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#34696440   2021/10/06 To Up

An Antigenic Space Framework for Understanding Antibody Escape of SARS-CoV-2 Variants.

The evolution of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 at antigenic sites that impact neutralizing antibody responses in humans poses a risk to immunity developed through vaccination and natural infection. The highly successful RNA-based vaccines have enabled rapid vaccine updates that incorporate mutations from current variants of concern (VOCs). It is therefore important to anticipate future antigenic mutations as the virus navigates the heterogeneous global landscape of host immunity. Toward this goal, we survey epitope-paratope interfaces of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to map an antigenic space that captures the role of each spike protein residue within the polyclonal antibody response directed against the ACE2-receptor binding domain (RBD) or the N-terminal domain (NTD). In particular, the antigenic space map builds on recently published epitope definitions by annotating epitope overlap and orthogonality at the residue level. We employ the antigenic space map as a framework to understand how mutations on nine major variants contribute to each variant's evasion of neutralizing antibodies. Further, we identify constellations of mutations that span the orthogonal epitope regions of the RBD and NTD on the variants with the greatest antibody escape. Finally, we apply the antigenic space map to predict which regions of antigenic space-should they mutate-may be most likely to complementarily augment antibody evasion for the most evasive and transmissible VOCs.
Nathaniel L Miller, Thomas Clark, Rahul Raman, Ram Sasisekharan

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#34695860   2021/10/25 To Up

Validation of RNA Aptamer Probes to Image Candida albicans in Paraffin-Embedded Sections of Wistar Rat Tongue.

 This study aimed to validate the use of Ca-apt-1, an RNA aptamer, that we generated previously as a probe for immunostaining of in rat tongue paraffin-fixed tissue sections MATERIAL AND METHODS:  The performance of Ca-apt-1 as a detector molecule was compared with that of anti- polyclonal antibody (PcAb), which was used as a positive control. Immunostaining images were visualized by light microscopy and were analyzed by using ImageJ software.
Boy M Bachtiar, Chatchawan Srisawat, Retno Pudji Rahayu, Retno D Soedjodono, Silvia Arin Prabandari, Endang W Bachtiar

2688 related Products with: Validation of RNA Aptamer Probes to Image Candida albicans in Paraffin-Embedded Sections of Wistar Rat Tongue.

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#34695236   2021/10/25 To Up

Chlamydia abortus OmcB protein is essential for adhesion to host cells.

Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens, causing a number of serious diseases. The adhesion of C. abortus to host cells is the first and crucial step in the process of infection. Outer membrane protein 2 (OmcB) is the second most abundant outer membrane protein. It has been shown to be an important adhesin of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In the present study, the OmcB gene of C. abortus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant OmcB protein with His-tag was used to prepare polyclonal antibodies. Infectivity inhibition assays carried out with C. abortus in the presence of recombinant OmcB showed a considerable reduction (∼50%) in infectivity. Using anti-OmcB serum in infectivity inhibition assays resulted in a 30% reduction in infectivity. Anti-OmcB serum and recombinant OmcB protein in infection inhibition assays showed that OmcB is a surface-exposed protein that functions as an adhesin. The constructed deletion variant of the OmcB motif for infection inhibition assays showed that the first XBBXBX motif of the C. abortus OmcB protein is essential for binding to host cells.
Lin Liang, Donghui Liu, Zhaocai Li, Jizhang Zhou, Dewen Tong

2628 related Products with: Chlamydia abortus OmcB protein is essential for adhesion to host cells.

