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Conservation and expansion of a necrosis-inducing small secreted protein family from host-variable phytopathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae.Fungal effector proteins facilitate host-plant colonization and have generally been characterized as small secreted proteins (SSPs). We classified and functionally tested SSPs from the secretomes of three closely related necrotrophic phytopathogens: Ciborinia camelliae, Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Alignment of predicted SSPs identified a large protein family that share greater than 41% amino acid identity and that have key characteristics of previously described microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Strikingly, 73 of the 75 SSP family members were predicted within the secretome of the host-specialist C. camelliae with single-copy homologs identified in the secretomes of the host generalists S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. To explore the potential function of this family of SSPs, 10 of the 73 C. camelliae proteins, together with the single-copy homologs from S. sclerotiorum (SsSSP3) and B. cinerea (BcSSP2), were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. Infiltration of SsSSP3 and BcSSP2 into host tissue induced rapid necrosis. In contrast, only one of the 10 tested C. camelliae SSPs was able to induce a limited amount of necrosis. Analysis of chimeric proteins consisting of domains from both a necrosis-inducing and a non-necrosis-inducing SSP demonstrated that the C-terminus of the S. sclerotiorum SSP is essential for necrosis-inducing function. Deletion of the BcSSP2 homolog from B. cinerea did not affect growth or pathogenesis. Thus, this research uncovered a family of highly conserved SSPs present in diverse ascomycetes that exhibit contrasting necrosis-inducing functions.
2644 related Products with: Conservation and expansion of a necrosis-inducing small secreted protein family from host-variable phytopathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae.
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Malignant struma ovarii with a robust response to radioactive iodine.Struma ovarii is a rare, usually benign ovarian tumour with malignancy occurring in <5% of cases. Metastases, particularly seeding to bone, are extremely rare. Presentation is variable but often features local pain and/or ascites and hyperthyroidism may occur. It is not established how to best treat and follow patients with extensive disease. Case reports of radioiodine (I131) ablative therapy following thyroidectomy have shown reduced recurrence. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with bone pain and was diagnosed with skeletal metastases with features of follicular thyroid carcinoma. However, thyroid pathology was benign. She recalled that 5 years prior, an ovarian teratoma was excised, classified at that time as a dermoid cyst. Retrospective review of this pathology confirmed struma ovarii without obvious malignant features. The patient was found to have widespread metastases to bone and viscera and her thyroglobulin was >3000 µg/L following recombinant TSH administration prior to her first dose of I131. At 25 months following radioiodine treatment, she is in remission with an undetectable thyroglobulin and clear I131 surveillance scans. This case demonstrates an unusual presentation of malignant struma ovarii together with challenges of predicting metastatic disease, and demonstrates a successful radioiodine regimen inducing remission.
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Discovery and characterization of tannase genes in plants: roles in hydrolysis of tannins.Plant tannins, including condensed tannins (CTs) and hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. To date, tannase (TA) - is a type of tannin acyl-hydrolase hydrolyzing HTs, CT monomer gallates and depsides - has been reported in microbes only. Whether plants express TA remains unknown. Herein, we report plant TA genes. A native Camellia sinensis TA (CsTA) is identified from leaves. Six TAs are cloned from tea, strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Fa) and four other crops. Biochemical analysis shows that the native CsTA and six recombinant TAs hydrolyze tannin compounds, depsides and phenolic glycosides. Transcriptional and metabolic analyses reveal that the expression of CsTA is oppositely associated with the accumulation of galloylated catechins. Moreover, the transient overexpression and RNA interference of FaTA are positively associated with the accumulation of ellagitannins in strawberry fruit. Phylogenetic analysis across different kingdoms shows that 29 plant TA homologs are clustered as a plant-specific TA clade in class I carboxylesterases. Further analysis across the angiosperms reveals that these TA genes are dispersed in tannin-rich plants, which share a single phylogenetic origin c. 120 million yr ago. Plant TA is discovered for the first time in the plant kingdom and is shown to be valuable to improve tannin compositions in plants.
1477 related Products with: Discovery and characterization of tannase genes in plants: roles in hydrolysis of tannins.
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JQ1, a bromodomain inhibitor, suppresses Th17 effectors by blocking p300-mediated acetylation of RORγt.Th17 cells play critical roles in chronic inflammation, including fibrosis. Histone acetyltransferase p300, a bromodomain-containing protein, acetylates RORγt and promotes Th17 cell development. The bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, was shown to alleviate Th17-mediated pathologies, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that JQ1 suppresses the response of Th17 cells by impairing p300-mediated acetylation of RORγt.
