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Transgelin Silencing Induces Different Processes in Different Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

Transgelin is a protein reported to be a marker of several cancers. However, previous studies have shown both up- and down-regulation of transgelin in tumors when compared with non-tumor tissues and the mechanisms whereby transgelin may affect the development of cancer remain largely unknown. Transgelin is especially abundant in smooth muscle cells and is associated with actin stress fibers. These contractile structures participate in cell motility, adhesion, and the maintenance of cell morphology. Here, we focused on the role of transgelin in breast cancer. Initially, we studied the effects of transgelin on cell migration using the breast cancer cell lines, BT 549 and PMC 42. Using the xCELLigence system, we found opposite results in the two cell lines. Transgelin silencing increased the migration of PMC 42 cells, but decreased the migration of BT 549 cells. To further clarify these contradictory results, we performed an experiment to quantify the changes in protein expression after transgelin silencing in these two cell lines, using quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS). Our results confirmed the role of transgelin in the migration of BT 549 cells and suggested the involvement of transgelin in apoptosis and small molecule biochemistry in PMC 42 cells. The context-dependent function of transgelin reflects the different molecular backgrounds of these cell lines, which differ in karyotypes, mutation statuses, and proteome profiles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Epinephrine responsiveness is reduced in livers from trained mice.

The liver is the primary metabolic organ involved in the endogenous production of glucose through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is increased via neural-hormonal mechanisms such as increases in catecholamines. To date, the effects of prior exercise training on the hepatic response to epinephrine have not been fully elucidated. To examine the role of epinephrine signaling on indices of HGP in trained mice, male C57BL/6 mice were either subjected to 12 days of voluntary wheel running or remained sedentary. Epinephrine, or vehicle control, was injected intraperitoneally on day 12 prior to sacrifice with blood glucose being measured 15 min postinjection. Epinephrine caused a larger glucose response in sedentary mice and this was paralleled by a greater reduction in liver glycogen in sedentary compared to trained mice. There was a main effect of epinephrine to increase the phosphorylation of protein kinase-A (p-PKA) substrates in the liver, which was driven by increases in the sedentary, but not trained, mice. Similarly, epinephrine-induced increases in the mRNA expression of hepatic adrenergic receptors (Adra1/2a, Adrb1), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) were greater in sedentary compared to trained mice. The mRNA expression of cAMP-degrading enzymes phosphodiesterase 3B and 4B (Pde3b, Pde4b) was greater in trained compared to sedentary mice. Taken together, our data suggest that prior exercise training reduces the liver's response to epinephrine. This could be beneficial in the context of training-induced glycogen sparing during exercise.

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