Search results for: pathology
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Antidepressant Effects and Mechanisms of the Total Iridoids of Valeriana jatamansi on the Brain-Gut Axis.is widely used in Chinese folk medicine and contains iridoids as important active ingredients. The brain-gut axis describes a complex bidirectional system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we evaluated the antidepressant effects of total iridoids of (TIV) and preliminarily investigated the effects of gut microbiota on their antidepressant effects using a chronic, unpredictable mild-stress mouse model. Mice were given 5.7, 11.4, or 22.9 mg/kg TIV for 1 week. Fluoxetine (2.6 mg/kg) served as a positive control. Body weight was measured, and behavioral tests including SPT and TST were applied. Colon pathology was assessed through hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), substance P (SP) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hippocampus and colon were measured by ELISA. In addition, 16SrRNA gene sequencing was performed to explore changes in intestinal microbiota richness and diversity. Our results demonstrated that the model group showed significant depression-like behavior, while the fluoxetine group showed improved depression-like symptoms; after administration, TIV increased body weight, sucrose solution consumption, and ameliorated depression-like behaviors. The overall cell degeneration in colons also improved. In addition, TIV modulated the levels of 5-HT, NE, SP, and CRF expression in the hippocampus and colon. The diversity and richness of gut microbes increased compared to the model group. We therefore conclude that the antidepressant effects of TIV may be related to gut flora structures and regulation of 5-HT, NE, SP, and CRF in the brain and intestine.
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Additive Value of Transrectal Systematic Ventral Biopsies in Combination with Magnet Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound Fusion-Guided Biopsy in Patients with 3 or More Negative Prostate Biopsies.Patients with consistent suspicion for prostate cancer (PCa) and multiple negative prebiopsies prior to multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) are still frequently evaluated for an image-guided biopsy and are reported with heterogeneous detection rates. The inclusion of a systematic biopsy (SB) is also still recommended with predominant sampling within the posterior/peripheral zone of the prostate. The aim of this study was (I) to evaluate PCa detection rates using a modified 10 core SB template including anterior biopsies in combination with mpMRI/ultrasound fusion-guided targeted biopsy (TB) in patients with 3 or more negative prebiopsies and (II) to compare mpMRI index lesion localization with histologically confirmed locali-zation from associated prostatectomy samples.
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YAP/TAZ Activation Drives Uveal Melanoma Initiation and Progression.Uveal melanoma (UM), the most common ocular malignancy, is characterized by GNAQ/11 mutations. Hippo/YAP and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) emerge as two important signaling pathways downstream of G protein alpha subunits of the Q class (GαQ/11)-mediated transformation, although whether and how they contribute to UM genesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we adapt an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based ocular injection method to directly deliver Cre recombinase into the mouse uveal tract and demonstrate that Lats1/2 kinases suppress UM formation specifically in uveal melanocytes. We find that genetic activation of YAP, but not Kras, is sufficient to initiate UM. We show that YAP/TAZ activation induced by Lats1/2 deletion cooperates with Kras to promote UM progression via downstream transcriptional reinforcement. Furthermore, dual inhibition of YAP/TAZ and Ras/MAPK synergizes to suppress oncogenic growth of human UM cells. Our data highlight the functional significance of Lats-YAP/TAZ in UM initiation and progression in vivo and suggest combination inhibition of YAP/TAZ and Ras/MAPK as a new therapeutic strategy for UM.
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Sox17 Regulates a Program of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion and Differentiation during Development and Repair.Sox17, a SoxF family member transiently upregulated during postnatal oligodendrocyte (OL) development, promotes OL cell differentiation, but its function in white matter development and pathology in vivo is unknown. Our analysis of oligodendroglial- and OL-progenitor-cell-targeted ablation in vivo using a floxed Sox17 mouse establishes a dependence of postnatal oligodendrogenesis on Sox17 and reveals Notch signaling as a mediator of Sox17 function. Following Sox17 ablation, reduced numbers of Olig2-expressing cells and mature OLs led to developmental hypomyelination and motor dysfunction. After demyelination, Sox17 deficiency inhibited OL regeneration. OL decline was unexpectedly preceded by transiently increased differentiation and a reduction of OL progenitor cells. Evidence of a dual role for Sox17 in progenitor cell expansion by Notch and differentiation involving TCF7L2 expression were found. A program of progenitor expansion and differentiation promoted by Sox17 through Notch thus contributes to OL production and determines the outcome of white matter repair.
