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Lipid Induction in Scenedesmus abundans GH-D11 by Reusing the Volatile Fatty Acids in the Effluent of Dark Anaerobic Fermentation of Biohydrogen.

This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lipid induction in Scenedesmus abundans by adding the effluent from dark fermentation of biohydrogen production. Four sets of experiments were conducted: control (sufficient nitrogen), nitrogen depletion, low concentration (0.3×) effluent addition, and high concentration (0.5×) effluent addition. The addition of low concentration effluent produced the highest biomass and lipid yields of 2.831 g/L and 1.238 g/L, corresponding to a lipid abundance of 43.72 wt%. Furthermore, S. abundans had high removal efficiencies for volatile fatty acids in the effluent (formic acid 100%, acetic acid 100%, propionic acid 98%, lactic acid 84%, and butyric acid 68%), and this is the first study demonstrating the ability of S. abundans in using formic acid and lactic acid to produce biomass and lipids. These results show that S. abundans have great abilities in simultaneous reducing organic acids in the effluent and producing valuable metabolites.

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Dynamics of the diaspore and germination stages of the life history of an annual diaspore-trimorphic species in a temperate salt desert.

Individuals of the annual halophyte Atriplex centralasiatica produce three kinds of diaspores that differ in dispersal, dormancy/germination response and type of seed bank formed, which likely is a bet-hedging strategy in the rainfall-unpredictable environment on the semi-arid, saline Ordos Plateau in Inner Mongolia, China. Seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions provide germination cues for the establishment of seedlings at the right time and place to ensure plant survival and population regeneration. Diaspore heteromorphism is a phenomenon in which diaspores with stark qualitative differences in morphology and ecology are produced by the same maternal plant. Germination responses and dispersal times of the annual halophyte Atriplex centralasiatica were examined to determine the role of diaspore heteromorphism in its adaptation to salt desert conditions. A. centralasiatica is a tumbleweed that produces three types of diaspores that differ in morphology and ecophysiology. The relative potential dispersal ability and intensity of dormancy of the three diaspore types was type A (fan-shaped diaspores with yellow fruits) < type B (fan-shaped diaspores with black fruits) < type C (globular diaspores with black fruits). In the field, type A retained high germinability, but all of them were depleted from the (transient) soil seedbank in the first growing season. Types B and C cycled between dormancy and nondormancy, and 0 and > 90.0% remained in the soil seedbank 2 years after dispersal, respectively. The dormancy, dispersal and salt tolerance of type B diaspores were intermediate between those of A and C. Type A exhibited low dispersal-nondormancy, type B exhibited intermediate dispersal-intermediate dormancy and type C exhibited high dispersal ability-high dormancy. In the unpredictable salt desert habitat, the functional differences in germination and dispersal of the three diaspores act as a bet-hedging mechanism and ensure population establishment in different years by spreading germination over time and space.

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Overexpression of phzM contributes to much more production of pyocyanin converted from phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in the absence of RpoS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pyocyanin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key virulence factor that often causes heavy damages to airway and lung in patients. Conversion of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid to pyocyanin involves an extrametabolic pathway that contains two enzymes encoded, respectively, by phzM and phzS. In this study, with construction of the rpoS-deficient mutant, we first found that although phenazine production increased, pyocyanin produced in the mutant YTΔrpoS was fourfold much higher than that in the wild-type strain YT. To investigate this issue, we constructed phzM-lacZ fusion on a vector and on the chromosome. By quantifying β-galactosidase activities, we confirmed that expression of the phzM was up-regulated when the rpoS gene was inactivated. However, no changes occurred in the expression of phzS and phzH when the rpoS was knocked out. Taken together, overproduction of the SAM-dependent methyltransferase (PhzM) might contribute to the increased pyocyanin in the absence of RpoS in P. aeruginosa.

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Evaluating hospital tools and services that were co-produced with patients: A rapid review.

To describe the process and outcomes of services or products co-produced with patients in hospital settings.

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Lysophosphatidic acid-induced pro-thrombotic phosphatidylserine exposure and ionophore-induced microvesiculation is mediated by the scramblase TMEM16F in erythrocytes.

Recent studies indicate that erythrocytes actively modulate blood clotting and thrombus formation. The lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is produced by activated platelets, and triggers a signaling process in erythrocytes. This results in cellular calcium uptake and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the cell surface, thereby generating activated membrane binding sites for factors of the clotting cascade. Moreover, erythrocytes of patients with a bleeding disorder and mutations in the scramblase TMEM16F show impaired PS exposure and microvesiculation upon treatment with calcium ionophore. We report that TMEM16F inhibitors tannic acid (TA) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibit LPA-induced PS exposure and calcium uptake at low micromolar concentrations; fluoxetine, an antidepressant and a known activator of TMEM16F, enhances these processes. These effectors likewise modulate erythrocyte PS exposure and microvesicle shedding induced by calcium ionophore treatment. Further, LPA-treated erythrocytes triggered thrombin generation in platelet-free plasma which was partially impaired in the presence of TA and EGCG. Thus, this study suggests that LPA activates the scramblase TMEM16F in erythrocytes, thereby possibly mediating a pro-thrombotic function in these cells. EGCG as well as fluoxetine, substances with potentially high plasma concentrations due to alimentation or medical treatment, should be considered as potential effectors of systemic hemostatic regulation.

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Three-stage process for tequila vinasse valorization through sequential lactate, biohydrogen and methane production.