1015 related Products with: JQ1, a bromodomain inhibitor, suppresses Th17 effectors by blocking p300-mediated acetylation of RORγt.C646, p300 CBP Inhibitor; C646, p300 CBP Inhibitor; Rabbit Anti-Human P300 An TANK Blocking Peptide;App TBLR1 Blocking Peptide;Ap anti-ICAD (Inhibitor of C Caspase-9 Blocking Peptid PI-8 Blocking Peptide;App Rad17 Blocking Peptide;Ap EMAP-II Inhibitor Z-ASTD- MST-1 Krs-2 Blocking Pept Proteins and Antibodies H
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ST2 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), also known as interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), is one of the natural receptors of IL-33. Three major isoforms, ST2L (transmembrane form), sST2 (soluble form), and ST2V, are generated by alternative splicing. Damage to stromal cells induces necrosis and release of IL-33, which binds to heterodimeric ST2L/IL-1RAcP complex on the membrane of a variety of immune cells. This IL-33/ST2L signal induces transcription of the downstream inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes by activating diverse intracellular kinases and factors to mount an adequate immune response, even in tumor microenvironment. For example, activation of IL-33/ST2L signal may trigger Th2-dependent M2 macrophage polarization to facilitate tumor progression. Notably, sST2 is a soluble form of ST2 that lacks a transmembrane domain but preserves an extracellular domain similar to ST2L, which acts as a "decoy" receptor for IL-33. sST2 has been shown to involve in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment and the progression of colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and gastric cancer. Therefore, targeting the IL-33/ST2 axis becomes a promising new immunotherapy for treatment of many cancers. This chapter reviews the recent findings on IL-33/ST2L signaling in tumor microenvironment, the trafficking mode of sST2, and the pharmacological strategies to target IL-33/ST2 axis for cancer treatment.
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The emergence of an unassigned complex recombinant form in a Pakistani HIV-infected individual.In Pakistan, the HIV situation has gone from an outbreak to a concentrated epidemic, and the virus has now crossed into the low-risk population. In addition, several new HIV outbreaks have occurred in different parts of the country. HIV-1 subtype A has been the major epidemic subtype in Pakistan; however, as the epidemic has grown, the emergence of several new subtypes and recombinant forms has been observed. Here, we present the first case and genetic analysis of an unassigned, complex recombinant form in a Pakistani HIV-infected individual with virological failure. Genetic analysis of the sequence indicated that this recombinant form is multi-drug resistant, harboring drug resistance mutations against more than one class of antiretroviral drugs.
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Protective Effects of PGC-1α on the Blood Brain Barrier After Acute Kidney Injury.Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption plays an important role in brain injury after acute kidney injury (AKI). However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent evidence has revealed that proper mitochondrial function is essential for BBB permeability. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a key factor in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This study was designed to investigate the role of PGC-1α in BBB injury after AKI and its related mechanisms. Mice received recombinant adenovirus encoding murine PGC-1α (100 μl, 1.0 × 10PFU/ml) or vehicle 5 days before renal I/R or sham operation. Twenty-four hours after the operation, brain, kidney and serum samples were collected for assessments. We found that mice suffering from renal I/R injury showed decreased PGC-1α levels in both the kidney and BBB. PGC-1α transfection resulted in increased PGC-1α level and mitochondrial transcripts in BBB at 24 h after AKI. PGC-1α transfection improved renal function, systemic inflammation and BBB permeability via both the paracellular and transcellular pathways. Further study suggested that PGC-1α overexpression elevated fatty acid oxidation related gene expression. Our findings demonstrate the importance of PGC-1α in AKI-induced BBB injury and suggest that it could be a therapeutic target for BBB repair via the regulation of mitochondrial function.