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The Classical Complement Pathway Mediates Microglia-Dependent Remodeling of Spinal Motor Circuits during Development and in SMA.Movement is an essential behavior requiring the assembly and refinement of spinal motor circuits. However, the mechanisms responsible for circuit refinement and synapse maintenance are poorly understood. Similarly, the molecular mechanisms by which gene mutations cause dysfunction and elimination of synapses in neurodegenerative diseases that occur during development are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the complement protein C1q is required for the refinement of sensory-motor circuits during normal development, as well as for synaptic dysfunction and elimination in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). C1q tags vulnerable SMA synapses, which triggers activation of the classical complement pathway leading to microglia-mediated elimination. Pharmacological inhibition of C1q or depletion of microglia rescues the number and function of synapses, conferring significant behavioral benefit in SMA mice. Thus, the classical complement pathway plays critical roles in the refinement of developing motor circuits, while its aberrant activation contributes to motor neuron disease.
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Interleukin-27 Is Essential for Type 1 Diabetes Development and Sjögren Syndrome-like Inflammation.Human genetic studies implicate interleukin-27 (IL-27) in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To further define the role of IL-27 in T1D, we generated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice deficient in IL-27 or IL-27Rα. In contrast to wild-type NOD mice, both NOD.Il27 and NOD.Il27ra strains are completely resistant to T1D. IL-27 from myeloid cells and IL-27 signaling in T cells are critical for T1D development. IL-27 directly alters the balance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 1 (Th1) cells in pancreatic islets, which in turn modulates the diabetogenic activity of CD8 T cells. IL-27 also directly enhances the effector function of CD8 T cells within pancreatic islets. In addition to T1D, IL-27 signaling in T cells is also required for lacrimal and salivary gland inflammation in NOD mice. Our study reveals that IL-27 contributes to autoimmunity in NOD mice through multiple mechanisms and provides substantial evidence to support its pathogenic role in human T1D.
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Metabolic Rewiring in Response to Biguanides Is Mediated by mROS/HIF-1a in Malignant Lymphocytes.Metabolic flexibility allows cells to adapt to various environments and limits the efficacy of metabolic drugs. Therapeutic targeting of cancer metabolism relies on defining limiting requirements and vulnerabilities in the highly dynamic metabolic network. Here, we characterize the metabolic reprogramming and identify cancer-specific metabolic vulnerabilities in response to the pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Our work reveals the adaptation mechanism in malignant lymphocytes providing resistance against the biguanides phenformin and metformin by transcriptionally reprogramming glucose metabolism. Metabolic adaptation to complex I inhibition is mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) serving as a mitochondrial stress signal activating hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a). Inhibition of the mROS/HIF-1a axis through antioxidants or direct suppression of HIF-1a selectively disrupts metabolic adaptation and survival during complex I dysfunction in malignant lymphocytes. Our results identify HIF-1a signaling as a critical factor in resistance against biguanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, allowing selective targeting of metabolic pathways in leukemia and lymphoma.
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IL-33 Signaling Alters Regulatory T Cell Diversity in Support of Tumor Development.Regulatory T cells (T) can impair anti-tumor immune responses and are associated with poor prognosis in multiple cancer types. T in human tumors span diverse transcriptional states distinct from those of peripheral T, but their contribution to tumor development remains unknown. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to longitudinally profile dynamic shifts in the distribution of T in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma. In this model, interferon-responsive T are more prevalent early in tumor development, whereas a specialized effector phenotype characterized by enhanced expression of the interleukin-33 receptor ST2 is predominant in advanced disease. T-specific deletion of ST2 alters the evolution of effector T diversity, increases infiltration of CD8 T cells into tumors, and decreases tumor burden. Our study shows that ST2 plays a critical role in T-mediated immunosuppression in cancer, highlighting potential paths for therapeutic intervention.
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Adipose Tissue B Cells Come of Age: The AABs of Fat Inflammation.For nearly a decade, B cells residing locally within the adipose tissue have been linked to the control of metabolic homeostasis. In this issue, Camell et al. (2019) report an expansion of a unique age-associated B cell population in the visceral adipose tissue that regulates insulin resistance and adipose dysfunction during aging.
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Progressive Elbow Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Little League Baseball Players Are Common: A 3-Year Longitudinal Evaluation.Prior studies have revealed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of elbow pathology in single-season evaluation of competitive youth baseball players. The natural history of these findings and risk factors for progression have not been reported.
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