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#34682273   2021/10/12 To Up

Drk1, a Dimorphism Histidine Kinase, Contributes to Morphology, Virulence, and Stress Adaptation in .

is a thermally dimorphic fungus belonging to complex, causative of a systemic, endemic mycosis limited to Latin American countries. Signal transduction pathways related to important aspects as surviving, proliferation according to the biological niches are linked to the fungal pathogenicity in many species, but its elucidation in remains poorly explored. As Drk1, a hybrid histidine kinase, plays regulators functions in other dimorphic fungi species, mainly in dimorphism and virulence, here we investigated its importance in . We, therefore generated the respective recombinant protein, anti-PbDrk1 polyclonal antibody and a silenced strain. The Drk1 protein shows a random distribution including cell wall location that change its pattern during osmotic stress condition; moreover the treatment with anti-PbDrk1 antibody, which does not modify the fungus's viability, resulted in decreased virulence in model and reduced interaction with pneumocytes. Down-regulating PbDRK1 yielded phenotypic alterations such as yeast cells with more elongated morphology, virulence attenuation in infection model, lower amount of chitin content, increased resistance to osmotic and cell wall stresses, and also caspofungin, and finally increased sensitivity to itraconazole. These observations highlight the importance of PbDrk1 to virulence, stress adaptation, morphology, and cell wall organization, and therefore it an interesting target that could help develop new antifungals.
Caroline Maria Marcos, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Patrícia Akemi Assato, Rafael Fernando Castelli, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini

2244 related Products with: Drk1, a Dimorphism Histidine Kinase, Contributes to Morphology, Virulence, and Stress Adaptation in .

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#34676103   2020/11/03 To Up

Measuring protein biomarker concentrations using antibody tagged magnetic nanoparticles.

Under physiological conditions biomarker concentrations tend to rise and fall over time e.g. for inflammation. measurements provide a snapshot in time of biomarker concentrations, which is useful, but limited. Approaching real time monitoring of biomarker concentration(s) using a wearable, implantable or injectable sensor is therefore an appealing target. As an early step towards developing an biomarker sensor, antibody (AB) tagged magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are used here to demonstrate the measurement of ~5 distinct biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. In previous work, aptamers were used to target a given biomarker and generate magnetic clusters that exhibit a characteristic rotational signature quite different from free NPs. Here the method is expanded to detect a much wider range of biomarkers using polyclonal ABs attached to the surface of the NPs. Commercial ABs exist for a wide range of targets allowing accurate and specific concentration measurements for most significant biomarkers. We show sufficient detection sensitivity, using an in-house spectrometer to measure the rotational signatures of the NPs, to assess physiological concentrations of hormones, cytokines and other signaling molecules. Detection limits for biomarkers drawn mainly from pain and inflammation targets were: 10 pM for mouse Granzyme B (mGZM-B), 40 pM for mouse interferon-gamma (mIFN-), 7 pM for mouse interleukin-6 (mIL-6), 40 pM for rat interleukin-6 (rIL-6), 40 pM for mouse vascular endothelial growth factor (mVEGF) and 250 pM for rat calcitonin gene related peptide (rCGRP). Much lower detection limits are certainly possible using improved spectrometers and nanoparticles.
Scott W Gordon-Wylie, Dylan B Ness, Yipeng Shi, Sohail K Mirza, Keith D Paulsen, John B Weaver

2239 related Products with: Measuring protein biomarker concentrations using antibody tagged magnetic nanoparticles.

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#34673590   // To Up

Expression of TLE1, INI1, β-catenin, Claudin1, CK7, CK19, SS18 and calponin in synovial sarcoma.

Synovial sarcomas (SS) are enigmatic soft tissue tumors, which are yet to have a defined cell of origin. SS have a variety of differential diagnosis depending upon the age of the patient and the site of presentation. This makes diagnosis cumbersome unless the specific fusion SS18:SSX is identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Immunohistochemistry is a useful tool in resource-poor settings in helping to narrow the differentials and help diagnose this tumor. This study set about assessing possible candidate immunohistochemical markers in their utility to recognize SS.
Manoj Gopal Madakshira, Bishan Dass Radotra, Lileswar Kaman, Uma Nahar Saikia

1802 related Products with: Expression of TLE1, INI1, β-catenin, Claudin1, CK7, CK19, SS18 and calponin in synovial sarcoma.

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