paper focuses on a three day oral gavage study with three different Al species in Sprague Dawley rats. The Al amount was investigated in major organs in order to determine the oral bioavailability and distribution. Al-containing nanoparticles (NMs composed of Al and aluminum oxide (AlO)) were administered at three different concentrations and soluble aluminum chloride (AlCl·6HO) was used as a reference control at one concentration. A microwave assisted acid digestion approach followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was developed to analyse the Al burden of individual organs. Special attention was paid on how the sample matrix affected the calibration procedure. After 3 days exposure, AlCl·6HO treated animals showed high Al levels in liver and intestine, while upon treatment with Al NMs significant amounts of Al were detected only in the latter. In contrast, following AlO NMs treatment, Al was detected in all investigated organs with particular high concentrations in the spleen. A rapid absorption and systemic distribution of all three Al forms tested were found after 3-day oral exposure. The identified differences between Al and AlO NMs point out that both, particle shape and surface composition could be key factors for Al biodistribution and accumulation.

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Physiological responses of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) plants to UV radiation in its high-altitude mountain ecosystem.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a small fraction of the solar spectrum, which acts as a key environmental modulator of plant function affecting metabolic regulation and growth. Plant species endemic to the Andes are well adapted to the harsh features of high-altitude climate, including high UV radiation. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is a member of Brassicaceae family native to the central Andes of Peru, which grows between 3500 and 4500 m of altitude, where only highland grasses and few hardy bushes can survive. Even though maca has been the focus of recent researches, mainly due to its nutraceutical properties, knowledge regarding its adaptation mechanisms to these particular natural environmental conditions is scarce. In this study, we manipulated solar UV radiation by using UV-transmitting (Control) or blocking (UV-block) filters under field conditions (4138 m above the sea level) in order to understand the impact of UV on morphological and physiological parameters of maca crops over a complete growing season. Compared to the UV-blocking filter, under control condition a significant increase of hypocotyl weight was observed during the vegetative phase together with a marked leaf turnover. Although parameters conferring photosynthetic performance were not altered by UV, carbohydrate allocation between above and underground organs was affected. Control condition did not influence the content of secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in hypocotyls, while some differences were observed in the rosettes. These differences were mainly related to leaf turnover and the protection of new young leaves in control plants. Altogether, the data suggest that maca plants respond to strong UV radiation at high altitudes by a coordinated remobilization and relocation of metabolites between source and sink organs via a possible UV signaling pathway.

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