This study evaluated a novel three-stage process devoted to the cascade production of lactate, biohydrogen and methane from tequila vinasse (TV), with emphasis on attaining a high and stable biohydrogen production rate (HPR) by utilizing lactate as biohydrogen precursor. In the first stage, tailored operating conditions applied to a sequencing batch reactor were effective in sustaining a lactate concentration of 12.4 g/L, corresponding to 89% of the total organic acids produced. In the second stage, the stimulation of lactate-centered dark fermentation which entails the decoupling of biohydrogen production from carbohydrates utilization was an effective approach enabling stable biohydrogen production, having HPR fluctuations less than 10% with a maximum HPR of 12.3 L/L-d and a biohydrogen yield of 3.1 L/L. Finally, 1.6 L CH/L-d and 6.5 L CH/L were obtained when feeding the biohydrogen fermentation effluent to a third methanogenic stage, yielding a global energy recovery of 267.5 kJ/L.

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Nitrate removal characteristics and C metabolic pathways of aerobic denitrifying bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans Z195.

Strain Z195 was isolated and identified as Paracoccus denitrificans. Z195 exhibited efficient aerobic denitrification and carbon removal abilities, and removed 93.74% of total nitrogen (TN) and 97.81% of total organic carbon.71.88% of nitrogen was lost as gaseous products.C-metabolic flux analysis revealed that 95% and 132% of the carbon fluxes entered the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, respectively. Electrons produced by carbon metabolism markedly promoted the processes of nitrogen metabolism process and aerobic respiration. A response surface methodology model demonstrated that the optimal conditions for the maximum TN removal were a C/N ratio of 7.47, shaking speed of 108 rpm, temperature of 31 °C and initial pH of 8.02. Additionally, the average TN and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of raw wastewater were 89% and 91%, respectively. The results give new insight for understanding metabolic flux analysis of aerobic denitrifying bacteria.

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A deep learning-based approach for automatic segmentation and quantification of the left ventricle from cardiac cine MR images.

Cardiac MRI has been widely used for noninvasive assessment of cardiac anatomy and function as well as heart diagnosis. The estimation of physiological heart parameters for heart diagnosis essentially require accurate segmentation of the Left ventricle (LV) from cardiac MRI. Therefore, we propose a novel deep learning approach for the automated segmentation and quantification of the LV from cardiac cine MR images. We aim to achieve lower errors for the estimated heart parameters compared to the previous studies by proposing a novel deep learning segmentation method. Our framework starts by an accurate localization of the LV blood pool center-point using a fully convolutional neural network (FCN) architecture called FCN1. Then, a region of interest (ROI) that contains the LV is extracted from all heart sections. The extracted ROIs are used for the segmentation of LV cavity and myocardium via a novel FCN architecture called FCN2. The FCN2 network has several bottleneck layers and uses less memory footprint than conventional architectures such as U-net. Furthermore, a new loss function called radial loss that minimizes the distance between the predicted and true contours of the LV is introduced into our model. Following myocardial segmentation, functional and mass parameters of the LV are estimated. Automated Cardiac Diagnosis Challenge (ACDC-2017) dataset was used to validate our framework, which gave better segmentation, accurate estimation of cardiac parameters, and produced less error compared to other methods applied on the same dataset. Furthermore, we showed that our segmentation approach generalizes well across different datasets by testing its performance on a locally acquired dataset. To sum up, we propose a deep learning approach that can be translated into a clinical tool for heart diagnosis.

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Pesimquinolones produced by Penicillium simplicissimum and their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production.

Eight undescribed quinolone alkaloids, pesimquinolones A-H, as well as six known compounds, were isolated from the solid culture broth of the fungus Penicillium simplicissimum. Their chemical structures were characterized by combined analyses of NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Pesimquinolones A-G are the first examples of naturally occurring quinolone alkaloids possessing a limonene moiety. Their anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in adherent cells were evaluated. Pesimquinolones A, E, G, and H showed promising suppressive effect on the production of NO with IC values of 1.94, 1.29, 1.20, and 1.23 μM, respectively.

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Age-dependent effects of testosterone on spatial memory in male rats.

Decreased spatial memory is common in aging populations and reduces their quality of life. Although its role is still controversial, low testosterone (T) may contribute to impaired cognition in aged men. This study aimed to identify the role of T in age-related deficiencies in spatial memory among male rats. Young adult (3 months old) and aged (21 months old) Wistar rats were assigned to independent groups: intact, orchidectomized, or orchidectomized + subcutaneous pellets of T propionate. The phases of spatial memory acquisition (4 daily trials/4 days) and spatial memory retention (1 trial/day, 3 and 12 days after acquisition) were evaluated using the Barnes maze. Compared with young adults, aged intact rats took longer to find the goal, made more mistakes, and showed only slight improvements in goal sector exploration across the acquisition period. The young orchidectomized rats showed no improvement in performance over the days during the acquisition phase. T treatment in hormonally deprived old rats produced a small improvement in goal sector exploration and number of errors during the acquisition phase. Meanwhile, in young adults, this treatment improved the goal sector searching in the retention phase (12 days after acquisition training). Our results suggested that age-related spatial memory deficits cannot be entirely explained by the decline in T levels; however, this androgen produced subtle and mild beneficial effects on spatial memory in young and old males. Taken together, our findings suggest age differences in the role of T on spatial memory in males.

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