2021 related Products with: Protective Effects of PGC-1α on the Blood Brain Barrier After Acute Kidney Injury.Liver, kidney, lung, musc Mouse tissue array of liv Human Kidney injury molec Goat Whole Blood 50ml Li Donkey Whole Blood 100ml Beagle Whole Blood 50ml L Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Tissue array of kidney ca Turkey Red Blood Cells 5% FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Sheep Whole Blood 500ml K Anti Bsx(Brain specific h
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Members of the nitronate monooxygenase gene family from Metarhizium brunneum are induced during the process of infection to Plutella xylostella.Metarhizium species are the most abundant fungi that can be isolated from soil, with a well-known biopesticide capacity. Metarhizium recognizes their hosts when the conidium interacts with insects, where the fungi are in contact with the hydrocarbons of the outermost lipid layer cuticle. These cuticular hydrocarbons comprise a mixture of n-alkanes, n-alkenes, and methyl-branched chains. Metarhizium can degrade insect hydrocarbons and use these hydrocarbons for energy production and the biosynthesis of cellular components. The metabolism of nitroalkanes involves nitronate monooxygenase activity. In this work, we isolated a family of six genes with potential nitronate monooxygenase activity from Metarhizium brunneum. The six genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the nitronate monooxygenase activity was verified in the recombinant proteins. Additionally, when the conidia of M. brunneum were grown in medium with nitroalkanes, virulence against Plutella xylostella increased. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of the six Npd genes during the infection to this insect, which showed differential expression of the six Npd genes during infection.
1203 related Products with: Members of the nitronate monooxygenase gene family from Metarhizium brunneum are induced during the process of infection to Plutella xylostella.FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Recombinant Thermostable Normal rat multiple organ Recombinant Thermostable MyGenie 96 Gradient Therm Rat Anti-CCT theta Antibo Primary antibody Caspase Rabbit Anti-Theophylline Tube Strips 8 thermo Stri
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Construction and integration of genetic linkage maps from three multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross populations in rice.The construction of genetic maps based on molecular markers is a crucial step in rice genetic and genomic studies. Pure lines derived from multiple parents provide more abundant genetic variation than those from bi-parent populations. Two four-parent pure-line populations (4PL1 and 4PL2) and one eight-parent pure-line population (8PL) were developed from eight homozygous indica varieties of rice by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on linkage map construction and their integration in multi-parent populations of rice.
2891 related Products with: Construction and integration of genetic linkage maps from three multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross populations in rice.Multi organ carcinoma tis Mid advanced stage brain Middle advanced stage lun Anti 3 DG imidazolone Mon Middle advanced stage ute Middle advanced stage sto anti-Inter-α-trypsininhi Advanced colon tumor tiss Mid advanced stage ovary Pancreatic carcinoma and Mid advanced stage kidney Advanced breast cancer an
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Directed modification of a ruminal cellulase gene (CMC-1) from a metagenomic library isolated from Yunnan gayal (Bos frontalis).Gayal (Bos frontalis) of the Yunnan region is well adapted to harsh environmental conditions. Its diet consists predominantly of bamboo, reeds, and woody plants, suggesting that the rumen of this species contains many fiber-degrading bacteria and cellulases. The aim of this study was to identify and modify specific cellulases found in the gayal rumen. In the present study, a directed evolution strategy of error-prone PCR was employed to improve the activity or optimal temperature of a cellulase gene (CMC-1) isolated from gayal rumen. The CMC-1 gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21, and the recombinant CMC-1 protein hydrolyzed carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) with an optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. A library of mutated ruminal CMC-1 genes was constructed and a mutant EP-15 gene was identified. Sequencing analysis revealed that EP-15 and CMC-1 belonged to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) and had the highest homology to a cellulase (Accession No. WP_083429257.1) from Prevotellaceae bacterium, HUN156. There were similar predicted GH5 domains in EP-15 and CMC-1. The EP-15 gene was heterologously expressed and exhibited cellulase activity in E. coli BL21 at pH 5.0, but the optimum temperature for its activity was reduced from that of CMC-1 (50 °C) to 45 °C, which was closer to the physiological temperature of the rumen (40 °C). The cellulase activity of EP-15 was about two times higher than CMC-1 at 45 °C or PH 5.0, and also was more stable in response to temperature and pH changes compared to CMC-1. This study successfully isolated and modified a ruminal cellulase gene from metagenomics library of Yunnan gayal. Our findings may obtain a useful cellulase in future applications and present the first evidence of modified cellulases in the gayal rumen.
2630 related Products with: Directed modification of a ruminal cellulase gene (CMC-1) from a metagenomic library isolated from Yunnan gayal (Bos frontalis).Anti CEL Monoclonal Antib Rabbit Anti-cellulase Pol pCAMBIA0105.1R Vector, (G FAF1 Blocking Peptide;App MMP-13 Blocking Peptide;A PAK3 Blocking Peptide;App Rabbit Anti-cellulase Pol Annexin V Blocking Peptid TRAF3 Blocking Peptide;Ap Bcl-B Blocking Peptide;Ap Rabbit Anti-Hepatitis C V QuantiSir General Gene Kn
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